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  6. The scintillator is made up of cesium iodide (CsI) activated by ____________________. 7. The detector system consists of a thin layer of a(n) ____________________, a-Se, deposited onto a readout layer of electronics. 8. Image processing is designed to optimize the quality of the output, but it should be remembered that sub-optimal.
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  6. In fluoroscopy, a ____ converts the light from the output screen of the image intensifier into an electrical signal (output video signal), which is sent to the television monitor where it is converted into a visible image that can be viewed in real time. a.CCD camerac.closed-circuit camera b.television camerad.video camera 7. The.
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TRUE/FALSE 1. For computer applications in general, information refers to useful, meaningful, and organized data. 2. Hardware is the physical components used to process data and software is the computer programs that direct all hardware components to solve problems and thus derive useful practical solutions. 3. Storage converts data to information that can.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ____ is defined as radiography of the breast; it is a prime example of soft tissue radiography, since the breast is composed of soft tissues such as adipose (fat), fibrous, and glandular tissue. a.Chemical imagingc.Breast imaging b.Sonographyd.Mammography 2. Which cassette contains the intensifying screen and the film that has been made.
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  11. The ___________________ provides a wide range of benefits to health care professionals, including physicians, but it also has benefits that are available to the health care enterprise in general, such as improved data integrity and quality of care, as well as increased productivity from satisfied health care providers. 12. The.
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COMPLETION 1. Mammography must be able to show the ____________________ between a lesion that is located in the breast and the normal anatomy that is around that lesion. 2. Film is processed using a chemical processor to render the latent image ____________________. 3. If the radiologist needs a lighter or darker film or.
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  11. At low ____________________ ratios (8:1 or less), the loss of image quality is such that the image is still visually acceptable. 12. A(n) ____________________ function is one that enables the user of the workstation to find the image or images to be reviewed. 13. PACS workstations and their use is that.
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11. Problems arising as a result of image ____________________ may also be related to the differences in the acquisition workstation and the higher-quality PACS workstation used by the radiologist. post-processing 12. Optimization of the image displayed on monitors for viewing by both technologists and radiologists requires a good working knowledge of not.
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  16. After obtaining which image of the breast are several iodinated contrast images (contrast medium-enhanced) recorded? a.scoutc.contrast b.compressiond.stationary 17. Digital mammography can be used in visualizing ____ by using an iodinated contrast medium. a.lesionsc.angiogenesis b.densityd.tomosynthesis 18. During which procedure does the X-ray tube move through various angles while the detector is stationary? a.CADc.specific image processing b.digital tomosynthesisd.CR digital.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following was developed to solve the image quality problems imposed by the fluoroscopic screen of the early fluoroscopes? a.flat-panel digital radiographyc.image intensifier tube b.computed radiography systemd.flat panel dynamic detector 2. ____ uses an image intensifier coupled to a video camera that converts the image from the output screen.
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  16. The vast array of security risks provides a significant rationale for ____________________ methods. 17. The notion of the radiologist as ____________________ was identified as early as 2000 with the evolution and rapid growth of digital imaging technologies. 18. The lack of a(n) ____________________ in radiology informatics prompted the Society of Imaging.
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  6. Once the image is displayed on a monitor for viewing, the observer can now apply digital image pre-processing techniques. 7. Contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization can also provide subtle edge information but might degrade performance in the screening setting by enhancing the visibility of nuisance information. 8. Image processing algorithms allow the.
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6. The PACS is concerned primarily with image data, and the RIS deals with textual data such as patient demographics. 7. The ultimate goal of workflow is to improve patient care and the efficiency of various processes, from patient registration and image acquisition to report generation, archiving, and image/report distribution throughout.
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  6. A LAN connects ____________________ that are separated by short distances such as within a radiology department, a building, or two or more buildings. 7. An individual device is referred to as a node, and the connections among nodes are called ____________________. 8. Current ____________________ technologies for PACS include solid-state memory, magnetic.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Digital devices must be able to communicate with each other regarding images and textual information, and this function requires the use of ____. a.CTc.DF b.ITd.DR 2. ____ deals with the structure and function of a computer, and how it can be used to solve problems. a.Information technologyc.Computer technology b.Imaging informaticsd.Communications technology 3. ____ involves.
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COMPLETION 1. The term ____________________ is a relatively new term and was derived from the term information. 2. ____________________ technology deals with the use of electromagnetic devices and systems for communicating over long distances. 3. A(n) ____________________ is an electronic machine for solving problems through the use of a number of characteristic elements. 4..
