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Study Resources (Sociology)

1. The term SES refers to a. socially excluded sectors b. socio-economic status c. statistical estimates of success d. socialization, environment, and stress 2. Occupational prestige in the US is highly correlated with a. political power b. class consciousness c. income and education d. distribution of wealth 3. "Old rich" and "new rich" were distinguished by a. political party b. occupation c. income d..
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  16. Conflict theory is rooted in the work of a. Karl Marx and Max Weber b. Emile Durkheim and Adam Smith c. Talcott Parsons and Robert Merton d. John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau 17. Conflict theorists differ from functionalists in that they believe stratification: a. serves the interests of powerful groups rather than all of.
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  11. The largest number of Native Americans live a. in major urban areas b. on reservations c. in rural Oklahoma d. in the Dakotas 12. The poorest Native Americans live a. in Los Angeles ghettoes b. in the Northeastern US c. in Oklahoma d. on isolated reservations 13. Thomas Jefferson believed that black slaves should be a. given land allotments of.
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1. Peggy McIntosh contends that men are suspicious of gender role changes because they a. inwardly believe women are inferior b. believe it is unmanly to do housework c. are as unaware of male privilege as whites are of white privilege d. are eager to oppress women to maintain their own privileges 2. According to.
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  16. In their search for cheap labor for assembly work, multinational corporations have tended to hire a. young women b. children c. unemployed men d. landless peasants 17. The fastest growing industrial type in Mexico is a. steel and heavy industry b. computers and microchips c. mining and ore processing d. maquiladora assembly 18. In the late 1800 and early.
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  11. The social class whose members are least likely to join formal organizations is the a. capitalist class b. middle class c. working class d. underclass 12. The religious groups with the highest educational attainment and occupational prestige include a. Roman Catholic b. Southern Baptist c. United Methodist and Lutheran d. Episcopal and Jewish 13. Thorstein Veblen found that the.
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  6. Early industrialization brought new demand for paid labor done by a. women and children b. software engineers c. elderly workers d. migrant laborers 7. The social class that has been hardest hit by deindustrialization has been the a. capitalist class b. white-collar middle class c. blue-collar working class d. upper-middle class 8. The sector of the economy with the.
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  6. The "trail of tears" moved thousands of Native Americans to a. Indian Territory, now Oklahoma b. tiny Eastern reservations c. extermination camps d. Canada 7. All Native Americans became citizens of the U.S. in the a. 1780s with the Northwest Territories Ordinance b. 1860s with the 13th Amendment c. 1920s by Congressional action d. 1960s with the Civil.
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  11. The distribution of income in the United States shows a. an hourglass with many rich, many poor and few in between b. almost everyone clustered in the middle c. many clustered in the lower-middle beneath a narrow tower of high incomes d. a pyramid with many in absolute poverty, fewer in the middle,.
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  21. Political cartoons and speeches portrayed Irish immigration as a threat to American society because many of the Irish were a. political radicals b. Roman Catholic c. potato farmers d. infected with small pox 22. "Lace curtain Irish" were more readily accepted than "Shanty Irish" because they a. were middle class b. spoke English c. were white d. were.
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22. One of the occupations with the lowest wages is personal care and service. 23. Female headed households earn less than married couple households among white non-Hispanic Americans, but not among African Americans and Hispanic Americans. 24. Since 1979, all US households have seen their family income decline. 25. The income gap between.
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  11. G. William Domhoff claims that big corporations can unify their actions through the use of a. corporate spies b. interlocking directorates c. class consciousness d. the social register 12. “Soft money” refers to money that is a. used for bribes and kickbacks b. gained through illegal activities c. given to political organizations but not subject to donation.
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  11. Structural adjustment programs sponsored by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) often call on troubled countries to: a. spend more on basic needs for the poor b. promote self-sufficiency rather than depend on exports c. reduce government spending and inflation d. bring warring factions to the peace table 12. World systems theory sees the world.
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Part II. True False Questions 17. William Goode contends that men are very aware of the advantages accorded their gender, and try to hide these from women. 18. Gender privilege makes most men largely invulnerable to economic turmoil. 19. The proportion of the labor force that is female continues to increase. 20. One sign.
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Part II. True False Questions 20. Ancient philosophers were all in agreement about one basic idea, that inequality was good and right for society. 21. Hebrew prophets denounced abuses of wealth, even at risk of angering kings and rulers. 22. Jesus preached that wealth was a sign of blessing from God. 23. Muhammad told.
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  11. Rosabeth Kanter believed that women’s success in business was limited by a. the way they were raised b. their biological clocks c. the power structure of the corporation d. their tendency to nurture rather than compete 12. Using a structural approach, Kanter argued that women managers tended to help subordinates rather than impress superiors.
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23. Bourdieu argued that London was the world’s cultural capital. 24. Top level executives and professionals may often find new jobs and opportunities through professional social networks. 25. Unlike in earlier times, clothing today tells us little about a person’s social status. 26. Juliet Schor believes that people overspend because they compare themselves.
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26. Dependency theorists believe that poor countries need greater involvement by multinational corporations and more focus on exports. 27. Neoliberal economists emphasize free markets and private enterprise rather than government programs as best for economic growth. 28. World systems theorists believe that the periphery benefits from close ties to the global economic.
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15. According to David Brooks, bourgeois bohemians, or Bobos, express their social position through a. extravagant displays of conspicuous consumption b. pearl gray suits and Cadillacs c. striking displays of diamonds and gold jewelry d. expensive but alternative and casual tastes 16. Juliet Schor believes that trying to keep up with imagined reference groups has.
