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  36. According to Higgins's research on self-discrepancy, discrepancies between the actual and ideal selves lead to the experience of a. Fear, anxiety, guilt b. Sadness, shame, disappointment c. Excitement, interest, focusing d. Anger, aggression, denial 37. According to Higgins's research on self-discrepancy, discrepancies between the actual and ought selves lead to the experience of a. Fear,.

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  •   36. According to Higgins's research self-discrepancy, discrepancies between the actual
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  11. Loevinger's stages of ego development are measured via a. A self-report questionnaire b. The Thematic Apperception Test c. A sentence-completion test d. Behavioral observation under standard conditions 12. The relation between ego development and intelligence is a. Strongly positive b. Modestly positive c. Zero d. Modestly negative 13. Ego development is positively associated with which of the following personality.

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  •   11. Loevinger's stages of ego development measured via a. A self-report
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  36. The affect-congruence model of reciprocal interactionism suggests that: a. Persons experience greater levels of positive affect in situations consistent with their traits b. Persons choose situations that are consistent with their traits c. Persons choose situations that are consistent with their current affective state d. Traits and affective states are in mutual interaction 37..

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  •   36. The affect-congruence model of reciprocal interactionism suggests that: a. Persons
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16. Research involving temperament dispositions and environment indicates that a. People select and create environments that reinforce their current temperamental dispositions b. People select and create environments that change their current temperamental dispositions c. Environments shape temperament dimensions rather than the other way around d. People actively seek environments that complement, rather than match, their temperaments 17. Test-retest.

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  • 16. Research involving temperament dispositions and environment indicates that a. People
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  31. Why do politically moderate-to-liberal politicians show more differentiation and integration in their political rhetoric, according to Tetlock's work on integrative complexity? a. Because they are committed to the value of freedom b. Because they are committed to the value of equality c. Because they are committed to both freedom and equality d. Because.

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  •   31. Why do politically moderate-to-liberal politicians show more differentiation and
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  11. Which of the following is not necessarily a characteristic of the self-actualized person, according to Maslow? a. Many peak experiences b. Motivated by being values c. Few experiences of negative emotions d. Satisfaction of lower needs in the hierarchy 12. Repression means to a. Make something unconscious b. Consciously hold back threatening information c. Hurt another person.

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  •   11. Which of the following not necessarily a characteristic of
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  26. A field-independent cognitive style is a. Contextual b. Global c. Analytical d. Systemic 27. Field independence is associated with all of the following except a. Experiences of shame rather than guilt b. Better cognitive restructuring c. Hypothesis-testing approach to complex problems d. Negative descriptions of other people 28. Field dependence is associated with all of the following except a. Greater.

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  •   26. A field-independent cognitive style is a. Contextual b. Global c. Analytical d. Systemic 27.
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  31. In the act-frequency approach to personality, traits are a. Summary categories of behaviors b. Internal dispositions c. Causal factors in action d. Situationally specific 32. According to advocates for aggregation in personality studies, Mischel's failure to find impressive cross-situational consistency in behavior was due to a. Selective review of the literature b. Unreliable behavioral assessments c. Faulty.

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  •   31. In the act-frequency approach to personality, traits are a. Summary
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MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. All of the following are true about personality traits except that traits a. Refer to internal dispositions b. Are linear and (usually) bipolar c. Are assumed to be stable over time d. Usually emphasize cognitive dimensions 2. Most contemporary personality psychologists view traits as a. Convenient descriptors that have no meaning beyond shared social.

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  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. All of the following true about personality traits
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  11. Which of the following types of person is most likely to show high levels of arousal in response to increasing levels of stimulation? a. Extraverts b. Introverts c. Ambiverts d. Neurotics 12. Eysenck links individual differences in extraversion/introversion to the functioning of the a. Limbic system b. Reticular activating system c. Thalamus d. Cerebral cortex 13. Individuals scoring high.

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  •   11. Which of the following types of person most likely
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MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following is not true regarding the temperament dimension of “effortful control”? a. In early childhood, girls score higher than boys b. High scores predict effective interpersonal functioning c. Scores on effortful control tend not to change between ages of 2 and 4 years d. Effortful control is a foundational.

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  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Which of the following not true regarding the
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MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Research on intrinsic motivation contradicts certain tenets of behaviorism because it shows that in certain cases a. People do not seek rewards b. Rewards lead to decrease in performance c. Punishment is more effective than rewards in promoting positive behavior d. Non-contingent rewards are superior to contingent ones 2. Research on intrinsic motivation.

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  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Research intrinsic motivation contradicts certain tenets of behaviorism
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  6. Recent revisions of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory link the experience of intense fear to which of the following systems? a. Behavioral Activation System b. Behavioral Inhibition System c. Fight-Flight-Freeze System d. Affect Modulation System 7. Which of the following is not one of the Big Five traits? a. Extraversion b. Agreeableness c. Conscientiousness d. Authoritarianism 8. High levels of extraversion.

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  •   6. Recent revisions of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory link the experience
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  6. In Rogers's theory, the basic human motive is toward a. Organismic enhancement b. Tension reduction c. Greater levels of happiness d. Cognitive efficiency 7. According to Rogers, the most powerful means whereby a person can promote another person's development is a. Empathy b. Contingent reinforcement c. Unconditional positive regard d. Confrontation through angst 8. According to Freud, the aspect.

