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11.The procedure in which a film simulation of a skilled performance is stopped and the person is asked to indicate the outcome of the performance is known as the: A. Event occlusion procedure B. Temporal occlusion procedure C. Anticipation timing procedure D. Perturbation procedure 12.The procedure in which a person's body parts are masked on.
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6.The forebrain consists of the A. Cerebrum and diencephalon. B. Cerebellum and brainstem. C. Cerebrum and cerebellum. D. Diencephalon and brainstem. 7.The __________ cortex is the location of the transition between the perception of sensory information and the resulting action. A. Sensory B. motor C. Sensorimotor D. Association 8.Which area of the cerebral cortex is NOT one of the four.
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True / False Questions 18.The terms ability and skill should be considered synonymous. 19.Research showing the low correlation between reaction time (RT) and movement time (MT) supports the general motor ability hypothesis. 20.The specificity of motor abilities hypothesis predicts that if a person is highly skilled in one activity then he or she.
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True / False Questions 29.Typing accuracy is generally not impaired when tactile sensory feedback from the fingertips is removed. 30.A sensory neuropathy involving a limb provides a non-surgical technique for the investigation of deafferented humans. 31.The retina is actually an extension of the brain. 32.The rods are the photoreceptors in the retina that respond.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The neurons that send information to the central nervous system (CNS) are the: A. Sensory neurons B. Motor neurons C. Interneurons D. Efferent neurons 2.The nerve fiber that transmits information from the neuron is the: A. Dendrite B. Axon C. Synapse D. Myelin 3.Motor neurons are also called: A. Interneurons B. Afferent neurons C. Efferent neurons D. Impulse neurons 4.This type of neuron.
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6.Because we can write our signature relatively legibly with a pen held by either hand, either foot, or even by our teeth, researchers often describe handwriting as a good example of Bernstein's concept of motor: A. Programs B. Equivalence C. Independence D. Complexity 7.In a two-hand aiming task in which the right hand must move.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Which of the following movement characteristics is influenced by tactile sensory information? A. Limb spatial position B. Accuracy of grasping an object C. Arm movement direction D. Movement speed 2.The neural receptors in the skin that detect tactile sensory information are which type of receptors? A. Chemoreceptors B. Proprioceptors C. Photoreceptors D. Mechanoreceptors 3.Which methods have been used.
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25.Although Fitts' law is based on manual aiming tasks, research has shown that it applies to prehension actions as well. 26.The serve in tennis is a good example of an asymmetric bimanual skill. 27.During the preparation phase of putting a key in a keyhole, you use vision to assess the regulatory conditions. 28.It.
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31.The diencephalon contains the thalamus and hypothalamus. 32.The cerebellum plays a role in motor learning as well as cognitive functioning. 33.Damage to the cerebellum typically results in clumsy movements. 34.The thalamus and pons are parts of the limbic system. 35.The pyramidal tract is also referred to as the corticospinal tract. 36.Most of the extrapyramidal tract.
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21.The are proprioceptors located within the fibers of most skeletal muscles; they detect changes in muscle length. 22.An important role of proprioceptive feedback in the control of movement is to provide information about the ________ of the movement. 23.The clear surface that is the most anterior part of the eye is the. 24.The.
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11.Vigilance research indicates that when we must maintain alertness over long periods of time our motor performance will: A. Always be impaired B. Be impaired only when the stimuli occur infrequently C. Improve if the stimuli have occurred infrequently D. Not be affected 12.If you are standing with your arms at your side, and must.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.Fitts' Law specifies that performance will show a speed-accuracy trade-off in a rapid manual aiming task according to the relationship between which two characteristics of the task? A. Distance to move and target size B. Distance to move and movement speed C. Target size and movement speed D. Target size and type.
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6.Which of the following has the highest degree of stimulus-response compatibility? Three response buttons are located on a table top; three stimulus lights are located: A. In a horizontal arrangement beside the set of response buttons B. In a vertical arrangement beside the set of response buttons C. On the table top directly.
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6.Which of the following techniques that researchers use to study the role of proprioception in motor control does not remove proprioceptive feedback but only distorts it? A. Surgical deafferentation B. Nerve block C. Tendon vibration D. Sensory neuropathy 7.In the experiment by Spencer and others (2005) in which two sensory neuropathy patients were compared to.
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True / False Questions 20.Fitts' Law predicts movement speed based on specific accuracy requirements in a task. 21.According to Fitts' Law, a person's movement time will be faster for a task with an ID of 6 than for an ID of 3. 22.Fitts' Law only applies to reciprocal tapping tasks. 23.Researchers have not agreed.