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  11. Digital fluoroscopy can be applied to both gastrointestinal (GI) tract imaging and DSA, and the image ____________________ operations are specific to each application. 12. A digital image is made up of a matrix of pixels in which each pixel is assigned a number and each number corresponds to a(n) ____________________. 13..
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  16. Digital mammography can be used in visualizing ____________________ by using an iodinated contrast medium. 17. Two CAD systems commercially available for use in Radiology are the R2 Image Checker, R2 Technology from R2 Technology, Inc., Los Altos, California; and the CADx ____________________, CADx Medical Systems, Quebec, Canada. 18. The imaging technique.
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TRUE/FALSE 1. Through the years, fluoroscopy has developed into a sophisticated imaging system as new technologies have emerged to improve its imaging system characteristics. 2. The X-ray tube used in fluoroscopy must be capable of producing X-rays either continuously or in long series. 3. The output screen is coated with a ZnCdS phosphor.
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  6. Since the information contained in the HIS can be shared with the EHR, physicians in the hospital, for example, can access related information on their patients from their offices, if required. 7. The HIS contains a vast amount of medical information, data about the patient (demographic information, for example), and,.
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TRUE/FALSE 1. Some digital X-ray imaging modalities, as well as MRI, generate very large amounts of digital images that result in what has been referred to as a data explosion. 2. Digital image acquisition represents the final point where data and images are entered into a PACS, and, therefore, it is important.
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TRUE/FALSE 1. Mammography was developed as a dedicated imaging technique to detect breast cancer that has become prevalent among women in Europe. 2. Digital mammography (DM) is radiography of the breast using a digital detector coupled to a computer that makes use of digital image processing techniques to enhance the visibility of.
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  6. Which of the following is used to send and receive signals from computers by converting a digital signal from the computer (modulate) into an analog signal? a.mediac.modem b.outputd.network 7. ____ refers to the process of changing data to information, and therefore, computers and communications technologies are central elements to the process. a.Informaticsc.Protocols b.Networkingd.Security 8. ____.
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  11. ____________________ systems are essentially based on two approaches: those that use location of lesions by using the computer to search for abnormal patterns and those that quantify the image features of normal and/or abnormal patterns. 12. The computer uses image-processing algorithms for enhancement and ____________________ of lesions. 13. ____________________ finds unique.
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COMPLETION 1. In the digital imaging environment, one of the central means of addressing this particular challenge requires the use of a(n) ____________________ archiving and communication systems. 2. These definitions imply that PACS is a digital radiology computer-based system or medical device where images acquired from a patient are displayed on monitors.
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TRUE/FALSE 1. With selenium drum technology, a negative charge is first placed on the drum, which is then exposed to X-rays. 2. The purpose of a photodiode is to collect and store the electrical charge produced in the a-Si photodiode array. 3. The flat-panel TFT digital detector uses complex and sophisticated electronic circuitry.
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  16. The ____________________ is a high-frequency generator and can provide the high mA values used in digital fluoroscopy, as opposed to the low mA values typical of conventional fluoroscopy. 17. In the case of ____________________ scanning, 262.5 odd lines (one TV field) are first scanned, followed by 262.5 even lines (one.
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  11. ____ is also known as the registration of patients. a.Order entryc.Report generation b.Schedulingd.Billing preparation 12. Which of the following is a secure, real-time, point-of-care, patient-centric information resource for physicians? a.EHRc.PACS b.HISd.IT 13. ____ serves to connect systems so that they can exchange data. a.Integrationc.Security b.Interfacingd.Recording 14. ____ is the process in which terms defined in one system are.
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  16. The dynamic range of a digital detector is the response of the detector to different levels of ____. a.radiation exposurec.underexposure b.spatial frequencyd.overexposure 17. Which of the following deals with the efficiency of a detector to convert the x-radiation signal at its entrance window into useful image signal? a.MTFc.SNR b.DQEd.a-Se 18. In imaging applications, because contrast.
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  6. Digital mammography computer display monitors should be located in rooms that have ambient light of less than ____. a.5 lux2c.15 lux2 b.10 lux2d.20 lux2 7. Which detector consists of three major components: a scintillator, photodiodes, a thin film transistor (TFT) array, and a glass support? a.charge-coupledc.flat-panel a-Si b.flat-panel a-Sed.scintillator 8. Which array is arranged as.
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\r\n  \r\n \r\n \r\n 6. Which of the following are described in terms of matrix size, inherent spatial resolution, bit depth, number of slices, study sizes, and overall image quality?\r\n \r\n \r\n a.computer networksc.image data sets\r\n \r\n \r\n b.storage serversd.image acquisition modalities\r\n \r\n \r\n 7. What is the data transfer rate of the network called?\r\n \r\n \r\n a.LANc.node\r\n \r\n \r\n b.linksd.bandwidth\r\n \r\n \r\n 8..
