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Study Resources (Statistics)

1.An examination of ethical issues in research in the 20th century reveals that a.  the Nazi atrocities in World War II created the only major ethical problems in research. b.  there have been few notable problems in the last 20 years. c.  researchers in the United States have engaged in research practices that.
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41)Which statement is the most accurate?  A)For each research design, there is only one appropriate statistical test.  B)For each research design, there may be more than one appropriate statistical test, although they generally lead to the same conclusions.  C)For each research design, there are many appropriate statistical tests that always.
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11)The pretest-posttest design is NOT recommended for use in program evaluation research because  A)generalization of the results is impossible.  B)threats to internal validity are not controlled in this type of design.  C)the control group is difficult to debrief.  D)it yields low external validity.  12)In program evaluation, if a control group.
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41)Lower-constraint research  A)can take the place of highly controlled laboratory research.  B)is a legitimate way of looking at certain research questions and may even be the best way to study a specific phenomenon.  C)is "sloppy" research and should be used as seldom as possible.  D)should only be used at the.
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41)One of the major potential confounding factors in a simple pretest-posttest study is  A)placebo effects.  B)frustration effects.  C)effects due to the treatment.  D)regression to the mean.  42)Baseline measures are taken  A)before any manipulations are made.  B)immediately following the manipulation.  C)only on the experimental group.   D)only on the control group.  43)If.
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11)Science is characterized NOT by ________, but by ________.  A)negativism; skepticism  B)positivism; negativism  C)negativism; positivism  D)defeat; enthusiasm  12)In science, little is accepted on faith EXCEPT for  A)research in parapsychology.  B)the method of science itself.  C)theories that have been held for years.  D)the findings of eminent researchers.  13)The essence of science.
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11)It is important to describe exactly how the research was carried out in a research article because it  A)allows other researchers to replicate the study.  B)ensures that the research was done in APA format.  C)is a rule that has always been followed.  D)makes it possible to contact participants.  12)The participants.
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1)Which of the following is FALSE about university libraries?  A)They are increasing their online subscriptions to journals.  B)They hold subscriptions to thousands of journals.  C)They typically house millions of books  D)They only have access to resources housed within their own university.  2)If you are having trouble tracking down information in.
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31)When you have more than one research hypothesis and wish to use the decision-tree model suggested in the text, you  A)use the same flowchart for each hypothesis.  B)begin with the first flowchart for each hypothesis.  C)can use the same statistical test for each hypothesis.  D)only go through the decision trees.
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66.What are the eight categories of enforceable rules defined in the American Psychological Association’s ethical standards? 67. Why are the ethical principles associated with “Boundaries of Competence” relevant to students conducting their own research?  Why are the students’ professors also affected? 68.What points to researchers need to consider if they intend to.
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11)What is (are) the research hypothesis (or hypotheses) in the study described above?  A)There are two research hypotheses: that there are people with panic disorder and that they have relatives with anxiety disorders.  B)There is one research hypothesis: that people have panic disorder.  C)There is one research hypothesis: that people.
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1)Style guidelines used by most psychological journals  A)are almost all focused on research ethics.  B)are presented in the APA Publication Manual.  C)vary enormously from one journal to another.  D)must be selected by the researcher to present the information most effectively.  2)In published research articles, levels of headings  A)organize the article. .
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11)You can find articles that cite a particular publication in the  A)Social Science Citation Index.  B)Publication Citation Index.  C)Reverse Directory of Science Literature.  D)Psychological Abstracts.  12)Before beginning library research, you should have a clear problem statement and  A)a list of key terms that would identify relevant papers.  B)a list of.
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50.Give two examples of cases in which social issues have affected research in psychology or other areas; describe how the social issues affected the research. 51.Why do most scientists reject the idea that paranormal phenomena, like ESP, exist? 52.How do scientists and pseudoscientists differ with regard to the evidence that they will.
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31)Regression to the mean can be at least partially controlled in the single-group situation by  A)using an interrupted time-series design.  B)changing the measure used at pretest and posttest.  C)using a quasi-experimental design.  D)using a pretest-posttest design.  32)In a nonequivalent control-group design with groups that differ at pretest, if the control.
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51)In order to determine the confidence limits for estimating population characteristics, we need to estimate  A)the number of participants we will need.  B)how much time the survey will take.  C)all of the population parameters.  D)the size of the standard deviation of the population for the characteristics we wish to measure. .
