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151.  A(n) _________ is any nongenetic agent that produces birth defects at exposures that commonly occur. a.  amnion b.  teratogen c.  chorion d.  cytogen 152.  Teratogen is derived from the Greek word teras, which means  a.  illness or sickness. b.  monster or marvel. c.  create or cause. d.  environmental or “of the earth.” 153.  Teratogens include all of the.
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161.  _________ kills neurons in the developing brain and prevents new neurons from migrating normally, which prevents brain structures from forming properly. These resulting brain abnormalities cause a wide variety of problems, including poor coordination, attention difficulties, speech and language delays, low IQ, and problems with daily living due to.
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41.  The amniotic sac and its outer layer, the ________, surround the embryo and fill with fluid to provide a protected environment for growth. a.  endoderm b.  blastocyst c.  chorion d.  morula 42.  The ________ is a fleshy disk of tissue that provides oxygen, delivers nutrients, and removes waste products for the embryo. a.  endoderm b.  mesoderm c. .
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221.  Uterine contractions expel the placenta during the _____ stage of childbirth, usually within 10 minutes of the baby’s arrival. a.  first b.  second c.  third d.  fourth 222.  Jan’s baby is being delivered. If this is a normal delivery, the baby’s _____ will appear first. a.  umbilical cord b.  placenta c.  scalp d.  shoulder 223.  Some experts consider the.
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51.  The ________ will develop into the digestive system, associated glands, and respiratory system. a.  metaderm b.  mesoderm c.  ectoderm d.  endoderm 52.  About 13 days after fertilization, the ________ creates a vertical groove in the center of the oval-shaped embryo and releases a chemical, flipping genetic switches in another layer of the embryo.
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287.  Scientists who criticize the race concept have concluded that “there are no races, there are only clines.” What do they mean by this statement?     288.  Mark has been diagnosed with heart disease. Why would knowing his race aid the doctor in treating his condition?   289.  You are asked to show a.
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71.  Although movement actually starts to occur about ____ weeks after fertilization, it is not until the ______ month of pregnancy that parents are able to feel the first movements of the unborn child. a.  two; second b.  three; third c.  six; fourth d.  eighth; sixth 72.  In the fourth month of pregnancy, the.
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Quiz #2: 1.  The ________ period includes the time before birth, while ________ development includes the development after birth. a.  prenatal; postnatal b.  natal; postmature c.  prenatal; perinatal d.  fetal; perinatal 2.  A spermatozoa a.  can typically survive for only one day in the female reproductive tract. b.  is packed with material to nourish.
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11.  Hemophilia A is an example of a(n) a.  autosomal dominant condition. b.  autosomal recessive condition. c.  X-linked condition. d.  chromosomal abnormality. 12.  Girls with _______ syndrome are born with only a single X chromosome. a.  Fragile-X b.  Klinefelter c.  Turner d.  Down 13.  In 1962, Georgia took Thalidomide for her morning sickness. Her daughter most likely  a. .
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101.  Which of the following is/are TRUE of intersexed individuals?                a.  Congential adrenal hyperplasia causes masculinization of female newborn’s genitals. b.  Most genetic female newborns with congenital adrenal hyperplasia are surgically corrected and reared as girls. c.  Chromosomal males with androgen-insensitivity do not have internal female reproductive organs but develop female contours.
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171.  Prenatal exposure to _______ is associated with delayed growth before birth, attentional problems during the school years, and an increase in behavior problems.  a.  marijuana b.  thalidomide c.  the antibiotic tetracycline d.  DES 172.  Prenatal exposure to _________ is associated with impaired fetal growth and numerous congenital malformations, including urinary tract and cardiac.
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21.  A spermatozoa a.  will typically survive inside the male for up to four days. b.  is packed with material to nourish the fertilized cell. c.  is the largest cell in the human body. d.  is all of these. 22.  Ovulation usually occurs about _________ from the first day of a woman’s menstrual cycle..
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211.  A group of college students who were all raised in an affluent neighborhood by very similar parents has experienced little environmental variability. In this case, the proportion of variability in intelligence that is due to genetic factors should be   a.  large. b.  moderate. c.  small. d.  non-existent. 212.  A group of college students.
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231.  Which of the following conducted studies on pellagra and proved that it was caused by poor nutrition, not unfavorable genes? a.  Joseph Goldberger b.  Gregor Mendel c.  John B. Watson d.  Arthur Jensen Short Answer Questions 232.  In Latin, Homo sapiens means what? 233.  Describe how the development of the human offspring differs from that of.