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True / False Questions 23.A simple reaction time situation involves two signals and one response. 24.Hick's Law relates to reaction time situations that involve various complexities of movement. 25.For a series of 10 trials, reaction times will be faster when the foreperiods are the same amounts of time compared to when the foreperiods.
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Short Answer Questions 22.An important coordination-related problem that a theory of motor control must provide a solution for is the ________ problem. 23.Cruise-control systems in cars are mechanical examples of ______ control systems 24.According to Schmidt's motor program-based theory of movement control, relative timing is a(n) ________ of a generalized motor program (GMP). 25.Dynamical.
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True / False Questions 26.The nervous system contains fewer sensory neurons than either motor neurons or interneurons. 27.Pyramidal cells are sensory neurons located in the brain. 28.The primary motor cortex is the area of the cerebral cortex primarily responsible for movement initiation and the coordination of movements for fine motor skills. 29.The nonpyramidal cells.
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22.The most posterior lobe of the cerebral cortex, which is especially important for visual perception, is the lobe. 23.The areas of the cerebral cortex that would interconnect the various cortex areas needed to perform a choice reaction time task are known as the areas. 24.Parkinson's disease is caused by a lack of.
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11.According to Schmidt's motor program-based theory of motor control, which of the following would be controlled by the same generalized motor program (GMP)? A. Hitting a golf ball and hitting a pitched baseball B. Throwing a ball overhand and underhand C. Using either hand to reach for and grasp an object D. Walking and.
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33.Multiple resource theories of attention focus on the types of demands placed on various information processing and response outcome structures. 34.The dual-task procedure is commonly used to evaluate whether a person's attention focus is external or internal. 35.Attention focused on one's own movements typically leads to better skill performance than attention focused.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The Kahneman model of attention is an example of which type of limited-capacity theory? A. Dual-task theory B. Fixed-capacity theory C. Flexible-capacity theory D. Multiple-resource theory 2.In Kahneman's model of attention, the instruction to "Watch the ball all the way from the pitcher's hand until it meets the bat" is an example of.
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38.According to research studies of putting in golf, skilled golfers typically are not consciously aware of their eye movements during putting. 39.According to motor learning and control research, visual search only refers to active seeking for cues in the environment to respond to. 40.Visual search differs when someone is asked to point.
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22.Eye movement recordings allow researchers to record information only for ________ vision. 23.Feature integration theory proposes that we direct an attentional ________ over wide or narrow areas of an environment that must be searched visually when performing a skill. 24.For most physical activities for which visual search is important, skilled performers extract.
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True / False Questions 31.When we consider the assessment of movement characteristics associated with the performance of a skill, it is necessary to use the term coordination to refer to the relationship among the joints and segments at any specific point in time during the skill performance. 32.Angle-angle diagrams are a common.
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28.The fractionating of reaction time (RT) involves the use of EEG and EMG. 29.Postural preparation, which occurs prior to performing variations of the same activity, involves the same sequence of activation of postural muscles. 30.Anticipatory postural adjustments are only necessary when large movements are made. 31.Research shows that anticipatory postural adjustments are impaired.
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25.When a researcher shows a video in which certain parts of a person's movements are masked, the research uses the occlusion procedure for investigating the role of vision in performing motor skills. 26.________ perception is enhanced by the availability of binocular vision. 27.Peripheral vision helps people maintain their postural balance while walking.
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6.An important difference between the open- and closed-loop control systems is that the: A. Closed-loop system involves feedback; the open-loop system does not B. Open-loop system involves feedback; the closed-loop system does not C. Closed-loop system involves movement instructions; the open-loop system does not D. Open-loop system involves movement instructions; the closed-loop system does.
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Short Answer Questions 15.The three phases of prehension are called the transport phase, the grasp phase, and the ________ phase. 16.That a person can adapt their handwriting to different surfaces, sizes, forces, etc., is an example of what Bernstein referred to as motor ________. 17.The term used to describe a bimanual coordination task.
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11.Research has shown that the relationship between eye movement recordings and visual attention is that eye movement recordings: A. are precise indicators of what a person is visually attending to B. cannot tell us anything about what a person is visually attending to C. overestimate what a person is visually attending to D. underestimate.
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35.The "atypical" posture and gait characteristics we often observe in children and adults with cerebral palsy can be related to strategies the individuals have developed in order to maintain a stable head position during locomotion. 36.Gait transitions, from walking to running and running to walking, occur at the same speed for.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The most common performance measure used for inferring the amount of time required for action preparation is: A. Motor time B. Movement time C. Reaction time D. Response time 2.Hick's Law states that reaction time (RT) will increase logarithmically as the: A. Arousal level of the individual increases B. Distance required by the movement increases C..
