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Study Resources (Statistics)

Multiple-Choice Questions   1.When writing the research report, the findings of statistical analyses are typically reported in the ______ section. a.review of literature b.method c.results d.         discussion   2.When writing the research report, the descriptions of instruments used for data gathering are typically included in the ______ section. a.introduction b.method c.results d.discussion   3.When writing the research report, the interpretation of study findings is.
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  Essay Questions   17.Describe three benefits of conducting a thorough review of existing literature before writing a research proposal.   18.Kirby is conducting a literature review in preparation for his study of “expectations regarding the sharing of financial and practical responsibilities among married and cohabiting couples in which both partners are between the ages.
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    11. In a decision-making under risk scenario, the expected monetary value of a decision alternative is the arithmetic average of the payoffs to the decision alternative in each state of the nature. 12. In a decision-making under risk scenario, the expected monetary value of a decision alternative is the weighted average.
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  11.Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool children.  Separately, they each watch a videotape of four children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on the level of aggression displayed during the play session.  They compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they are highly.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.Generally speaking, the best time to begin the literature review associated with a specific research project is: a.after the research problem has been clearly articulated. b.after the data have been collected, but before they are analyzed. c.based on personal preference; there is no single best time. d.before or during the formulation of the.
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    21. The value of sample information is the difference between the expected monetary value with information to the expected monetary value without information. Multiple Choice 22. In a decision analysis problem, variables (such as investing in common stocks or corporate bonds) which are under the decision maker’s control are called _________. a) payoffs b).
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  11.If a researcher has completed a thorough search of the World Wide Web: a.the literature search can be concluded. b.it may also be fruitful to search an electronic database. c.it may also be fruitful to search the Internet. d.he/she will find largely redundant information on an electronic database.   12.The main purpose of the review of.
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    51.               Ray Crofford is evaluating investment alternatives to invest $100,000 which he inherited from his grandfather.  His investment advisor has identified four alternatives and constructed the following payoff table which shows expected profits (in $10,000's) for various market conditions.   Market Condition Investment Bull Neutral Bear T-Bills 3 3 3 Stocks 21 11 -30 Bonds 15 4 -3 Mixture 13 6 -10 For the 'T-Bills' and 'Bonds' choices, the indifference value of.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.  Mixed-methods research is characterized by the use of a.  More than one qualitative method b.  More than one quantitative method c.  Quantitative, qualitative, and action research methods d.  Quantitative and qualitative methods   2.Which of the following is the major advantage of mixed-methods research? a.It provides unlimited opportunities to collect data b.It requires a researcher to.
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  18.Issues of feasibility are central to a well-planned research project.  Discuss how feasibility issues come into play when choosing the measurement instruments or techniques.   19.There are unique challenges associated with conducting research on data that are already in existence (e.g., historical research).  Discuss some of these unique challenges, pointing out pitfalls.
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    Essay Questions   18.A goal of qualitative research is to uncover the “multiple truths” that characterize any complex phenomenon or situation.  What does the term “multiple truths” refer to in this usage?   19.A fundamental pitfall in qualitative research is to confuse the actual observations with the interpretation of the observations.  Why is it.
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    61. The expected monetary value without information is $2,500, and the expected monetary payoff with perfect information is $5,000.  The expected value of perfect information is ____________. a) $7,500 b) $2,500 c) $1,500 d) $2,000 e) $1,250 62.               The expected monetary value without information is $60, and the expected monetary payoff with perfect information is.
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    Essay Questions   33.Professor Parsnip wants to know more about the mental process students go through as they learn about research methods.  She also wants to know which instructional methods are most effective for teaching research methods to her students.  Assume that Professor Parsnip decides to take a qualitative approach to studying.
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  True/False 1. In a decision analysis problem, variables (such as general macroeconomic conditions) which are not under the decision maker’s control are called prior probabilities. 2. In a decision analysis problem, variables (such as investing in common stocks or corporate bonds) which are under the decision maker’s control are called decision alternatives. 3..
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  Essay Questions   22.A medical researcher is concerned about mistakenly concluding that a new medication is effective when it really is not.  What type of error is the researcher concerned about making (Type I or Type II)?  Describe what the researcher might do to decrease the likelihood of making that type of.
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  61.Jake Flanaghan, Vice President for inpatient pharmacy, at Great Atlantic Medical Center, is designing a c chart to monitor the number of inpatient medication errors that occur each month.  The total number of medication errors for January – December last year was 37.  The centerline for Jake's c chart is.