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21)One of the most serious problems with nonequivalent control-group designs is that  A)groups may be different at the outset on the dependent measures.  B)groups may be different at the outset on the key independent variables.  C)difference scores are cumbersome to use in statistical analyses.  D)participant recruitment is much more difficult.
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41.Milgram defended his research by point out that he a. did not intend to harm anybody even though he foresaw the problems that occurred. b. engaged both in debriefing and in dehoaxing of participants after the study ended. c. paid participants well enough to overcome any discomfort they had experienced. d. the research was.
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13.2  Pre-Data Check 1)Before data collection begins, the researcher should complete a(n) ________ check.  A)pre-data  B)pre-collection  C)pre-flight  D)all-systems-go  2)Which of the following is NOT a phase of the pre-data check suggested in your text?  A)Clarity of the research hypothesis.  B)Adequacy of the independent variable manipulation.  C)Adequacy of the supplies and funding. .
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21)A meta-analysis gives more weight to a study  A)with more participants.  B)from a research university.  C)with more authors.  D)with positive results.  22)The overall effect size computed in a meta-analysis indicates numerically  A)how strongly the independent variable affected the dependent variable.  B)how strongly the dependent variable affected the independent variable.  C)the.
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41)In simple random sampling, every member of the identified population  A)has an equal chance of being selected.  B)has an unequal probability of being selected.  C)has a simple relationship to the population.  D)is willing to participate in the research.  42)The initial list (such as all children in a school district) from.
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11)Which of the following is NOT a major step in survey research?  A)Develop a sampling frame and obtain a representative sample.  B)Pretest the first draft of the survey with a subsample and refine it.  C)Use control procedures to ensure experimenter objectivity.  D)Analyze, interpret, and communicate the results.  12)What is an.
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45.Why can we say that very different psychological theories can each be valid? 46.Describe the four main characteristics of science. 47.Why is it helpful to know how previous researchers defined their variables? 48.Describe the five ways of knowing described by the philosopher Charles Sander Peirce. 49.What are the strengths and limitations of the different.
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11)The effect size shows  A)whether there were sufficient numbers of participants in each group.  B)how strongly the dependent variable affected the independent variable.  C)how strongly the independent variable affected the dependent variable.  D)whether there were sufficient numbers of conditions to be tested.  12)Typically in scientific research,  A)research areas are assessed.
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51)The interrupted time-series design is able to control for regression to the mean because  A)by employing multiple measures, it gives several points of comparison over a long period of time.  B)it adds a constant to all scores.  C)it multiplies all scores by a constant.  D)by taking refined measurements, the design.
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11)The Table of Contents for the Student Resource Website  A)is found in the textbook.  B)will always be visible at the left of the screen.  C)is found at the bottom of the screen.  D)is identical to the textbook Table of Contents.  12)It is highly recommended that you  A)memorize the contents of.
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1.Graduate programs in psychology specify that entering students should have taken a course in research methods or experimental psychology.  They require such an undergraduate course a.  so they can weed out weak students. b. because they need students to do their research for them. c.  because they believe students should know how psychological.
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14.2  Science: An Interaction between Empiricism and Rationalism 1)Science is defined as  A)the use of empirical methods.  B)the use of rationalism.  C)a combination of empiricism and rationalism.  D)the control of extraneous variables.  2)Scientific research  A)has little impact on society.  B)informs every aspect of society.  C)defines social ethics.  D)provides answers to every.
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13.1  Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures 1)The decision about how to analyze the data  A)should be made before the data are collected.  B)should be made after the data are collected.  C)should be made randomly.  D)is not a particularly important concern in research.  2)The decision regarding how to analyze data should be made .
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63.Identify and describe two examples of unethical biomedical research that has taken place in the United States. 64.What is the difference between the aspirational goals and the ethical standards in research developed by the American Psychological Association? 65.  Identify the five general principles regarding ethical conduct and what behaviors they pertain to. .
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12.4  Surveys 1)Status surveys  A)usually focus on a single characteristic of a population.  B)are extremely complex.  C)cannot be used in natural environments.  D)are a very new development.  2)If a researcher conducts a survey to determine what proportion of college students are registered to vote, the survey is termed a  A)status survey. .
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21)Given the four hypotheses below, what statistical procedures are appropriate to use? Hypothesis 1: There will be more errors in the hijack condition. Hypothesis 2: Seriousness will be greater in the hijack condition. Hypothesis 3: In the hijack condition there will be an inverse relationship between years of experience and.
