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Quiz #1: 1.  When Casey was born, he was covered with a white substance called _______ that protected his skin. a.  lanugo b.  vernix c.  meconium d.  fontanel 2.  Light-skinned babies sometimes show _________, while dark-skinned babies have _________. a.  jaundice; “stork bites” b.  Mongolian spots; jaundice c.  Mongolian spots; “stork bites” d.  “stork bites”; Mongolian spots 3.  Which of.
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332.  Discuss three common environmental hazards that prospective parents could inadvertently expose the fetus and which could result in birth defects. 333.  Describe how a child might develop Rh disease, its effects on the child, and how it can be prevented. 334. List seven of the 26 ABC suggestions for pregnant.
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Essay Questions 302.  Describe a full-term newborn’s initial appearance, including overall size, proportion of head to body, shape of the head, and appearance of the skin. 303.  List the five signs assessed by the Apgar, and briefly explain what the scores mean. 304.  A few days after birth, Linda’s baby has developed a.
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321.  Explain how the embryo’s brain and spinal cord are formed. 322.  Describe the fetal development of the senses of taste and hearing.    323.  Discuss the habituation experiments with fetuses and newborns that were described in this chapter and the results of these experiments.     324.  Describe prenatal brain development, including.
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221.  At birth, young infants’ faces show which emotional expressions? a.  disgust b.  interest c.  distress d.  all of these 222.  At birth, young infant’s face show all of the following emotional expressions EXCEPT for a.  joy. b.  interest. c.  disgust. d.  distress. 223.  Social smiling, the ability to smile predictably at other people appears about _____ of age. a. .
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Essay Questions 318.  Briefly discuss the history of childbirth and infant death during the nineteenth century and today in both industrialized and developing countries. 319.  Briefly describe how the Australian Aborigines and Trobriand Islanders viewed the process of reproduction, how the Egyptians viewed the process, and what several cultures believed to be.
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51. Kia places her newborn on his back; and he assumes a “fencing” pose with fists, one arm extended, and head turned to one side. Kia’s newborn is exhibiting the _______ reflex.                    a.  tonic neck b.  Palmer grasp c.  Babinski d.  Moro 52.  Billy accidentally drops his toy truck on the floor while.
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11.  Will is 11-months-old and is playing with his father’s keys. His mother takes the keys and put them in a drawer. Will pulls up by the table and tries to open the drawer. Will is exhibiting. a.  object accommodation. b.  object assimilation. c.  object conservation. d.  object permanence. 12.  According to the _________.
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61.  Jana is a two-month-old baby; and her parents are astonished by the improvement that is occurring in her motor skills every day as well as by Jana’s increasing alertness and engagement with her environment.   Jana’s parents are witnessing would best be referred to as Jana’s   a.  aging. b.  maturation. c.  coalescence. d. .
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11.  The tendency for infants between eight to 12 months to search for objects where they found them earlier rather than their current location is known as the a.  discrepancy principle. b.  “out of sight, out of mind” phenomenon. c.  A-not-B error d.  scaffolding error. 12.  Scientists who advocate ________ believe that one’s most.
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81.  Which of the following motor milestone and age range is CORRECT?   a.  rolls from back to stomach--------------------------------------------one to three months b.  grasps a small object off a flat surface------------------------------four  to seven months c.  crawls on hands and knees--------------------------------------------four to seven months d.  drinks from a cup held with both hands, with assistance---------seven.
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297.  List Freud’s first stage of development and explain how it is related to infant attachment. 298.  Briefly describe the results of Harlow’s surrogate mother for infant monkeys experiment. 299.  What is the Strange Situation, what is it used to assess, and who developed this technique? 300.  Name the category and describe the.
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211.  According to Chomsky, language a.  was learned the same way other behaviors were learned—by imitation and reinforcement. b.  emerges out of the functions it serves in social contexts and as children relate to others. c.  develops as children listen to the language around them and figure out which rules are important.
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101.  In a famous study, one- and four-month-old infants were shown to suck faster when the change in the sound stimulus crossed the boundary that adults perceived demonstrating that infants a.  have to be taught to perceive human language. b.  are better at discriminating speech sounds than adults. c.  are equipped to perceive.
