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12.  Why would there be ethical issues of risk associated with a researcher becoming part of a group without telling group members that they were being studied? 13.  Jacob, Tennenbaum, Seilhamer, Bargiel, and Sharon (1994) studied two types of families, distress and nondistressed.  The researchers tape recorded interactions among family members. .

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  • 12.  Why would there be ethical issues of risk associated
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41.  Kellett and Beall (1997) were treating a woman with suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after an automobile accident.  They obtained baseline measurements on frequency of nightmares, intensity of nightmares, and time to recover from a nightmare.  They treated the woman, then obtained measurements of the same variables.  This.

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  • 41.  Kellett and Beall (1997) were treating a woman with
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  ESSAY ITEMS (Starred items appear in the chapter as Discussion Questions) 1.  Why is focused observation necessary for scientific observation but not necessarily for casual observation? 2.  Identify the advantages of conducting on-site observations of children in schools when those children have behavior problems. 3.  Why do psychologists study animal behavior? 4.  Identify the five.

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  •   ESSAY ITEMS (Starred items appear in the chapter as Discussion Questions) 1. 
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61.  Using social workers to find out about behaviors of people who use their services relies on a.  probability sampling. b.  snowball sampling. c.  targeted sampling. d.  key informant sampling. 62.  When researchers try to contact members of hidden populations by finding out where such people congregate, the sampling technique they are using is a.  key.

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  • 61.  Using social workers to find out about behaviors of
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ESSAY ITEMS (Starred items appear in the chapter as Discussion Questions) 1.  Identify the four sources of difference that developmental psychologists research as the source of psychological change. 2.  What are the advantages of longitudinal designs and cross-sectional designs? 3.  What is statistical regression and why can it be a problem in longitudinal research? .

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  • ESSAY ITEMS (Starred items appear in the chapter as Discussion Questions) 1. 
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  ESSAY ITEMS (Starred Questions appear in the text as study questions.) Understanding Different Perspectives 1.  Why do we need to take culture and individual differences into account when we try to understand people’s behaviors? 2.  Why is it so hard to distinguish among the effects of culture, race, and ethnicity in our research? 3.  Describe.

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  •   ESSAY ITEMS (Starred Questions appear in the text as study questions.) Understanding
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21.  If a researcher monitored how long a person kept smiling or laughing after seeing a person slip on a banana peel, the data collection would involve a.  time-point sampling. b.  time-interval sampling. c.  continuous real-time sampling. d.  cluster sampling. 22.  When a researcher randomly selects a set of times and observes whether a behavior.

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  • 21.  If a researcher monitored how long a person kept
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11. In cultures that value relationships, people tend to show _____ in their responses to survey items. a. acquiescence b. satisficing c. optimizing d. nondifferentiation 12. The tendency to give the same rating on a survey to different questions, regardless of the content of the questions, is known as a. acquiescence. b. nondifferentiation. c. satisficing. d. impression management. 13.  A.

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  • 11. In cultures that value relationships, people tend to show
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31.  In observational research, using a small number of long observation times rather multiple, short intervals is called a.  cluster sampling. b.  one/zero sampling. c.  time-point sampling. d.  time-interval sampling. 32.  In naturalistic observation, the practice of dichotomous recording whether a behavior occurs or not constitutes a.  cluster sampling. b.  one/zero sampling. c.  continuous real-time sampling. d.  time-interval sampling 33. .

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  • 31.  In observational research, using a small number of long
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31.  A synonym for bivariate correlations is a.  test of association. b.  path analysis. c.  zero order correlation. d.  scatter diagram. 32.  When you try to predict the value of an outcome variable from several variables, you are likely to be using a.  multiple regression. b.  the Pearson product-moment correlation. c.  the analysis of variance. d.  heterogeneous subgroups. 33.  Psychologists.

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  • 31.  A synonym for bivariate correlations is a.  test of association. b. 
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11.  If a psychologist developed a test to estimate the extent to which a person would experience post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after experiencing a stressful situation, the score on that test would constitute a a.  confirmatory variable. b.  measured variable. c.  predictor variable. d.  criterion variable. 12.  A researcher might decide to compute correlations.

