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1.A cell's DNA molecules are constructed ofA.amino acids.B.proteins.C.sugars, phosphates, and bases.D.all of the aboveE.none of the above 2.DNA molecules contain patterns for the production ofA.proteins.B.amino acids.C.phosphates and sugars.D.four kinds of bases.E.all of the above 3.The first complex life appeared on Earth about 0.5 billion years ago during theA.Jurassic Period.B.Mississippian Period.C.Cambrian Period.D.Precambrian Period.E.Neolithic.

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  • 1.A cell's DNA molecules constructed ofA.amino acids.B.proteins.C.sugars, phosphates, and bases.D.all
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38.The center of our galaxy is believed to be occupied by the radio source known as ____________________.or 39.The ____________________ of the galaxy contains population I stars, open clusters, and gas clouds. 40.____________________ are groups of 100,000 to 1,000,000 population II stars firmly bound by gravity. 41.In the diagram below, the approximate absolute magnitude.

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  • 38.The center of our galaxy believed to be occupied by
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11.Space-time will be flat ifA.the universe is expanding.B.the universe is accelerating.C.the average density of the universe is equal to the critical density.D.the universe is finite.E.the universe is homogeneous and isotropic. 12.An open universeA.has a negative curvature.B.has zero curvature.C.has a positive curvature.D.is finite.E.has a center. 13.Current observations indicate that the amount of baryonic.

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  • 11.Space-time will be flat ifA.the universe expanding.B.the universe accelerating.C.the average
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82.The units on the Hubble constant are ____________________. 83.____________________ clusters of galaxies contain closely spaced galaxies and often contain giant elliptical galaxies and a hot intergalactic medium. 84.Measuring the Doppler shift of material at various distances from the center of a galaxy can be used to construct a(n) ____________________ for that galaxy. 85.____________________.

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  • 82.The units the Hubble constant ____________________. 83.____________________ clusters of galaxies contain
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51.Hypernovae areA.supernovae that occur when two red dwarfs collide.B.supernovae that occur when 10 solar mass stars explode.C.supernovae that occur when stars more massive than 25 solar masses explode.D.one theory to explain the production of gamma ray bursters.E.both c and d above 52.____ occurs when light travels out of a gravitational field,.

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  • 51.Hypernovae areA.supernovae that occur when two red dwarfs collide.B.supernovae that
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61.What was the first evidence that quasars were different from astronomical objects before they were observed in visual wavelengths?A.The first quasars were seen to have fuzz.B.Quasars emitted radio energy like active galaxies, but appeared to be point sources in radio wavelengths.C.Quasars showed significant gravitational lens effects.D.The spectra of quasars looked.

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  • 61.What was the first evidence that quasars were different from
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31.A type-II supernovaA.occurs when a white dwarf's mass exceeds the Chandrasekhar limit.B.is the result of helium flash.C.is characterized by a spectrum that shows hydrogen lines.D.occurs when the iron core of a massive star collapses.E.c and d 32.Synchrotron radiation is producedA.in planetary nebulae.B.by red dwarfs.C.massive stars as their iron core collapses.D.in supernova.

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  • 31.A type-II supernovaA.occurs when a white dwarf's mass exceeds the
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41.For a star of Sun-like mass, what is the last stage of the nuclear fusion?A.Hydrogen to helium.B.Helium to carbon and oxygen.C.Carbon to magnesium.D.Fusion goes all the way up to iron. 42.What are the two longest stages in the life of a one solar mass star?A.Protostar, pre-main sequence.B.Protostar, white dwarf.C.Protostar, main-sequence.D.Main-sequence, white.

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  • 41.For a star of Sun-like mass, what the last stage
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21.The center of our galaxy lies in the direction of (but far beyond) the stars in the constellation ofA.Ursa Minor.B.Ursa Major.C.Sagittarius.D.Orion.E.Monoceros. 22.NucleosynthesisA.is the process by which energy is produced at the center of the galaxy.B.is the process by which hydrogen and helium are converted into heavier elements.C.describes the structure of a.

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  • 21.The center of our galaxy lies in the direction of
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1.An E galaxy containsA.mostly lower-main sequence stars and giants.B.mostly upper main sequence stars and giants.C.mostly upper main sequence stars and gas and dust.D.roughly equal numbers of upper and lower main sequence stars.E.mostly white dwarfs and supergiants. 2.A spiral (S or SB) galaxy containsA.mostly lower-main sequence stars and giants.B.mostly upper main sequence.

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  • 1.An E galaxy containsA.mostly lower-main sequence stars and giants.B.mostly upper
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11.____ is a form of electromagnetic radiation produced by rapidly moving electrons spiraling through magnetic fields.A.Lagrangian radiationB.AccretionC.Ultraviolet radiationD.Synchrotron radiationE.Infrared radiation 12.The Crab nebula isA.a planetary nebula.B.a Bok globule.C.an open cluster.D.an absorption nebula.E.supernova remnant. 13.Star clusters are important to our study of stars becauseA.all stars formed in star clusters.B.the sun was once a.

