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  16. After obtaining which image of the breast are several iodinated contrast images (contrast medium-enhanced) recorded? a.scoutc.contrast b.compressiond.stationary 17. Digital mammography can be used in visualizing ____ by using an iodinated contrast medium. a.lesionsc.angiogenesis b.densityd.tomosynthesis 18. During which procedure does the X-ray tube move through various angles while the detector is stationary? a.CADc.specific image processing b.digital tomosynthesisd.CR digital.

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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following was developed to solve the image quality problems imposed by the fluoroscopic screen of the early fluoroscopes? a.flat-panel digital radiographyc.image intensifier tube b.computed radiography systemd.flat panel dynamic detector 2. ____ uses an image intensifier coupled to a video camera that converts the image from the output screen.

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  6. Once the image is displayed on a monitor for viewing, the observer can now apply digital image pre-processing techniques. 7. Contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization can also provide subtle edge information but might degrade performance in the screening setting by enhancing the visibility of nuisance information. 8. Image processing algorithms allow the.

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  16. Which of the following offers the specification of strict requirements on the contents of the image header and the form of the pixel data itself for each type of modality, thereby improving interoperability? a.ACRc.TCP/IP b.DICOMd.COTS 17. In a simple DICOM configuration, a CR unit sends images to a PACS for ____. a.transmittalc.imaging b.serviced.storage 18. ____,.

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  11. ____ is also known as the registration of patients. a.Order entryc.Report generation b.Schedulingd.Billing preparation 12. Which of the following is a secure, real-time, point-of-care, patient-centric information resource for physicians? a.EHRc.PACS b.HISd.IT 13. ____ serves to connect systems so that they can exchange data. a.Integrationc.Security b.Interfacingd.Recording 14. ____ is the process in which terms defined in one system are.

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  6. Which of the following is used to send and receive signals from computers by converting a digital signal from the computer (modulate) into an analog signal? a.mediac.modem b.outputd.network 7. ____ refers to the process of changing data to information, and therefore, computers and communications technologies are central elements to the process. a.Informaticsc.Protocols b.Networkingd.Security 8. ____.

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  6. ____________________ informatics core concepts include the basic concepts of informatics relating to models, data, information, and systems theory, which are essential in order to understand information and communication systems. 7. ____________________ informatics has been identified as one of the biomedical imaging research opportunities that has the potential to enhance the.

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\r\n  \r\n \r\n \r\n 6. Which of the following are described in terms of matrix size, inherent spatial resolution, bit depth, number of slices, study sizes, and overall image quality?\r\n \r\n \r\n a.computer networksc.image data sets\r\n \r\n \r\n b.storage serversd.image acquisition modalities\r\n \r\n \r\n 7. What is the data transfer rate of the network called?\r\n \r\n \r\n a.LANc.node\r\n \r\n \r\n b.linksd.bandwidth\r\n \r\n \r\n 8..

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COMPLETION 1. The term ____________________ is a relatively new term and was derived from the term information. 2. ____________________ technology deals with the use of electromagnetic devices and systems for communicating over long distances. 3. A(n) ____________________ is an electronic machine for solving problems through the use of a number of characteristic elements. 4..

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TRUE/FALSE 1. For computer applications in general, information refers to useful, meaningful, and organized data. 2. Hardware is the physical components used to process data and software is the computer programs that direct all hardware components to solve problems and thus derive useful practical solutions. 3. Storage converts data to information that can.

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  6. A LAN connects ____________________ that are separated by short distances such as within a radiology department, a building, or two or more buildings. 7. An individual device is referred to as a node, and the connections among nodes are called ____________________. 8. Current ____________________ technologies for PACS include solid-state memory, magnetic.

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  16. Digital mammography can be used in visualizing ____________________ by using an iodinated contrast medium. 17. Two CAD systems commercially available for use in Radiology are the R2 Image Checker, R2 Technology from R2 Technology, Inc., Los Altos, California; and the CADx ____________________, CADx Medical Systems, Quebec, Canada. 18. The imaging technique.