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251.  _______ proposed that infants are biologically driven to maintain closeness to their mothers in order to survive; and through these daily interactions, they learn about their primary caretaker’s accessibility and responsiveness and develop mental representations of the attachment figure. a.  B. F. Skinner b.  John Watson c.  Harry Harlow d.  John Bowlby.
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71.  Which of the following statement is/are TRUE regarding maturity rates? a.  Maturity rates vary from child to child as a function of their internal biological clocks. b.  Children who are ill or malnourished stop growing temporarily and then experience catch-up growth when conditions improve. c.  The period of catch-up growth can be.
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131.  During the first two years of life, intelligence is dominated by ________ schemes, which are action patterns, such as reaching, grasping, and tasting. a.  sensorimotor b.  preoperational c.  cognitive d.  concrete operational 132.  When children move from infancy to early childhood, they shift from knowing the world through physical actions known as _______ schemes.
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Short Answer Questions 267.  Regarding the newborn, what are vernix and lanugo? 268.  What infant assessment tool evaluates the infant’s heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflex, and color on a 0, 1, 2 scale? 269.  What does the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) measure and who developed it? 270.  Who is often called the.
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171.  Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the attention span of three to four-year-old children? a.  Young children exhibit numerous random shifts in their attention when watching television. b.  Young children quickly learn to monitor sound-track features on television to tell when something is interesting. c.  Toddlers have problems staying on.
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231.  Children often consult people’s facial expressions for emotional information that will help them to choose their own reactions. This behavior is called a.  social referencing. b.  scaffolding. c.  joint visual attention. d.  turn-taking. 232.  Mitzi and her mother are at a petting zoo. One of the attendants holds out a rabbit for Mitzi to.
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151.  Susie is 15-months-old and is marking on a table with a crayon.  Susie’s mother takes the crayon and puts it her pants pocket.  Susie starts crying, walking over to her mother, and pulling at her mother’s pants pocket.  Susie is exhibiting a.  object accommodation. b.  object assimilation. c.  object conservation. d.  object.
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121.  Which of the following statements is/are TRUE regarding hand preference? a.  Hand preferences reflect brain lateralization. b.  Lateralization is present to some extent at birth. c.  Hand preference may not stabilize until six years of age. d.  All of these statements are true. 122.  The neurons of the ___________ myelinate late and are among.
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201.  The rules for arranging words and other meaningful units, such as “s” and “ed” in sentences is known as a.  syntax. b.  semantics. c.  phonology. d.  pragmatics. 202.  Terrence is two-years-old and tells his mother, “Look, doggy;” “Birdie fly,” and “Want cookie.” Terrence’s utterances illustrate the use of a.  over-regularization. b.  telegraphic speech. c.  babbling. d.  child-directed.
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307.  Briefly describe the make-up of the human cerebrum and explain how the human brain is better equipped for dealing with complex problems than the brain of chimpanzees or dogs. 308.  Explain Piaget’s view of adaptation, including the two processes of adaptation and how each of these processes is used in.
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241.  Timothy is two-years-old. If he is typical of the average two-year-old, he is capable of all of the following EXCEPT being able to a.  make inferences about people’s feelings. b.  apply categories of “good” and “bad” to his own actions. c.  know the consequences of his actions. d.  recognize himself in a.
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261.  __________ infants have troubled mother-infant interaction including, in some cases, maltreatment. a.  Ambivalent b.  Avoidant c.  Disorganized d.  Dependent 262.  The attachment theory of Ainsworth and Bowlby contains which of the following ideas? a.  Infants in all cultures become attached to one or more caregivers. b.  Maternal sensitivity is the major cause of secure attachment. c. .
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343.  Discuss why questionable risk statistics are often reported in published materials and what information a critical reader should seek regarding the research discussed in these published materials. 344.  Explain what is meant by biological risk and give two examples of risks that occur in each of the three periods. 345. .
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337.  Explain what prospective parents can learn by attending prenatal classes. 338.  Describe the stages of childbirth, including what some experts consider the fourth stage. 339.  Explain what fetal monitoring involves and discuss the drawbacks to fetal monitoring as well as when this procedure is most beneficial. .
