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Study Resources (Pharmacology)

6. Which of the following contains the highest concentration of caffeine? a. brewed coffee b. brewed tea c. coca-cola d. Red Bull 7. Which popular soft drink contains the highest concentration of caffeine? a. Pepsi-Cola b. Coca-Cola c. Mountain Dew d. Dr. Pepper 8. Europeans first began using caffeine in __________. a. the Stone Age b. 200.
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51. Street drugs such as cocaine and heroin often contain caffeine as filler. a. True b. False 52. Instant coffee contains more caffeine per serving than brewed coffee. a. True b. False 53. European explorers in the fifteenth century were responsible for the introduction of caffeine into North America. a. True b. False 54. Unlike most drugs, caffeine has.
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11. Which drug(s) is/are notable for being “cradle to grave” drugs? a. caffeine b. nicotine c. alcohol d. all of these e. caffeine and nicotine 12. Citizens of __________ are the world’s top coffee consumers. a. the U.S. b. Great Britain c. Scandinavian countries d. Brazil 13. The United States’ consumption of caffeine is __________ the world average. a. half.
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66. Cocaine and amphetamines are beta-blockers. a. True b. False 67. Cocaine influences dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin activity. a. True b. False 68. Cocaine is thought to activate the dopamine pathways of the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. a. True b. False 69. Cocaine enhances athletic performance involving strength or endurance. a. True b. False 70. Cocaine enhances sexual performance in males. a. True b. False 71..
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56. Water pipe smoking results in greater exposure to carbon monoxide than cigarette smoking. a. True b. False 57. Recent animal research suggests a major reason why smoking tends to begin in adolescence is that teens’ brains are more susceptible to the rewarding effects of nicotine than are the brains of older individuals. a..
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61. Smokers tend to weigh more than nonsmokers. a. True b. False 62. Research has demonstrated that the decreased tar and nicotine contained in today's cigarette brands has resulted in decreased tar and nicotine consumption by smokers. a. True b. False 63. Passive smoking, inhaling the smoke of others who are smoking, is the third leading.
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21. The group most likely to use moist snuff are __________. a. young females b. young males c. adult men who earn less than $5,000/year d. psychiatric outpatients 22. Nicotine has __________-like effects. a. dopamine b. serotonin c. acetylcholine d. norepinephrine 23. Nicotine is most readily absorbed from the __________. a. skin b. lungs c. nasal mucosa d. gastrointestinal tract 24..
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21. How does alcohol differ from other foods? a. alcohol does not provide calories b. alcohol does not have to be digested before the body absorbs it c. alcohol is absorbed directly from the stomach d. all of these 22. Which of the following would not lead to a slower absorption of alcohol. a. eating while.
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26. Withdrawal from caffeine lasts about __________. a. one day b. two to three days c. one week d. two to three weeks 27. Tolerance to caffeine's effects on __________ probably does develop. a. renal function b. sleep c. both renal function and sleep d. none of these. Tolerance to caffeine does not develop. 28. Caffeine is excreted.
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31. Research has indicated that little tolerance to caffeine’s __________ develops. a. renal function effects b. stimulant effects c. effects on sleep d. all of these e. stimulant effects or effects on sleep 32. The explanation for caffeine's acute effects that is most accepted now is the __________ hypothesis. a. phosphodiesterase b. aminophylline c. adenosine d. glucose 33. Caffeine's.
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11. The ingredients in the original Coca-Cola included __________. a. methamphetamine b. cocaine c. barbiturates d. benzedrine e. all of these 12. Amphetamines have been put to many medical uses. Which of the following is not one of them? a. treatment of anxiety b. relief of sinus problems c. treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity d. treatment of narcolepsy 13. Which of the.
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6. Sigmund Freud advocated the use of cocaine for __________. a. depression b. drug addiction c. schizophrenia d. depression and drug addiction 7. The major current medical use for cocaine is as a(n) __________. a. antidepressant b. general anesthetic c. local anesthetic d. antianxiety drug 8. Cocaine first became an abuse problem in the United States.
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a. theobromine b. methylxanthine c. theophylline d. alkaloid 2. Caffeine is one of three naturally occurring compounds known as the __________. a. theobromines b. methylxanthines c. endorphins d. tricyclics 3. Caffeine is chemically related to __________. a. theophylline b. theobromine c. nicotine d. all of these e. theophylline and theobromine only 4. Tea contains ________ as well as caffeine. a. theophylline b. theobromine c..