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COMPLETION 1. In 1983, the ____________________ replaced the TV camera tube in digital fluoroscopy. 2. While the X-ray tube and generator provide the appropriate X-ray beam for both fluoroscopy and ____________________, the image intensifier converts X-rays into light that is captured by the video camera. 3. Modern conventional fluoroscopy imaging units use a.

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  16. The dynamic range of a digital detector is the response of the detector to different levels of ____. a.radiation exposurec.underexposure b.spatial frequencyd.overexposure 17. Which of the following deals with the efficiency of a detector to convert the x-radiation signal at its entrance window into useful image signal? a.MTFc.SNR b.DQEd.a-Se 18. In imaging applications, because contrast.

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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is a photoconductor that conducts electrons when struck by light or X-ray photons? a.seleniumc.amorphous silicon b.cesium iodided.photodiode 2. Which layer used in the indirect flat-panel digital detector is usually either cesium iodide (CsI) or gradolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S)? a.flat panelc.X-ray scintillator b.thin-film transistord.amorphous silicon 3. ____ produce(s) lateral spreading of light,.

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  11. Which of the following allows visualization of both lesion detail and breast edge information but reduces image contrast? a.manual intensity windowingc.unsharp masking b.Trex processingd.mixture-model intensity windowing 12. In ____, computer software is used as a tool to provide additional information to the radiologist and other related individuals in order to make a.

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  11. ____________________ systems are essentially based on two approaches: those that use location of lesions by using the computer to search for abnormal patterns and those that quantify the image features of normal and/or abnormal patterns. 12. The computer uses image-processing algorithms for enhancement and ____________________ of lesions. 13. ____________________ finds unique.

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  11. Which of the following is an image-processing technique used to reduce the radiation dose to the patient? a.temporal frame averagec.last-image hold b.edge enhancementd.grayscale-image manipulation 12. Which process produces a new image that is subsequently added to the original image to produce the final image, referred to as the edge-enhanced image? a.temporal frame averagingc.image-processing b.dynamic.

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COMPLETION 1. The ____________________ technology was developed as a dedicated system specifically for imaging the chest. 2. While indirect detectors use a phosphor, direct detectors use a(n) ____________________. 3. The purpose of the a-Si photodiode layer is to convert the light from the X-ray detection ____________________ into electrical charges. 4. The flat-panel TFT digital.

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  6. Digital mammography computer display monitors should be located in rooms that have ambient light of less than ____. a.5 lux2c.15 lux2 b.10 lux2d.20 lux2 7. Which detector consists of three major components: a scintillator, photodiodes, a thin film transistor (TFT) array, and a glass support? a.charge-coupledc.flat-panel a-Si b.flat-panel a-Sed.scintillator 8. Which array is arranged as.

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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Digital devices must be able to communicate with each other regarding images and textual information, and this function requires the use of ____. a.CTc.DF b.ITd.DR 2. ____ deals with the structure and function of a computer, and how it can be used to solve problems. a.Information technologyc.Computer technology b.Imaging informaticsd.Communications technology 3. ____ involves.

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  11. Which of the following plays a role in image display optimization? a.scaling the histogramc.image post-processing operations b.edge enhancement algorithmd.image pre-processing operations 12. Which of the following describes the ability of the imaging system to resolve fine details present in an object? a.spatial resolutionc.dynamic range b.modulation transfer functiond.ghosting 13. Which of the following is a complex.

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  16. ____ is defined as the protection of information systems against unauthorized access to or modification of information, whether in storage, processing or transit, and against the denial of service to authorized users, including those measures necessary to detect, document, and counter such threats. a.Information securityc.Systems integration b.Information technologyd.Information systems 17. Individuals who.

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  6. With indirect flat-panel TFT digital detectors, what is used to first convert X-ray photons into light photons? a.scintillator layerc.electrical charge b.k-edge characteristicd.photoconductor 7. Which concept examines the response of the image receptor (screen-film detector or digital detector) to the radiation falling upon it? a.fill factorc.exposure latitude b.exposure indicatord.image processor 8. Which of the following addresses.

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