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is a photoconductor that conducts electrons when struck by light or X-ray photons? a.seleniumc.amorphous silicon b.cesium iodided.photodiode 2. Which layer used in the indirect flat-panel digital detector is usually either cesium iodide (CsI) or gradolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S)? a.flat panelc.X-ray scintillator b.thin-film transistord.amorphous silicon 3. ____ produce(s) lateral spreading of light,.
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  6. In some systems, it is possible to adjust the pixel size by ____________________ four pixels into one larger pixel. 7. The operational elements of a dynamic FPD involve three sequences, resulting in a single ____________________ that must be completed in at least 33 ms for fluoroscopy. 8. All digital imaging modalities,.
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  11. ____ refers to storage devices that must be retrieved by an individual and loaded into a drive for access to images. a.Online storagec.Long-term storage b.Nearline storaged.Offline storage 12. A(n) ____ is the element that reduces the size of the image file, and is therefore a very important variable in studies examining the.
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  6. ____________________ informatics core concepts include the basic concepts of informatics relating to models, data, information, and systems theory, which are essential in order to understand information and communication systems. 7. ____________________ informatics has been identified as one of the biomedical imaging research opportunities that has the potential to enhance the.
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  16. ____________________ communication involves two devices, one called a user and the other a provider. 17. DICOM specifies information object ____________________ to address what is contained in images from different imaging modalities. 18. The primary function of the IHE integration profiles is to outline the roles of actors in the DICOM and.
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  11. Which of the following is an image-processing technique used to reduce the radiation dose to the patient? a.temporal frame averagec.last-image hold b.edge enhancementd.grayscale-image manipulation 12. Which process produces a new image that is subsequently added to the original image to produce the final image, referred to as the edge-enhanced image? a.temporal frame averagingc.image-processing b.dynamic.
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  16. ____ is defined as the protection of information systems against unauthorized access to or modification of information, whether in storage, processing or transit, and against the denial of service to authorized users, including those measures necessary to detect, document, and counter such threats. a.Information securityc.Systems integration b.Information technologyd.Information systems 17. Individuals who.
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  11. Which of the following plays a role in image display optimization? a.scaling the histogramc.image post-processing operations b.edge enhancement algorithmd.image pre-processing operations 12. Which of the following describes the ability of the imaging system to resolve fine details present in an object? a.spatial resolutionc.dynamic range b.modulation transfer functiond.ghosting 13. Which of the following is a complex.
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  6. With indirect flat-panel TFT digital detectors, what is used to first convert X-ray photons into light photons? a.scintillator layerc.electrical charge b.k-edge characteristicd.photoconductor 7. Which concept examines the response of the image receptor (screen-film detector or digital detector) to the radiation falling upon it? a.fill factorc.exposure latitude b.exposure indicatord.image processor 8. Which of the following addresses.
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COMPLETION 1. In 1983, the ____________________ replaced the TV camera tube in digital fluoroscopy. 2. While the X-ray tube and generator provide the appropriate X-ray beam for both fluoroscopy and ____________________, the image intensifier converts X-rays into light that is captured by the video camera. 3. Modern conventional fluoroscopy imaging units use a.
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  16. Which of the following offers the specification of strict requirements on the contents of the image header and the form of the pixel data itself for each type of modality, thereby improving interoperability? a.ACRc.TCP/IP b.DICOMd.COTS 17. In a simple DICOM configuration, a CR unit sends images to a PACS for ____. a.transmittalc.imaging b.serviced.storage 18. ____,.
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  11. Which of the following allows visualization of both lesion detail and breast edge information but reduces image contrast? a.manual intensity windowingc.unsharp masking b.Trex processingd.mixture-model intensity windowing 12. In ____, computer software is used as a tool to provide additional information to the radiologist and other related individuals in order to make a.
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COMPLETION 1. The ____________________ technology was developed as a dedicated system specifically for imaging the chest. 2. While indirect detectors use a phosphor, direct detectors use a(n) ____________________. 3. The purpose of the a-Si photodiode layer is to convert the light from the X-ray detection ____________________ into electrical charges. 4. The flat-panel TFT digital.
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  16. Which system couples the video camera to the television monitor by means of a coaxial cable and control electronics? a.fluoroscope imagingc.image distributor b.image intensifierd.magnification 17. Since the input screen is convex with respect to the X-ray tube, the spatial resolution is much better at the center of the input screen compared to.
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