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31. The most frequently reported nicotine withdrawal symptom is __________. a. insomnia b. anxiety c. irritability d. nicotine craving 32. Nicotine has been shown to have __________ effects. a. calming b. stimulating c. both calming and stimulating d. none of these 33. Which of the following is not an acute pharmacological effect of nicotine? a. increased behavioral.
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51. The "Asian flushing response" brought about by alcohol use is due to a build-up of _____. a. aldehyde isozyme b. acetylcholine c. acetaldehyde d. anandamide 52. Americans drank more alcohol per capita in 1830 than they drink today. a. True b. False 53. The elderly are more at risk for negative consequences when they drink. a. True b. False 54..
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16. When considering data on per capita consumption from a public health point of view, “heavy” drinking is defined as _____________. a. over 10 drinks per occasion b. daily drinking c. experiencing negative consequences of drinking d. experiencing withdrawal 17. According to the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, __________ of the United.
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31. The use of ____________ in cold medications is now strictly regulated as a result of the Combat Methamphetamine Epidemic Act. a. guafenesin b. pseudoephedrine c. dextromethorphan d. all of these 32. The long-term effects of stimulant use involve depletion of ______. a. monoamines b. acetylcholine c. endorphins d. GABA 33. The physiological and behavioral effects of amphetamine.
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36. Alcohol inhibits the secretion of antidiuretic hormone. This causes __________. a. constipation b. increased urination c. diarrhea d. decreased appetite 37. Alcohol works as a peripheral dilator. This causes __________. a. nausea b. blackouts c. dizziness d. the skin to feel warm and turn red 38. With blackouts, the individual __________. a. can only partially recall.
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46. A medication intended to increase respiratory stimulation in premature infants would be most likely to include __________. a. caffeine b. theophylline c. theobromine d. none of these 47. Caffeine has been used in a variety of medications to produce __________. a. cerebral stimulation b. diuresis c. coronary constriction d. all of these e. cerebral stimulation and diuresis.
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16. Cocoa is primarily produced in __________. a. Brazil b. Africa c. the United States d. Switzerland 17. Estimates are that __________ of the world's population regularly consumes products containing caffeine. a. 20% b. 50% c. 75% d. 90% 18. ___________ has the highest per capita consumption of cocoa. a. the United States b. Belgium c. Switzerland d..
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36. Which of the following are effects of sympathomimetic drugs? a. increased heart rate b. increased blood pressure c. weight loss d. all of these e. none of these 37. Cocaine and the amphetamines cause _____. a. pupil constriction b. decreased appetite c. decreased body temperature d. increased blood flow to the extremities e. all of the above 38. Why.
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61. At a BAC over .05%, drinkers tend to underestimate the passage of time. a. True b. False 62. Controlled laboratory studies have provided strong support for the disinhibition theory of alcohol and aggression. a. True b. False 63. Moderate levels of alcohol tend to stimulate males' libido. a. True b. False 64. One advantage that survey research on.
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46. When a smoker returns to smoking after having abstained for some amount of time, he or she has experienced a. withdrawal b. a rebound c. a relapse d. spontaneous remission 47. Which of the following is not true of behavioral programs for smoking cessation? a. one of the key components is the identification.
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51. ________ is a Swedish smokeless tobacco product that has been successfully marketed as a “harm reduction product.” a. The electronic cigarette b. The blunt c. Snus d. Omni 52. In the late 15th century, Columbus introduced tobacco to the Indians. a. True b. False 53. The use of tobacco as a medical agent ended near.
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6. How is snuff most commonly taken in Europe? a. chewing b. dipping c. smoking d. sniffing 7. Nicotiana tabacum is indigenous to __________. a. the United States b. Spain c. Africa d. South America 8. Tobacco was thought to have medical value for about __________ years. a. 150 b. 200 c. 350 d. 500 9. Which of the.
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61. One effect of caffeine use is mood-elevation. a. True b. False 62. In reaction-time experiments, caffeine improves the decision-making part of the task but impairs the motor component. a. True b. False 63. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration strictly monitors the caffeine content of energy drinks. a. True b. False 64. Combining Red Bull and alcohol reduces.
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41. __________ of all lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking. a. 10-20% b. 30-40% c. 60-70% d. 80-90% 42. ___________ is a disease in which the lung’s air spaces are abnormally diluted and the lungs walls are distended. a. glaucoma b. bronchitis c. lung cancer d. emphysema 43. The Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act,.
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11. The __________ was the focal scapegoat of the Temperance Movement in the late 1800's. a. speakeasy b. tea-pad c. saloon d. distillery 12. When was Prohibition repealed? a. 1917 b. 1929 c. 1933 d. 1942 13. When calculating per capita alcohol consumption, the U.S. Census considers all individuals over the age of _________. a. 14 b..