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  • 11.____ a form of electromagnetic radiation produced by rapidly moving
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41.What distance method did Edwin Hubble use to determine the distance to local galaxies?A.Hubble LawB.Supernova observationsC.Period-luminosity relationship of variable starsD.Parallax 42.What distance methods is used to calibrate the Hubble constant?A.ParallaxB.Supernova observationsC.variable starsD.both a and bE.both b and c 43.What distance method is used to determine the distance to the most distant galaxies?A.Radar.

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  • 41.What distance method did Edwin Hubble use to determine the
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104.Because more massive stars have more gravitational energy, they can fuse heavier nuclear fuels.105.The sun will eventually become a supernova.106.Type II supernovae are believed to occur when the cores of massive stars collapse.107.Synchrotron radiation occurs when high speed electrons move through a magnetic field.108.A Type II supernova produces a planetary.

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  • 104.Because more massive stars have more gravitational energy, they can
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21.The lowest-mass stars cannot become giants becauseA.they do not contain helium.B.they rotate too slowly.C.they cannot heat their centers hot enough.D.they contain strong magnetic fields.E.they never use up their hydrogen. 22.A planetary nebula isA.the expelled outer envelope of a medium mass star.B.produced by a supernova explosion.C.produced by a nova explosion.D.a nebula within.

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  • 21.The lowest-mass stars cannot become giants becauseA.they do not contain
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1.Who first calibrated the Cepheid variable stars for use in determining distance?A.Henrietta LeavittB.Edwin HubbleC.John GlennD.Carl SaganE.Harlow Shapley 2.Which of the following is not a characteristic of the stars of the disk component of our galaxy?A.circular orbitsB.randomly inclined orbitsC.higher metal abundanceD.young starsE.star formation regions 3.A group of 10 to 100 stars that formed.

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  • 1.Who first calibrated the Cepheid variable stars for use in
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41.What force(s) are responsible for the collapse of an interstellar cloud?A.nuclearB.gravityC.electricD.magneticE.both c and d 42.Star clusters are important to the study the stellar evolution because stars in a given cluster have the sameA.temperature.B.mass.C.age.D.luminosity. 43.Why do higher mass stars live shorter lives on the main sequence than lower mass stars?A.Higher mass stars burn.

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  • 41.What force(s) responsible for the collapse of an interstellar cloud?A.nuclearB.gravityC.electricD.magneticE.both
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42.The ____________________ is that the universe is both isotropic and homogeneous. 43.The ____________________ are theories that unify the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces at extremely high energies.or 44.A(n) ____________________ universe is infinite and would have a density equal to the critical density. 45.____________________ are a form of dark matter that consists of very.

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  • 42.The ____________________ that the universe both isotropic and homogeneous. 43.The ____________________
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31.Stars are born inA.reflection nebulae.B.dense molecular clouds.C.HII regions.D.the intercloud medium.E.the local bubble. 32.Absorption lines due to interstellar gasA.are wider than the lines from stars because the gas is hotter than most stars.B.are more narrow than the lines from stars because the gas has a lower pressure than stars.C.indicate that the interstellar.

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  • 31.Stars born inA.reflection nebulae.B.dense molecular clouds.C.HII regions.D.the intercloud medium.E.the local
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11.The lower edge of the Main Sequence band is known as ____ and represents the location in the HR-diagram at which stars begin their lives as main sequence stars.A.the Coulomb barrierB.hydrostatic equilibriumC.the birth lineD.the zero-age main sequenceE.the evolutionary track 12.____ is the thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen to form helium operating in.

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  • 11.The lower edge of the Main Sequence band known as
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35.All life on Earth is based on carbon chemistry.36.The DNA molecules contain six different bases.37.DNA molecules cannot be altered by chance errors in reproduction.38.The oldest fossils on Earth are more than 3 billion years old.39.The Miller experiment created synthetic DNA.40.Chemical evolution concentrated the various smaller molecules into the more stable.

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  • 35.All life Earth based carbon chemistry.36.The DNA molecules contain six
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11.Current searches for extraterrestrial intelligence use radio telescopes at wavelengths A.which must be shorter than the local wavelengths emitted by Earth’s atmosphereB.which must be longer than the radio wavelength “noise” naturally emitted by our galaxyC.Both conditions “a” and “b” above must be fulfilled.D.Wrong! Visual light wavelengths are used because they.

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  • 11.Current searches for extraterrestrial intelligence use radio telescopes at wavelengths
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11.A ____ generally contains well over 1000 galaxies and is quite dense. They often contain many giant elliptical galaxies.A.local groupB.poor clusterC.rich clusterD.tidal tailE.quasar 12.The Milky Way is part of I. a poor cluster. II. a rich cluster. III. the Virgo Cluster. IV. the Local Group. A.I and IIIB.I and IVC.II and IIID.II and IVE.just III 13.__________ are produced when two galaxies.

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  • 11.A ____ generally contains well over 1000 galaxies and quite
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