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  26. Which of the following statements is not true concerning surveys? a. surveys are high on reliability b. surveys are low on reliability c. surveys are high on generalizability d. surveys are low on validity 27. Which type of questions should be avoided on a questionnaire? a. short items b. contingency questions c. ambiguous questions d. matrix questions 28. Focus.

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  •   26. Which of the following statements not true concerning surveys? a.
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6. Which of the following is not an effective role (in the sense that the researcher could affect what he/she is studying) for a field researcher? a. total observation b. total participation c. participant-as-observer d. observer-as-participant 7. Qualitative field research is the preferred method for studying a. many subjects who change language b. many types of crimes c..

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  • 6. Which of the following not an effective role (in
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Field research is a data collection method that involves the __________________of phenomena in their natural settings. a. direct observation b. written records c. grounded theory d. accurate measures 2. Which of the following is accurate concerning data acquired during field research? a. qualitative data that is easily reduced to numbers b. quantitative data that is.

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Field research a data collection method that involves
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following is most accurate? a. Experiments can be used only in scientific inquiry. b. Experiments involve only observing the consequences . c. Experiments can be used in scientific and nonscientific human inquiry. d. Experiments involve the researcher taking action but they are unconcerned with the consequences of that action. 2..

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following most accurate? a. Experiments can
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Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs TRUE/FALSE 1. Experimentation is an approach to research best suited for exploration. 2. The defining feature of an experiment lies in the control of the independent variable by the experimenter. 3. The independent variable in a classical experiment must be a ratio level variable. 4. In the classical experiment subjects are.

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  • Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs TRUE/FALSE 1. Experimentation an approach to research best
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Sometimes it is necessary to make the same measurement more than once. This is known as _____. a. test-retest method b. inter-rater reliability c. split-half method d. face validity 2. An empirical measure that adequately reflects the meaning of the concept under consideration is known as _____. a. reliability b. validity c. accuracy d. face validity 3. Particular.

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Sometimes it necessary to make the same measurement
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COMPLETION 1. When the respondent is asked to personally answer questions rather than selecting one of the assigned answers, they are answering _______________ questions. 2. If the respondent must select an answer from among a list provided by the researcher, they are answering __________________ questions. 3. When a researcher asks respondents for a.

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  • COMPLETION 1. When the respondent asked to personally answer questions rather
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  16. Researchers Field research results can have general applicability beyond the specific settings observed. However findings cannot be formally generalized compared to those based on __________________________________. a. Specific settings b. surveys c. participant observations d. rigorous sampling and standardized questionnaires 17. What time of the year would be best to do an observational study of.

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  •   16. Researchers Field research results can have general applicability beyond
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6. The age of an offender is an example of which level of measurement? a. interval b. nominal c. ratio d. ordinal 7. If a researcher is concerned with whether a particular measurement technique will, after repeated measures, yield the same results, they are concerned with _____. a. accuracy b. reliability c. d. precise measurement validity d. 8. Concepts are ______. a. empirical.

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  • 6. The age of an offender an example of which
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  11. Shortening the time between pretest and posttest or perhaps even offering cash payments to participants in an experiment are techniques that may be used to ________________. a. limit diffusion b. decrease experimental mortality c. decrease the effects of instrumentation d. control threats to testing 12. _______________ are two dimensions of generalizability. a. Construct validity and.

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  •   11. Shortening the time between pretest and posttest or perhaps
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21. Which of the following is an example of a panel study? a. National Incident-based Reporting System b. U.S. Census c. National Crime Victimization Survey d. Uniform Crime Reports 22. Scientific theory deals with a. the logical aspect of science b. the observational aspect c. operationalization d. data analysis 23. Which of the following would allow a researcher to measure.

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  • 21. Which of the following an example of a panel
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Agency Records, Content Analysis, and Secondary Data TRUE/FALSE 1. Agency records, secondary data and content analysis do not require direct interaction with research subjects. 2. It is relatively easy and common to have agencies modify their data collection forms in order to get information needed for a specific research project being conducted from.

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  • Agency Records, Content Analysis, and Secondary Data TRUE/FALSE 1. Agency records, secondary
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COMPLETION 1. In a classical experiment, the researcher uses a(n) ____________________ to offset the effects of the experiment itself. 2. A(n) _________________________ experiment guards against experimenters’ tendency to prejudge results by eliminating the possibility of either the researcher or the subjects knowing which group is the control and which group is the.

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  • COMPLETION 1. In a classical experiment, the researcher uses a(n) ____________________
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MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Surveys may be used for a. exploratory, and applied research only b. applied research only c. descriptive research only d. descriptive, explanatory, exploratory, and applied research only 2. Surveys are best suited for studies that have what as their units of analysis? a. individuals b. groups c. organizations d. social artifacts 3. General population surveys and surveys of.

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Surveys may be used for a. exploratory, and applied
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  11. In Widom’s research purpose on the relationship between early child abuse and later delinquency or adult criminal behavior was ___________: a. Valid and reliable b. critical and valid c. explanatory d. exploratory 12. Record-keeping systems used in most cities today are still designed more to track individual cases for individual departments than to produce.

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  •   11. In Widom’s research purpose the relationship between early child
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  21. Which of the following would be an appropriate target of content analysis? a. speeches b. NCVS data c. crime rates d. Uniform Crime Records 22. Content analysis is well-suited for which of the following situations? a. to determine unemployment rates b. to find out public relations with police c. to answer the classic questions of communications research d..

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  •   21. Which of the following would be an appropriate target
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  6. Questions that encourage respondents to answer in a particular way are called _____. a. unfair b. biased c. double-barreled d. short and clear 7. Inexperienced researchers tend to fear that their questionnaires will look _____. a. too easy b. too complex c. too long d. too cluttered 8. It is usually best to begin a self-administered questionnaire with _____. a..

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  •   6. Questions that encourage respondents to answer in a particular
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  21. Which of the following is not a concern when a questionnaire is not formatted properly? a. respondents may miss questions b. respondents may finish the questionnaire too quickly c. respondents may throw the questionnaire away d. respondents may become confused about the nature of the data desired 22. Contingency questions are appropriate when _____. a..

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  •   21. Which of the following not a concern when a
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  26. Random assignment to experimental and control groups should reduce the threats to _____. a. instrumentation b. maturation c. generalizability d. small sample 27. If randomization is not possible, what should the researcher do? a. do nothing b. use the classical design c. use a quasi-experimental design d. Randomization is always possible. 28. An interrupted time-series design can be very.

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  •   26. Random assignment to experimental and control groups should reduce
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Concepts, Operationalization, and Measurement TRUE/FALSE 1. Conceptualization is the process by which we specify precisely what we mean when we use particular terms. 2. Every variable should have two important qualities: their attributes should be exhaustive as well as mutually exclusive. 3. Ordinal measures are variables whose attributes may be logically rank-ordered. 4. Reliability is.

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  • Concepts, Operationalization, and Measurement TRUE/FALSE 1. Conceptualization the process by which we
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