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    41.Trey Leeman, Operations Manager at National Consumers, Inc. (NCI), is evaluating alternatives for increasing capacity at NCI’s Fountain Hill plant. He has identified four alternatives, and has constructed the following payoff table which shows payoffs (in $1,000,000's) for the three possible levels of market demand.   Market Demands Alternative Low Medium High Lease New Equipment -0.5 2 4 Purchase New Equipment -3 0.5 6 Add.
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  Essay Questions   22. Your chapter states: “Research is, by its nature, cyclical or, more exactly, helical.”  Explain why “cyclical” is an appropriate description of the research process.  Then explain why “helical” is a better description.   23.Describe an example of the word research being used inappropriately.  Be clear about how your example deviates.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.In qualitative research the ______ is the most important instrument. a.questionnaire b.behavior checklist c.researcher d.participant   2.In qualitative research, the fact that the research methodology may be vaguely described or very general in nature at the outset of the study indicates: a.a normal and acceptable practice. b.that the study is poorly designed. c.that the researcher is inexperienced. d.a common.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.Experimental research differs from descriptive research in that it: a.is less sensitive to sampling bias. b.employs statistical analyses. c.attempts to determine causality. d.is conducted in a laboratory.   2.In experimental design, the variable that is manipulated is the: a.dependent variable. b.independent variable. c.confounding variable. d.constant.   3.In experimental design, the variable that reflects the outcome of the treatment is the: a.dependent variable. b.independent.
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B. Multiple Choice Items 1-1. The inherent fallacy in the argument that capital punishment is not a deterrent (since pockets were being picked even at the public hanging of a pickpocket) is that a. pickpockets were never hanged b. you can't compare groups of unequal sizes c. there was no comparison or control group d. you can't.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.  How are inferential statistics different from descriptive statistics? a.  Descriptive statistics allow one to draw inferences from the sample to a target population. b.  Descriptive statistics verify the accuracy of the inferential statistics. c.  Inferential statistics describe the results of a study. d.  Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the.
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    71.               Ray Crofford is evaluating investment alternatives for the $100,000 which he inherited from his grandfather.  His investment advisor has identified two alternatives and constructed the following tables which show (1) expected profits (in $10,000's) for various market conditions and their probabilities, and (2) the advisor's track record on.
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    Essay Questions   20.A researcher is studying the effectiveness of two different resident adolescent drug treatment programs.  Program A is used at Summerhill adolescent facility.  Program B is used at Winterdale adolescent facility.  Because random assignment to treatments is not possible in this situation, what can the researcher do to minimize possible.
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  11.When the ____ is the measure of central tendency, the _____ is the most appropriate and informative measure of dispersion. a.median; standard deviation b.median; interquartile range c.mean; interquartile range d.mean; range   12.An exam was given to two sections of the same course.  In Section 1, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was.
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      Essay Questions   13.   In the textbook the authors suggest that using mixed-methods designs is helpful for accomplishing completeness of the inquiry.  Explain the meaning of this statement.   14.   It is important to decide how to integrate quantitative and qualitative findings in interpretation of these findings.  Your textbook refers to two possible ways.
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  31.Which of the following is not a quality control diagnostic technique? a) c control chart b) 14 points b) Flowchart c) Scatter diagram d) control chart e) cause-and-effect diagram 32.According to the following Pareto chart, the most common complaint was ______. a) user interface b) speaker quality c) camera d) size e) all of the above 33. According to the following.
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          Essay Questions   16.In regard to quantitative research proposals, novice researchers often find it very challenging and tedious to explain in detail how the data will be analyzed and interpreted in their study.  Explain why it is essential that the researcher not cut corners in this section of the proposal.   17.Issues of feasibility.
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  Essay Questions   18.Your chapter identifies several weaknesses related to survey data.  Note one of these weaknesses and discuss the associated problems and possible ways to minimize them.   19.In writing the cover letter to accompany a mailed survey, novice researchers often stress the immediacy of their need for the data.  Is this the.
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  11.Penny Poodle wanted to know which dog obedience training program was more effective: Puppy Pride, the approach she has been using for many years, or Doggie Do-Right, a new approach.  Penny convinced 50 human companions of untrained dogs to participate in her study.  The dogs and their humans were randomly.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.To be considered true research, a project must: a.gather together a body of existing information and communicate it in a clear and concise way. b.uncover obscure or esoteric information and bring it to the consideration of the broader research community. c.gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as to increase understanding.