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  • 11.  If a psychologist developed a test to estimate the
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31.  According to psychologist Stanley Sue (1999) cultural research is sometimes limited because a.  it is difficult for researchers to distinguish between etics and emics. b.  many investigators may have difficulty finding participants from different cultural groups. c.  using students of different cultural groups has been shown to lead to invalid results. d.  the.

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  • 31.  According to psychologist Stanley Sue (1999) cultural research sometimes
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21.  The idea that, in discussion of culture, behavioral phenomena can be understood only within the culture in which they occur relates to a.  the interpretation paradox. b.  relativism. c.  etics. d.  back translation. 22.  The concept that internal, psychological processes may be universal but that they are expressed differently across cultures is associated with a. .

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  • 21.  The idea that, in discussion of culture, behavioral phenomena
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1. It is difficult to identify environmental causes of change over time in longitudinal studies because a. it is virtually impossible to identify all possible causes of change. b. longitudinal research tends to be experimental rather than descriptive. c. genetic factors cause almost all change over time. d. the interplay of genes.

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1. It difficult to identify environmental causes of
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1.  Research that involves identifying relationships among variables but not causation is known as a.  correlational research. b.  experimental research. c.  descriptive research. d.  case study research. 2.  When Guthrie, Ash, and Bendaudi (1995) investigated whether students’ grades and their tendency to be morning or evening people are associated, these investigators conducted a.  a.

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1.  Research that involves identifying relationships among variables
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41.  When experimentalists develop a cover story to keep participants from figuring out the purpose of an experiment and changing their behaviors as a result, the experimenters are responding to what observational researchers call a.  observational drift. b.  subject reactivity. c.  observer bias. d.  behavioral drift. 42.  Observational researchers Jacob et al. (1994) have suggested.

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  • 41.  When experimentalists develop a cover story to keep participants
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17.  Why would the flu not be a good malady for studying in a N of 1 Randomized Clinical Trial methodology?  Why would a group design be better? 18.  What are the advantages of single-case research? 19.  Why can you argue that single-case designs are both strong and weak in external validity? 20.   .

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  • 17.  Why would the flu not be a good malady
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41.  People sometimes take the easy way out by responding “yes” or agreeing with a question.  Such behavior is called a.  impression management. b.  self-deception positivity. c.  optimizing d.  acquiescence. 42.  Research on acquiescence has revealed that a common reason that people engage in it is because a.  they view the surveyor as being of higher.

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  • 41.  People sometimes take the easy way out by responding
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5.  What crucial decisions are associated with sampling in observational research? 6.    What are the advantages of using video recording for observational research?  Why are there still going to be uncertainties in what you record? 7.  Differentiate among continuous real time measurement, time-point sampling, and time-interval sampling. 8.  Why might a researcher decide.

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  • 5.  What crucial decisions associated with sampling in observational research? 6.   
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5.  Distinguish among absolutism, relativism, and universalism in explanations of behaviors.  How are most psychologists likely to regard each of these three positions? 6.  Describe how the definitions of race as used over the years in the United States reveal cultural viewpoints rather than fixed biological characteristics. 7.  Describe how culture can.

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  • 5.  Distinguish among absolutism, relativism, and universalism in explanations of
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1.  The approach to research in which investigators record behavior exactly as it occurs, attempting to avoid interpretation, is called a.  subject reactivity. b.  observational research. c.  anthropomorphic research. d.  quasi-experimental. 2.  The study of the behavior of human and nonhuman animals in the natural environment, without any manipulation of variables, is called a. .

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1.  The approach to research in which investigators
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   Double-starred items appear as Review Questions in the chapter 1.  Data collection that involves every member of the population of interest is called a a.  sampling frame. b.  survey. c.  census. d.  targeted survey. 2.  Psychologists typically do not use a census in their research because a.  a census often leads to telescoping of responses. b. .

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   Double-starred items appear as Review Questions in the
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