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  26. According to Oscar Lewis, a culture of poverty may be perpetuated across generations because of a. continued discrimination b. loss of jobs overseas c. its effect on poor children d. its benefits for wealthy elites 27. Advocates of the culture of poverty view believe that: a. social structures perpetuate poverty b. the poor have psychological and.
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Part II. True False Questions 31. Many social scientists contend that race is socially constructed rather than biologically defined. 32. When they first arrived in the United States, Irish immigrants were sometimes considered to be a separate race. 33. Proponents of international colonialism believe that racial prejudice is part of the human psyche.
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1. The growth of white collar jobs in the US following World War II allowed for considerable: a. circulation mobility b. structural mobility c. reproductive mobility d. immigration mobility 2. In Featherman and Hauser’s occupational tables, which category of sons is mostly likely to have had fathers in the same category? a. Upper white collar b. Upper.
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22. Social psychologists often analyze gender differences in the way men and women behave based on differential socialization. 23. Structural theorists of gender inequality believe that women don’t get ahead because they are not innately competitive enough. 24. Women’s entry into the workforce means that they are proportionately doing much less of.
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Part II. True False Questions 19. Occupational prestige corresponds closely with the amount of education and income associated with a profession. 20. Max Weber noted that high prestige groups may seek to limit the entrance of others to prestigious places and organizations. 21. Lower social class parents are more likely to emphasis obedience.
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  6. From horticultural societies to new millionaires, prestige has been gained through a. monopolizing economic activity b. philanthropy c. rejecting tradition d. bribes and kickbacks 7. In raising their children, Kohn found that low-income parents place more stress than upper income parents on: a. beating the system b. the importance of education c. honesty and obedience d. taking it.
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1. Athletic shoes are now often made in a. France and Italy b. offshore plants in the Caribbean c. export processing zones in Asia d. South Bend, Indiana 2. Large amounts of the world’s lightweight consumer goods are made in a string of cities along a. the U.S. Mississippi River b. China’s Pearl River c. Europe’s Rhine River d..
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Part II. True False Questions 15. Karl Marx contended that governments in capitalist countries serve the interests of the wealthy. 16. In the United States, voters tend to vote along strictly social class lines. 17. Black voters in the United States now support the two major political parties about equally. 18. With more at.
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Part II. True False Questions 17. Most Americans identify themselves as belonging to the middle class. 18. In the United States, wealth is more concentrated than income. 19. The growth of agribusiness in the United States has resulted in the employment of many more agricultural workers. 20. A major transition in the past several.
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1. For Karl Marx, the key determiner of social class was a. education b. occupation c. wealth and ownership d. prestige and social influence 2. Erik Olin Wright contends that social class is still largely dependent on a. wealth and authority b. style of life c. personal interests and affiliations d. subjective self-understanding 3. In the United States, the distribution.
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  6. Modernization theorists maintained that the people of developing nations needed a. an achievement orientation b. greater social consciousness c. a revolutionary ideology d. greater ethnic pride 7. World systems and dependency theorists have maintained that a major reason poor nations stay poor is a. lack of natural resources b. lack of motivation to change c. neocolonialism d. unwillingness.
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  6. In Blau and Duncan’s path diagram, Father's education has a direct effect on father's occupation and on son's a. education b. occupation c. first job d. last job 7. Christopher Jencks claimed that his research showed that income differences between individuals were considerably influenced by a. economic recession b. birth order of brothers c. luck d. marital status 8..
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  16. Before joining the U.S. as a slave state, Texas had been a. owned by Spain, part of Mexico, and an independent republic b. ruled by the Austrian emperor Maximilian c . part of French North America d. designated as the Indian Territory 17. The Bracero Program: a. encouraged Mexican labor migration to the US b. encouraged.
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26. John Locke argued that the authority of rulers comes from the consent of the governed. 27. Karl Marx contended that human history was the history of class struggle. 28. Karl Marx believed that conflict was part of human nature, and all societies would always have class conflict and warfare. 29. Functionalists have.
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20. Women are more likely than men to support government provision of social services. 21. Due to separation of church and state, religious affiliation does not predict likely voting behavior in the United States. 22. C. Wright Mills believed that the power elite of the 19th Century had been replaced by political.
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  23. The numbers of African Americans and Hispanics who graduate from college has not increased since the 1970s. 24. When Jonathan Kozol returned to public schools in the 1990s he found that most of the inequalities he had struggled against in the 1960s were gone. 25. No Child Left Behind set standards.
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Part III. Short Answer Questions 31. Modernization theorists contended that developing countries needed what three key aspects of modernity? 32. Dependency theorists contend that global capitalism has brought what three negative consequences to dependent nations? 33. World systems theorists contend the world economic system can be divided into what three types of countries?     .
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  6. Women’s earnings showed gains relative to men’s earnings in the 1980s and 2000s, largely because a. the glass ceiling disappeared b. women started moving into senior management in large numbers c. poorly paid women left the labor force d. men’s average hourly earnings declined due to deindustrialization 7. One reason women's earnings have remained.
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  11. The group most disadvantaged in completing college are a. women b. students from low-income backgrounds c. middle-class Hispanics d. middle-class African Americans 12. According to Kozol, one of the basic problems with school funding is that it is based on a. federal income taxes b. local property taxes c. local sales taxes d. school bond initiatives 13. Those who.
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