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  11.The typical return rate for a survey mailed to strangers is about: a.80% b.65% c.50% d.35%   12.In descriptive research, the researcher typically studies a______, then draws conclusions about the______. a.sample; population b.population; sample c.sample; sample d.population; population   13.Polly Petunia is Chief Horticulturalist for the Southwest region, encompassing Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas.  She wants to survey amateur gardeners in her.
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  Essay Questions   15.One of the most challenging aspects of conducting historical research is systematically organizing the hundreds or thousands of notes that are collected in the course of the research project.  Describe one method for handling this organizational challenge, including mention of both the strengths and weaknesses of the approach.   16.Conducting rigorous.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.Historical research is chiefly concerned with: a.the study of history. b.the meaning of past events. c.creating an accurate chronology of past events. d.determining an “official” interpretation of a historical event.   2.Historical research may include: a.qualitative, but not quantitative, methods. b.quantitative, but not qualitative, methods. c.both qualitative and quantitative methods. d.neither qualitative nor quantitative methods.   3.To a historical researcher studying.
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  11. A schematic representation of all the activities and interactions that occur in a process is called a flowchart. 12. A Pareto chart is a diagnostic tool that displays possible causes of a quality problem and the interrelationships among the causes. 13. A control chart is used to control the flow of.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.According to the textbook, the most effective research proposals: a.are a brief outline of the study you intend to conduct without an excess of detail. b.justify the study to be conducted by explaining how it will contribute to the professional literature. c.are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research problem and methodology. d.include.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.Observational research, as a form of descriptive research, a.focuses on rich narrative description of the phenomenon of interest. b.involves counting or rating of behavior in as objective a manner as possible. c.relies on open-ended techniques that can respond to the evolving situation. d.allows the researcher to gather behavioral data in a relatively quick.
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  Essay Questions   22.Why is it important that the researcher articulate, as clearly as possible, all assumptions that affect the research problem?   23.Your textbook authors recommend explicitly defining any term that might be misunderstood by someone reading the research proposal.  If the research proposal is being written chiefly for use and review by.
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    Essay Questions   14.Throughout your textbook the authors return to the importance of interpreting the findings of a research project.  Explain why this is an essential element in a high-quality research report.   15.Imagine that you just completed a research project in which the data failed to support your chief hypothesis.  Why might this.
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  11.“What is the correlation between an index of civic-mindedness and years of involvement in local organizations and charities among members of city councils of selected midsized cities in the northeastern United States?” The chief weakness of this research problem is that: a.it implies only description of the data, not interpretation. b.it does not.
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    True/False 1. One definition that captures the spirit of most quality efforts in the business world is that quality results when a product delivers what is stipulated for it in its specifications. 2. Quality control is the collection of strategies, techniques, and actions taken by an organization to assure itself that.
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  11.One indication that a piece of information is of high quality is that the information: a. is found on the Internet. b.is found in a juried (or refereed) research report. c.resulted from a project that received corporate funding. d.is the firsthand account of a personal experience.             12.A ______ is a specific mechanism or strategy the.
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  11. Richard Relic is carefully examining writings from the time of the U.S. Civil War to determine how each side characterized the position of their opponent.  Dr. Relic is probably employing a ______ methodology. a.case study b.grounded theory c.phenomenological d.content analysis           12.The constant comparative method of data analysis is most associated with: a.ethnography. b.phenomenology. c.grounded theory. d.content analysis.   13.The technique.
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  21. According to Garvin, transcendent quality implies that a product __________. a) conforms to design and engineering specifications b) has an innate excellence c) has no measurable attributes d) is fit for the consumer's intended use e) has measurable attributes 22.According to Garvin, product quality is ____________________. a) value perceived by the customer b) an innate excellence.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.Research problems, as defined in your textbook: a.are identified by experts in the field, and not typically knowable by novices. b.clearly and completely specify important questions that are currently unanswered in a particular field of inquiry. c.are broad, general statements about the incomplete state of understanding in a particular field of inquiry. d.can.
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Multiple-Choice Questions   1.A good research plan, according to your textbook, includes: a.specific procedures and data sources, but does not lock the researcher into an analysis plan. b.initial procedures and key data sources, but is also open to modification as the project progresses. c.a specific plan regarding data sources and analyses, although information regarding the.
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