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  •   6. In Rogers's theory, the basic human motive toward a. Organismic
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MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. According to object relations theorists like Margaret Mahler, the fundamental drive or motive of human behavior and experience is a drive toward a. Sexual expression b. Aggressive destruction c. Overcoming inferiority d. Interpersonal relatedness 2. According to Kohut’s developmental view, a healthy mirroring relationship provides the child with a sense of a. Virtue b. Generosity c..

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  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. According to object relations theorists like Margaret Mahler,
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  16. In interpersonal relationships, neuroticism is associated with which of the following tendencies? a. Inability to adjust intimacy to appropriate level in a given situation b. Overly dependent style of relating to others c. Inappropriate expressions of both positive and negative emotions d. Failure to behave with others in an appropriately assertive manner 17. Which.

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  •   16. In interpersonal relationships, neuroticism associated with which of the
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  36. Contemporary thinking regarding cultural influences on personality suggests that a. Individual behavior corresponds in a coherent manner to cultural rules b. Culture is a consistent subset of expectations and rules that produce modal personalities c. Individuals selectively choose, contest, and adapt to different and sometimes conflicting elements in their culture d. Culture is more a.

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  •   36. Contemporary thinking regarding cultural influences personality suggests that a. Individual
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  11. In Cantor and Kihlstrom's view of social intelligence, the abstract and categorical information that the person has gleaned over time concerning various social events and phenomena, including scripts and self-conceptions, makes up a. Declarative-semantic knowledge b. Declarative-episodic knowledge c. Procedural knowledge d. Person memory 12. In Cantor and Kihlstrom's view of social intelligence, the.

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  •   11. In Cantor and Kihlstrom's view of social intelligence, the
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  21. Which of the following statements best characterizes scientific research on the Myers Briggs types? a. Strong scientific support for all types except the thinking-feeling distinction b. Low reliability but strong validity for the types c. The test is comparable to the NEO-PI-R and other standard personality tests d. Scientific evidence for the validity.

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  •   21. Which of the following statements best characterizes scientific research
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  26. Observations of behavior in controlled laboratory settings constitute a. L data b. Q data c. T data d. Z data 27. On the California Psychological Inventory (CPI), low scores on which of the following scales are associated with criminal behavior and delinquency? a. Socialization b. Achievement via independence c. Well-being d. Dominance 28. The original purpose for the Minnesota.

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  •   26. Observations of behavior in controlled laboratory settings constitute a. L
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  6. Which of the following features is not part of the definition of a personality disorder? a. Linked to medical conditions and/or substance abuse b. Long-term patterns of behavior rather than short-term reactions c. Behavior pattern markedly deviates from cultural norms d. Tend to be less debilitating than psychoses such as schizophrenia 7. A key.

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  •   6. Which of the following features not part of the
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  36. In Henry Murray's theory, the term that refers to an environmental challenge or constraint is a. Thema b. Stimulus situation c. Press d. Vector 37. McClelland distinguishes between implicit and self-attributed motives. Which of the following things is not true about implicit motives? a. They are assessed through respondent methods b. They reflect unconscious goals c. They.

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  •   36. In Henry Murray's theory, the term that refers to
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  21. Between the 1950s and the 1990s in the United States, scores on measures of anxiety and neuroticism tended to a. Decrease steadily b. Increase steadily c. Remain relatively stable d. Increase during Democratic administrations and decrease during Republican administrations 22. Dopamine is strongly associated with which of the following? a. Feeling positive rewards b. Wanting to.

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  •   21. Between the 1950s and the 1990s in the United
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  11. In terms of extreme scores on dimensional traits, which of the following trait profiles best characterizes the schizotypal personality disorder? a. High neuroticism, low extraversion, high openness b. High neuroticism, low agreeableness, low conscientiousness c. High neuroticism and relatively average scores on other traits d. Low neuroticism and high agreeableness 12. The method of.

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  •   11. In terms of extreme scores dimensional traits, which of
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  36. Generativity combines desires for a. Agency and communion b. Material well-being and social well-being c. Altruism and empathy d. Cognitive stimulation and emotional fulfillment 37. Which of the following statements about research on generativity is not true? a. Midlife adults tend to have more generative life goals and commitments than young adults b. Adults scoring high.

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  •   36. Generativity combines desires for a. Agency and communion b. Material well-being
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MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. When confronted with emotionally complex and intense situations, extraverts tend to a. Feel intense positive and intense negative emotions at the same time b. Tamp down their emotional expectations in order to protect themselves against fear and sadness c. Deny that they feel any negative emotions d. Savor the positive feelings so.

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  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. When confronted with emotionally complex and intense situations,
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21. Which of the following statements best captures the difference in meaning between "temperament" and "traits"? a. Temperament is highly heritable whereas traits show low heritability b. Childhood traits develop gradually into adult temperaments c. Temperament refers to negative interaction patterns whereas traits usually are couched in positive, prosocial terms d. Temperament refers to.

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  • 21. Which of the following statements best captures the difference
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  31. Among middle-class American and Italian families, Kohn's research found that a. Lower social class parents emphasize self-direction with their children more than higher social class parents b. Higher social class parents stress obedience to authority with their children more than lower social class parents c. Higher social class parents emphasize self-direction with.

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  •   31. Among middle-class American and Italian families, Kohn's research found
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