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121.  Georgia has been diagnosed with an autosomal recessive condition in which she produces an abnormal amount of sticky mucus that interferes with the normal functioning of her lungs and digestive system. Georgia has a.  Tay-Sachs disease. b.  Huntington’s disease. c.  Klinefelter syndrome. d.  Cystic fibrosis. 122.  Although neither Jake nor Anna have cystic fibrosis,.
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61.  One condition that increases the risk of neural tube defects is a deficiency in a.  phenylalanine. b.  vitamin A. c.  vitamin C and D. d.  B-complex vitamin folate. 62.  Which of the following increase(s) the risk of neural tube defects? a.  a deficiency in folic acid b.  a mother who is obese with poorly.
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251.  Define canalization and give an example. 252.  What is niche-picking and with which genotype-environment correlation is it associated? 253. What are glial cells? 254.  List the parts of a typical neuron. 255.  What is neurulation? 256.  What is synaptogenesis?   257.  Explain how a child’s diet would affect myelination. 258.  List two of.
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Short Answer Questions 275.  Define the terms prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal. 276.  Why do biologists prefer use the term fertilization rather than the term conception? 277.  Most pregnancies result from intercourse occurring when? Even though oocytes survive only for one day after ovulation, the window of opportunity for fertilization is wider because spermatozoa.
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284.  Define genotype-environment correlation, describe the three types, and give an example of each type.     285.  Describe the consequences to the unborn child’s developing brain if the mother drinks alcohol heavily while she is pregnant.   286.  Describe the processes of early synaptogenesis in the developing brain and the synaptic pruning that.
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231. Industrialized countries that favor midwives as attendants for healthy women have ________ compared to countries in which women receive care primarily from obstetricians. a.  lower perinatal mortality rates b.  lower cesarean rates c.  both of these d.  neither of these 232.  Miriam has chosen a(n) _______ center in which to deliver her child because.
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251.  The most common threat for low-birth-weight babies is a condition known as _________, which is a consequence of having immature lungs. a.  toxoplasmosis b.  respiratory distress syndrome. c.  neonatal asthma d.  congenital pneumococcal syndrome 252.  Very low birth-weight-babies that experience fluctuating oxygen levels are prone to having a.  toxemia. b.  scarring of the retina and.
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221.  According to Table 2.3, which of the following traits has the lowest heritability? a.  schizophrenia b.  major depression c.  body weight d.  spatial abilities 222.  Which of the following is/are TRUE regarding heritability studies? a.  Heritability studies help us to avoid problems that arise when we assume that behavior stems only from the environment. b.  Heritability.
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261.  In evaluating a risk statistic, one should seek information a.  regarding how the event of interest in the research was defined. b.  from reputable sources. c.  regarding the size and geographical location of the sample used in the research. d.  all of these. 262.  You are interested in finding out your risk regarding.
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181.  _____________ is a sexually transmitted disease that can cause premature labor, fetal death, and neonatal infection. a.  Listeria monocytogenes b.  Syphilis c.  Chlamydia d.  Toxoplasmosis 182.  Toxoplasmosis is caused by a(n) a.  parasite that can be acquired by changing cat litter. b.  food borne pathogens found on raw vegetables, sandwich meats, and soft cheeses. c.  sexually-transmitted.
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201. Regarding gender preferences by parents around the world, which of the following statements is/are TRUE? a.  Parental investment favoring girls is shown by the Kanjar of Pakistan where women dominate public affairs. b.  As women gained rights in the People’s Republic of China, more young people began expressing a.
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131.  Which of the following is NOT one of the mechanisms for the transmission of Down syndrome? a.  An error occurs during the production of a reproductive cell resulting in two copies of chromosome 21. b.  Premutations of trinucleotide expand into longer sequences during production of the mother’s reproductive cells. c.  An error.
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81.  The ___________ procedure is a technique that relies on the tendency organisms have to respond to novel stimuli but to stop responding when the stimulation becomes routine.   a.  quickening b.  habituation c.  viability d.  neurulation 82.  Using the habituation procedure, researchers exposed third trimester fetuses to a tone until the fetuses became bored.
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271.  Young children may appear to have escaped damage due to their prenatal cocaine-exposure, yet be very different from their peers during adolescence, when adults expect them to assume more responsibility. This illustrates that a.  nature is the most important predictor of development. b.  nurture is the most important predictor of development. c. .
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31.  Which of the following is/are TRUE of the gestational period? a.  Most women deliver their babies some time earlier or later than their predicted due dates. b.  The gestational period averages 42 weeks. c.  Medical professionals describe a slightly shorter gestational period because they usually date pregnancy from the end of a.