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41. Mixing alcohol and __________ is a common method of intended and unintended suicides. a. marijuana b. barbiturates c. antibiotics d. benzodiazepines 42. Based on results of experiments studying alcohol’s effects on “divided attention” tasks, several groups including the AMA have recommended that the legal level of intoxication be uniform across the U.S..
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31. The liver metabolizes alcohol __________. a. more quickly at the beginning of a drinking episode b. more quickly at the later stages of a drinking episode c. more quickly the more alcohol is consumed d. at a constant rate 32. In _________ tolerance, a person must consume greater quantities of alcohol in order to.
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16. Which of the following is not a form of cocaine? a. crack b. coca paste c. freebase d. crystal 17. "Crack" is an injectable form of__________. a. cocaine b. amphetamine c. heroin d. tobacco e. none of the above 18. Freebase cocaine is made by mixing street cocaine with _____. a. heroin b. marijuana c. methamphetamine d. ether 19. Smoking crack.
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41. The lethal dose of caffeine for adults is equivalent to __________ cups of coffee. a. 30 b. 50 c. 75 d. There have been no cases of death caused by caffeine overdose. 42. Research has associated chronic caffeine use with __________. a. elevated serum cholesterol level b. birth defects c. cancer d. hypertension in women e. all of these 43..
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56. Alcohol is often used in cough syrups because it is an excellent solvent. a. True b. False 57. An important acute effect of alcohol is a dramatic increase in REM, or dream, sleep. a. True b. False 58. Grayouts probably reflect state-dependent learning. a. True b. False 59. Alcohol will erase its own hangover symptoms. a. True b. False 60. Alcohol's.
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66. Cirrhosis of the liver is reversible with long-term abstinence. a. True b. False 67. One problem with using abstainers as a comparison group in health studies is that many of these individuals may have quit drinking because they became ill. a. True b. False 68. Research indicates that gender has little impact on the moderate-drinking.
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21. What criminal organization first controlled the smuggling of cocaine into the US? a. Medellin cartel b. Cali cartel c. Mafia d. Taliban 22. When methamphetamine reappeared in the early 1990s, where was it most prevalent? a. Eastern urban centers b. the rural South c. Hawaii and the West coast d. the Midwest 23. Many states.
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a. Nicotiana rustica b. Nicotiana papyra c. Nicotiana tabacum d. None of these 2. The main reason humans consume tobacco is for its __________ content. a. tar b. nicotine c. caffeine d. carbon monoxide 3. How many of the 60 species of the genus Nicotiani can be used for human consumption? a. 2 b. 7 c. 15.
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56. Crack is a smokeable form of amphetamine. a. True b. False 57. Smoking crack produces a more intense effect than other routes of cocaine administration. a. True b. False 58. Snorting cocaine does not cause dependence. a. True b. False 59. Crack is another name for freebase cocaine. a. True b. False 60. One notable success in the U.S. war on.
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26. Estimated BAC = __________. a. number standard drinks (.025%) - number hours since drinking began (.015%) b. number standard drinks (.015%) - number hours since drinking began (.025%) c. number hours since drinking began (.025%) - number standard drinks (.015%) d. number hours since drinking began (.015%) - number standard drinks (.025%) 27. If.
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46. Korsakoff's Syndrome __________. a. produces serious impairments in short-term memory b. involves damage to the brain structure c. is most directly due to alcohol abuse d. often includes considerable confusion and confabulation e. all of these 47. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome has been linked to __________ deficiency. a. Vitamin A b. Vitamin C c. iron d. thiamine 48. __________ is.
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a. isopropyl alcohol b. methyl alcohol c. wood alcohol d. ethanol 2. Fermentation begins when ____________ is dissolved in water and exposed to air. a. yeast b. ethanol c. sugar d. carbon dioxide 3. Fermented beverages have an alcohol content no higher than __________. a. 5% b. 15% c. 25% d. 40% 4. In the U.S., 20 ounces.
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36. Which of the following is true regarding the smoking-related mortality rates of men and women in the U.S.? a. Men are more likely to die of smoking-related causes than women. b. Women are more likely to die of smoking-related causes than men. c. The smoking-related risk of death for men and women.
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26. The stimulants known as "bath salts" are synthetic analogues of a compound found in the _____ plant. a. coca b. coffee c. khat d. marijuana 27. Both cocaine and the amphetamines __________. a. increase brain levels of endorphins b. block reuptake of dopamine c. increase release of acetylcholine d. all of these e. increase brain levels of endorphins and.
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