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21.Which of the General Ethical Principles of the American Psychological Association is involved if a psychologist violates the confidentiality of a research participant or clinical patient? a.  integrity b.  respect for people’s rights and dignity c.  beneficence and nonmaleficence d.  justice 22.In resolving ethical situations involving legal issues and confidentiality, a psychologist a.  can never reveal.
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51)Which of the following is an important consideration in the robustness of many statistical tests?  A)Equal sample sizes.  B)Normality of the sample.  C)Randomness of the sample.  D)Demographics of the sample.  52)The conclusion that most parametric statistics are robust to violations of most of their assumptions is based on a series.
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12.3  Program Evaluation Research 1)Which of the following is an accurate statement?  A)Program evaluation was popular in the 1960s but is now just about extinct.  B)The goal of a good program evaluation is to improve job satisfaction.  C)Program evaluation is not a special set of research designs, but rather uses many.
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31.One of the problems associated with knowledge based on experience is that a.  our own experiences might not generalize to others. b.  the use of logical deductions does not work in predicting behaviors. c.  common knowledge might be erroneous, even if many people believe in it. d.  experiential knowledge and scientific knowledge are usually.
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31)A researcher gave a representative sample of professors at Whatsa Mata U a questionnaire about the importance of teaching. The researcher finds that on average these professors feel that teaching is important. The researcher then reports that professors at Whatsa Mata U value teaching. This researcher has just engaged in .
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51.Researchers who have studied the results of debriefing have discovered that a.  debriefing is not very effective in counteracting the effects of deception. b.  researchers need to spend a considerable amount of time in the dehoaxing part of debriefing c.  desensitization is more effective than dehoaxing. d.  behaviors that are affected by deception can.
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21.Beliefs based on intuition or on what is considered common knowledge are based on what kind of knowledge? a.  tenacity b.  experience c.  authority d.  a priori method 22.Beliefs about behavior that are based on maxims like Birds of a feather flock together, meaning that people who are similar will develop friendships and relationships are.
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11.The ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association contain guidelines for achieving the highest ideals of psychology.  These principles are called a.  aspirational goals. b.  ethical standards. c.  enforceable rules. d.  principles of beneficence. 12.The enforceable rules of conduct associated with the ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association are a.  aspirational goals. b.  principles.
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31)Some researchers think that a possible problem with all laboratory research  A)may be low ecological validity.  B)is low internal validity.  C)is the rapidly diminishing number of participants around the world.  D)is the limited number of statistical procedures available.  32)Ecological validity  A)refers to the accuracy of computer modeling.  B)is related to.
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1)The Student Resource Website includes  A)several tutorials.  B)good cartoons.  C)a searchable copy of the textbook.  D)a chat with a professor live forum  2)The Student Resource includes all of the following EXCEPT  A)an interactive study guide  B)a searchable copy of the book.  C)discussions of statistical theory.  D)tutorials on writing reports in.
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40.Identify three ways that knowledge of research methods can prepare you for a career either in psychology or in another field. 41.Identify the four goals of scientific research. 42.How do description, prediction, explanation, and control in science differ from casual observation in everyday life? 43.What is the difference between a hypothesis and a.
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11.A therapist wants to know as much about a client as possible in order to help the client take steps to resolve troublesome issues.  This is related to which goal of science? a.  control b.  description c.  explanation d.  prediction 12.After gaining an understanding of why behaviors occur as they do, a scientist interested in.
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14.1  New Directions in Research Methodology 1)At what level of constraint do we study relationships among variables?  A)Experimental.  B)Differential.  C)Naturalistic.  D)At all levels of constraint.  2)Scientific research is  A)a passive process of simply observing events.  B)a passive process of allowing nature to evolve.  C)an active process of simply observing natural events. .
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61)Which of the following confounding factors is most likely to affect time-series designs?  A)Participant selection.  B)Regression to the mean.  C)Maturation.  D)History.  62)Under what conditions is history a potential confounding factor?  A)When the pretest measures are at an unusually high level.  B)When a disproportionate number of participants are lost from one.
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11)One should obtain demographic information from participants   A)only if the sample is a random sample.  B)only if there is a question about how representative the sample is.  C)to be able to adequately describe the sample when writing up the research findings.  D)to determine the adequacy of the independent variable manipulation. .
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31.The Nuremburg Code of ethics in human research arose because of the a.  failure to provide medical treatment in the research on syphilis done at the Tuskegee Institute. b.  addition of radioactive substances in children’s food at a home for the developmentally disabled. c.  Milgram’s obedience studies. d.  Nazi research in the Second World.
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