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Essay Questions 272.  Describe how human beings differ from other primates, regarding their development as offspring, their dependence on others, their adaptation, their minds, and their lifespan. 273.  Describe the three theories of reproduction that were popular from the 17th century through the 19th century.   274.  Differentiate between dominant and recessive alleles by.
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290.  Describe the differences shown by groups who emphasize individualist values and those who emphasize collectivist values regarding how they view the self, parental responsibility, the goal of socialization, differences in achievement, and social decision-making.   291.  In the study on preschools presented in this chapter, how did the American and.
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141.  Common reasons for a preconception/prenatal genetics consultation include which of the following?  a.  the mother will be 35 years or older at delivery b.  close biological relationship of parents c.  ethnic predisposition to certain genetic disorders d.  all of these 142.  Phil and LaShonda would like to have a baby. Both parents are.
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11.  The male and female reproductive cells are known as a.  zygotes. b.  gametes. c.  embryos. d.  oocytes. 12.  A one-celled organism formed by the union of the male and female reproductive cells is called a(n) a.  zygote. b.  gamete. c.  embryo. d.  fetus. 13.  The process by which sperm and egg fuse.
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281.  Explain the differences in monozygotic and dizygotic twins.   282.  Your newborn nephew has just been diagnosed with phenylketonuria (PKU). Describe this condition and explain how diet affects how this condition will be expressed.     283.  Briefly describe the condition of schizophrenia and explain how scientists know that both genes and.
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191.  Which of the following is/are TRUE regarding individualist and collectivist values around the world? a.  All societies have collectivist and individualist features. b.  Ethics guidelines now state that professionals have an obligation to learn about cultural differences that might affect their work. c.  The Chinese, like the Americans, tend to emphasize individual.
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111.  Which of the following is/are TRUE regarding multiple births? a.  Perinatal mortality rates are four times higher for twins and six times higher for triplets than singletons. b.  Dizygotic twinning occurs at similar rates across ethnic groups. c.  African-Americans have the highest rate of monozygotic twinning. d. All of these statements.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.  Regarding the opening segment of the chapter that detailed the birth of an Amish woman’s child, _________ helped to make the birthing a safe and welcomed event that was integrated into the daily fabric of this family’s life. a.  social support b.  trained birth attendants c.  close emergency care d.  all.
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91.  Which of the following is FALSE regarding whether embryos will become male or female? a.  All embryos begin with tissue that can differentiate into either male or female forms. b.  Males are nature’s default sex, which means that the embryo will develop a male form unless a particular set of.
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261.  Define culture and list three features of any culture. 262.  Do the terms Hispanic and Latino refer to race or ethnicity and why?  263.  What are HOME inventories and what do they measure? 264.  Regarding values, American tend to emphasize independence, unique solutions to problems, and personal happiness, while.
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211.  It is three weeks before the onset of true labor, the fetus’ head has dropped toward Katie’s pelvis during an event called a.  false labor. b.  lightening. c.  contracture. d.  quickening. 212.  Studies have proved that the _____ of mature fetuses trigger hormonal events that prompt the mother’s body to switch from prelabor.
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275.  Describe the condition Marfan syndrome and how it is transmitted. 276.  Describe Tay-Sachs disease, its type of non-Mendelian transmission, and the effect, if any, of a person having only one abnormal allele for Tay-Sachs.   277.  Explain genetic imprinting using the Prader-Willi syndrome and the Angelman syndrome as examples. Include a description.
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191. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have an increased chance of a.  conceiving a Down syndrome child. b.  conceiving a child with a mitochondrial DNA disorder. c.  delivery complication. d.  all of these. 192. Insufficient iodine intake in the third trimester leads to ________, a condition characterized by dwarfism and poor muscular coordination..
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Quiz #1: 1.  The perinatal period specifically refers to the time a.  from conception to birth. b.  from a few months before birth to one month after birth. c.  during the birth process. d.  from birth until one year after birth. 2.  The mature oocyte a.  is released about every 28 days. b.  can survive for.
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285.  What is surfactant?   286.  What is meant by the phrase that females are nature’s default sex? 287.  Explain the rate of twinning for both monozygotic and dizygotic twins. . 288.  What is meant by the phrase that “nature’s love of diversity primarily benefits species, not the individual”? 289.  Why are there.
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241.  What is meosis? 242.   Crossing red snapdragons with white snapdragons results in some plants with pink flowers.  This illustrates which type of non-Mendelian pattern of transmission? 243.   What is polygenic inheritance? 244.   List three examples of X-linked traits. 245.   Describe the trait of pattern baldness, explain how it is transmitted, and which gender(s).
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