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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Surveys may be used for a. exploratory, and applied research only b. applied research only c. descriptive research only d. descriptive, explanatory, exploratory, and applied research only 2. Surveys are best suited for studies that have what as their units of analysis? a. individuals b. groups c. organizations d. social artifacts 3. General population surveys and surveys of.
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21. Validity that is related to the logical relationships between variables is known as _____. a. criterion-related validity b. face validity c. convergent validity d. construct validity 22. When including an item on a questionnaire that asks about marijuana use in the following way: never used, used 1 – 5 times, used 6 – 10.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is most accurate? a. Experiments can be used only in scientific inquiry. b. Experiments involve only observing the consequences . c. Experiments can be used in scientific and nonscientific human inquiry. d. Experiments involve the researcher taking action but they are unconcerned with the consequences of that action. 2..
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  26. Which of the following statements is not true concerning surveys? a. surveys are high on reliability b. surveys are low on reliability c. surveys are high on generalizability d. surveys are low on validity 27. Which type of questions should be avoided on a questionnaire? a. short items b. contingency questions c. ambiguous questions d. matrix questions 28. Focus.
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  6. Which of the following would be an example of the data coming from the Census Bureau that have criminal justice applications? a. Court records of Children in Custody b. Self Report Survey data c. Survey of Inmates in Local Jails d. Survey of all Criminal Justice Professors 7. The Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics.
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  COMPLETION 1. A researcher engaged in field research would likely use ________________ data that is defined as observations that are not easily reduced to numbers. 2. A theory that is created based upon experience and field observations is referred to as a(n) _______________ theory. 3. When the researcher selects the role of ________________.
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  6. Which of the following is a concern when selecting subjects for an experiment? a. the manner in which subjects will be selected b. what variables will be selected c. the sample to which the results will apply d. level of measurement 7. Which example below is not a random assignment to experimental groups? a. Assigning.
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  26. Dr. Jones is having his Introductory to Criminal Justice students analyze cartoons. He instructs them to identify the number of violent acts per show, the type of violent act and the characteristics of the victim. Dr. Jones is having his students use _____. a. content analysis b. secondary data c. new data.
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  26. National Crime Victimization Survey and the British Crime Survey both use _____ to gather data. a. simple random samples b. stratified sampling c. multistage cluster sampling d. quota sampling 27. Under what conditions would it be appropriate to use a snowball sampling technique? a. when the characteristic of interest to the study is a deviant.
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21. Which of the following is an example of a panel study? a. National Incident-based Reporting System b. U.S. Census c. National Crime Victimization Survey d. Uniform Crime Reports 22. Scientific theory deals with a. the logical aspect of science b. the observational aspect c. operationalization d. data analysis 23. Which of the following would allow a researcher to measure.
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  11. Shortening the time between pretest and posttest or perhaps even offering cash payments to participants in an experiment are techniques that may be used to ________________. a. limit diffusion b. decrease experimental mortality c. decrease the effects of instrumentation d. control threats to testing 12. _______________ are two dimensions of generalizability. a. Construct validity and.
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  6. Questions that encourage respondents to answer in a particular way are called _____. a. unfair b. biased c. double-barreled d. short and clear 7. Inexperienced researchers tend to fear that their questionnaires will look _____. a. too easy b. too complex c. too long d. too cluttered 8. It is usually best to begin a self-administered questionnaire with _____. a..
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  11. If, on a questionnaire, a respondent is asked “what do you feel is the most important crime problem facing the police in your city today?”, they are being asked what type of question? a. closed-ended question b. open-ended question c. contingency question d. matrix question 12. Closed ended questions are useful because they _____. a..
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. When using agency records in their research, researchers keep in mind two general maxims: a. "Follow the paper trail" and "expect the expected" b. "Follow the paper trail" but "expect the unexpected" c. "Follow the rules" and "expect the expected" d. "Follow the trail" and "expect the paper" 2. Social artifacts such as.