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305.  What is the transition phase during childbirth? 306.  List three individuals who designed methods for managing discomfort during labor.  307.  What is a doula? 308.   List four hospital delivery practices that are not part of a natural delivery? 309.  List three situations in which a C-section may be performed. 310.  What is.
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41.  Regarding their hearing, newborns               a.  have difficulty localizing the direction of a sound. b.  can recognize their mother’s voice. c.  prefer regular adult speech to the silly talk engaged in by adults when around babies. d.  prefer noise over music. 42.  Regarding their senses, newborns               a.  quickly learn to prefer their mother’s smell. b. .
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287.  Caitlin takes her three-year-old son to a speech therapist because he is making a number of language errors.  The speech therapist tells Caitlin not to worry that her son is just exhibiting over-regularization. What is this and give an example of it? 288.  What is the language acquisition device (LAD).
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181.  Infant expert Carolyn Rovee-Collier tested the long-term memory of infants and toddlers by observing whether, after a time delay, the children remembered the relationship between their learned actions and the movement of toys (mobiles and trains). Rovee-Collier and her colleagues were using _______ to test the early emergence of.
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340.  Explain the difference between premature babies and small-for-date babies and describe causes of each of these conditions. 341.  Your niece is born with a very low birth weight. Discuss some of the problems that she will most likely encounter as a tiny preemie while in the hospital. 342.  Describe three.
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191.  Jasmine is in the “terrible twos.” She knows what adults want but is unable to inhibit what she wants to do. According to cognitive psychologists, this behavior is most likely due to a.  Jasmine’s lack of object permanence. b.  the use of ineffective discipline methods by Jasmine’s parents. c.  Jasmine having.
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31.  The scores on the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale have been found to accurately predict childhood behavior problems            a.  only for low birth-weight babies. b.  only for healthy, low-risk babies. c.  for all infants, whether high or low-risk. d.  for  none of these babies. 32.  When rat pups born to outgoing mothers and pups.
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11.  Shanna notices that her newborn has bruise-like birthmarks on her back and buttock. The nurse tells her “not to worry” because many dark-skinned babies are born with _________. a.  jaundice b.  “stork bites” c.  Mongolian spots d.  fontanels 12.  Many newborns have elongated heads at birth because a.  the baby spent a great deal.
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305.  Describe the maternal bonding hypothesis, including the names of the physicians who promoted the hypothesis, the positive and negative results of the hypothesis, and how this hypothesis is viewed in light of current research. 306.  How developed are each of a newborn’s senses?  Include a brief discussion of vision, hearing,.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.  In the past, most orphaned children in Africa were caught by the safety net of an extended family. However, in today’s Africa this is not the case due to a.  the mobility of today’s generations. b.  the rapidly growing population. c.  the size of the AIDS epidemic. d.  all of these.
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161.  Elizabeth Spelke believes that skills, such as reading and mathematics, are built on a foundation of ________ that emerge very early and include such skills as a basic grasp of objects, the ability to represent number for small quantities, and some understanding of how one event can cause another..
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325.  Explain how being a carrier of sickle cell anemia and the sickling process were beneficial to individuals in the past.  326.  Describe the three mechanisms that can cause Down syndrome. 327.  Describe four common reasons for a preconception/prenatal genetics consultation.  328.  Describe four common reasons why a parent may request.
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315.  The most interesting finding of the Collaborative Perinatal Project was that health at birth was a poor predictor of long-term mental development. What was found to be the most consistent predictor of mental retardation during the school years?  316.  Give an example of how physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development.
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277. Define brain lateralization and give an example. 278.  What is a scheme and explain the difference between sensorimotor schemes and cognitive schemes? 279.  Name the first stage of Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory and one of the major accomplishments of this stage. 280.  In explaining how children construct their view of the.
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111.  The _______ controls a wide variety of very basic functions, including breathing and heart rate, swallowing, and regulating arousal and sleep. a.  prefrontal cortex b.  brainstem c.  corpus callosum d.  cerebellum 112.  As Melanie takes her first steps, the part of the brain that provides her with a sense of balance and coordinates.
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