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True / False Questions 28.The study of attention as it relates to the learning and performance of motor skills involves issues related to the simultaneous performance of multiple activities and the selection of relevant information in the performance environment. 29.Kahneman's model of attention proposes that the mental resources needed to perform activities.
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Short Answer Questions 18.The are extensions from the neuron's cell body that are primarily responsible for receiving information from other neurons. 19.Sensory neurons are also known as neurons. 20.The thin tissue of nerve cells that covers the cerebral cortex is call matter. 21.The sheet of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The world-renowned physicist Stephen Hawking stated that which of the following should describe a large class of observations and accurately predict the results of future observations? A. Hypothesis B. Model C. Schema D. Theory 2.An understanding of motor control theory enables a practitioner to: A. Identify performance problems B. Develop interventions to overcome performance problems C..
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23.Visual acuity is one of the perceptual-motor abilities that Fleishman did not include in his taxonomy. 24.In Fleishman's taxonomy, the ability to rapidly and accurately move the hand to a small target is known as finger dexterity. 25.Fleishman's taxonomy of abilities should be considered an exhaustive inventory of all the abilities related.
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Short Answer Questions 12.The hypothesis that proposes the many motor abilities that characterize people are highly related to each other is known as the _______ motor ability hypothesis. 13.The type of timing used by dancers to maintain a specific rhythm and tempo when no music is playing is called _______ timing. 14.The ability.
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6.Nideffer has shown that attention focusing should be considered in terms of: A. Width of focus B. Direction of focus C. Width and direction of focus D. Intensity of focus 7.Which of the following attention focusing instructions is likely to lead to the best long-jump performance: A. Focus on jumping as far from the start line.
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16.According to a dynamical systems view of motor control, skilled action occurs on the basis of action units: A. Acting according to motor program commands B. Receiving commands from a control executive C. Receiving feedback as movement occurs D. Self organizing 17.In dynamical systems terminology, an attractor refers to a: A. Complex movement B. Motor program C. Movement.
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38.When you are walking on a pathway, central vision provides the information you need to stay on the pathway but peripheral vision provides no important information as you walk. 39.We are generally consciously aware of the information provided by the ventral visual stream but not aware of the information provided by.
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30.Continuous visual contact with a ball is essential for successful catching. 31.Skilled baseball batters typically watch the ball continuously onto the bat. 32.General vision training programs have consistently been shown to improve sports performance. 33.Central pattern generators, which are involved in the control of gait, are thought to be located primarily in the.
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15.According to the hypothesis that there are two visual systems for the control of movement, the visual system that processes visual information in peripheral vision is called the: A. Static visual channel B. Kinetic visual channel C. Feedback visual channel D. Foveal visual channel 16.If you want to rapidly move the cursor on your computer.
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11.Parkinson's disease is the result of a dysfunction of this area of the brain. A. Cerebral cortex B. Cerebellum C. Basal ganglia D. Diencephalons 12.The copy of neural signals about an intended movement sent by the motor cortex to the cerebellum is known as the: A. Motor output copy. B. Sensorimotor copy. C. Cortico-cerebellar copy. D. Efference copy. 13.This part.
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Short Answer Questions 16.A 3-bit decision will require ________ yes/no decisions to arrive at the correct answer. 17.If you prepare to move left in a right-left choice movement situation, but the signal tells you to move right, your reaction time will be ________ than if you had prepared to move either direction. 18.The.
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36.That people spontaneously change from a walking to a running coordination pattern at a certain speed demonstrates that patterns of movement coordination can self-organize. 37.Coordinative structures can develop through practice. 38.The coordination between the two arms can spontaneously shift (transition) as swimming speed increases. 39.The generalized motor program and dynamical systems theories agree.
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34.Monocular vision leads to better interception of a moving object than binocular vision. 35.A person can use visual feedback to correct a movement only when there is a sufficient amount of time to make the correction. 36.In the experiment by Sivak and MacKenzie, when participants' peripheral vision was blocked, the grasping phase.
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Short Answer Questions 17.The factor in Kahneman's model of attention that influences the available capacity is ________. 18.During the performance of a skill, if a person is distracted by someone saying his or her name, it is an example of the attention capacity allocation policy factor that Kahneman's model called ________. 19.Limited-capacity theories.
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27.According to a dynamical systems theory, the muscles and joints that act together to enable a person to reach and grasp a cup are known as a ________. 28.According to the dynamical systems theory, walking and running represent two distinct ________ states of coordination. 29.You perform a four-component movement in 10 sec,.
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11.When participants cannot see their hands during catching they typically make: A. No errors in catching B. Hand positioning errors C. Grasping errors D. An equal number of hand positioning and grasping errors 12.What do baseball batters tend to adjust relative to the oncoming speed of the pitch? A. When they initiate their step forward B. When.
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