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  26. The relationship between attributes and variables lies at the heart of a. both science and fiction b. publishing your outcomes c. units of analysis d. both description and explanation in science 27. If a cross-sectional study can be likened to a “snapshot,” and a trend study to a “slide show,” then which of the.
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COMPLETION 1. Information that is collected by other people often as a part of their day-to-day work in a justice agency, but used by someone else for research purposes is referred to as ________________________ of existing data. 2. It may be possible to use a(n) ________________ source of data in which criminal.
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  16. Graduates majoring in criminal justice and graduates majoring in psychology from the State University were part of a study to assess employment success of those receiving their degrees in May 2002. Six months after graduation (November 2002) a questionnaire was sent out asking about their job seeking success. What.
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  6. Instead of making one pre-test and one post-test measure, the _______________ makes a longer series of observations before and after introducing an experimental treatment. 7. When there is a study of a large number of variables that are associated with a small number of cases or subjects, the researcher is.
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COMPLETION 1. In a classical experiment, the researcher uses a(n) ____________________ to offset the effects of the experiment itself. 2. A(n) _________________________ experiment guards against experimenters’ tendency to prejudge results by eliminating the possibility of either the researcher or the subjects knowing which group is the control and which group is the.
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  21. Which of the following would be an appropriate target of content analysis? a. speeches b. NCVS data c. crime rates d. Uniform Crime Records 22. Content analysis is well-suited for which of the following situations? a. to determine unemployment rates b. to find out public relations with police c. to answer the classic questions of communications research d..
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Agency Records, Content Analysis, and Secondary Data TRUE/FALSE 1. Agency records, secondary data and content analysis do not require direct interaction with research subjects. 2. It is relatively easy and common to have agencies modify their data collection forms in order to get information needed for a specific research project being conducted from.
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11. Which of the following illustrates a population where cluster sampling would be the best choice? a. law enforcement officers in the United States b. Uniform Crime Reports c. convicted violent criminals d. news paper reports 12. Which of the following is an example of a multistage cluster sample? a. the Self Report Survey b. the National.
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6. _______________ validity refers to particular empirical measures that may or may not accurately reflect the common agreements on concepts. 7. A definition that says exactly how a concept will be measured is ___________. 8. ____________________ is an effort to convert the UCR to a more comprehensive crime report. 9. There are no.
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  26. Which of the following are referred to as a summary based measure of crime? a. UCR b. NCVS c. NIBRS d. ADAM 27. A _____ asks people whether or not they have been the victim of a crime. a. self-reported survey b. victim survey c. computer-based survey d. random survey 28. The NVCS is based on a nationally representative.
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  6. The main reason that experiments in criminal justice are so easy to complete is that the researcher need only secure one experimental and one control group for any project. 7. The threat of statistical regression is a concern any time the researcher begins with subjects who exhibit extreme values on.
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  11. Field research in criminal justice may produce either or a. Only qualitative data b. Only quantitative data c. either qualitative or quantitative data d. Only grounded theory 12. To gain access to a formal criminal justice organization for the purpose of conducting field research, which of the following steps should be followed? a. find an.
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COMPLETION 1. When the respondent is asked to personally answer questions rather than selecting one of the assigned answers, they are answering _______________ questions. 2. If the respondent must select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher, they are answering __________________ questions. 3. When a researcher asks respondents for a.
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  11. In Widom’s research purpose on the relationship between early child abuse and later delinquency or adult criminal behavior was ___________: a. Valid and reliable b. critical and valid c. explanatory d. exploratory 12. Record-keeping systems used in most cities today are still designed more to track individual cases for individual departments than to produce.
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  6. If you want to ask several questions that have the same set of answer categories, the best type of question to use is the ________________. 7. Respondents may develop a(n) ___________________ or pattern of answering when answering matrix questions. 8. _________________________ questionnaires are generally the least expensive and easiest to complete. 9..
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Field research is a data collection method that involves the __________________of phenomena in their natural settings. a. direct observation b. written records c. grounded theory d. accurate measures 2. Which of the following is accurate concerning data acquired during field research? a. qualitative data that is easily reduced to numbers b. quantitative data that is.
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  26. Random assignment to experimental and control groups should reduce the threats to _____. a. instrumentation b. maturation c. generalizability d. small sample 27. If randomization is not possible, what should the researcher do? a. do nothing b. use the classical design c. use a quasi-experimental design d. Randomization is always possible. 28. An interrupted time-series design can be very.
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  16. Researchers Field research results can have general applicability beyond the specific settings observed. However findings cannot be formally generalized compared to those based on __________________________________. a. Specific settings b. surveys c. participant observations d. rigorous sampling and standardized questionnaires 17. What time of the year would be best to do an observational study of.
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  16. All of the following may represent errors when constructing items for a questionnaire except for _____. a. the researcher uses long and complicated items b. the negation of a question c. the researcher uses short items d. the researcher uses a combination question when they only want a single answer 17. Which of the.
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  6. Units of communication, such as words, paragraphs, and books, are not the units of analysis in content analysis. 7. Data collected by or for public agencies is readily available and researchers have tight control over the actual data collection process. 8. Content analysis involves the systematic study of agency records. 9. Data.
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Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs TRUE/FALSE 1. Experimentation is an approach to research best suited for exploration. 2. The defining feature of an experiment lies in the control of the independent variable by the experimenter. 3. The independent variable in a classical experiment must be a ratio level variable. 4. In the classical experiment subjects are.
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COMPLETION 1. Words or symbols in language that we use to represent mental images are known as ____________. 2. _________________ is the process by which we specify precisely what we mean when we use a particular term. 3. Specifying the different ____________ of a concept often paves the way for a more sophisticated.
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Concepts, Operationalization, and Measurement TRUE/FALSE 1. Conceptualization is the process by which we specify precisely what we mean when we use particular terms. 2. Every variable should have two important qualities: their attributes should be exhaustive as well as mutually exclusive. 3. Ordinal measures are variables whose attributes may be logically rank-ordered. 4. Reliability is.
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  21. Which of the following is not a concern when a questionnaire is not formatted properly? a. respondents may miss questions b. respondents may finish the questionnaire too quickly c. respondents may throw the questionnaire away d. respondents may become confused about the nature of the data desired 22. Contingency questions are appropriate when _____. a..
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Sometimes it is necessary to make the same measurement more than once. This is known as _____. a. test-retest method b. inter-rater reliability c. split-half method d. face validity 2. An empirical measure that adequately reflects the meaning of the concept under consideration is known as _____. a. reliability b. validity c. accuracy d. face validity 3. Particular.
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  21. Which of the following statements is not true concerning field research? a. It has greater validity and reliability than does survey research. b. It often involves theory creation. c. It often combines observation and asking questions. d. It can provide both qualitative and quantitative data. 22. Field notes should include all but which of.
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  6. In content analysis, one may code the underlying meaning of a communication which is often referred to as the ________________ content. 7. Generally speaking, secondary data are least useful when the purpose of research is ______________. 8. Content analysis is really a(n) __________ operation that represents the measurement process. 9. The main.
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6. The age of an offender is an example of which level of measurement? a. interval b. nominal c. ratio d. ordinal 7. If a researcher is concerned with whether a particular measurement technique will, after repeated measures, yield the same results, they are concerned with _____. a. accuracy b. reliability c. d. precise measurement validity d. 8. Concepts are ______. a. empirical.
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6. Which of the following is not an effective role (in the sense that the researcher could affect what he/she is studying) for a field researcher? a. total observation b. total participation c. participant-as-observer d. observer-as-participant 7. Qualitative field research is the preferred method for studying a. many subjects who change language b. many types of crimes c..
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