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11.What kinds of neurons are most commonly found in the brain? a.sensor neurons b.motor neurons c.dissociation neurons d.interneurons 12.What is it called when a neuron fires? a.synapsing b.excitation c.inhibition d.an action potential 13.A neuron has a resting potential of __________. a.– 70 mV b.0 mV c.+ 30 mV d.+ 170 mV 14.A __________ is NOT a type of cell. a.synapse b.receptor c.effector d.interneuron 15.When an action potential moves down a.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1.The student of mental activity and thinking, broadly conceived, is called __________. a.cognitive science b.mind science c.cognitive studies d.mind studies 2.When did the cognitive revolution occur? a.early 1970s b.late 1950s c.late 1850s d.mid-1940s 3.Memory does NOT involve __________. a.a mental storage system b.acquiring information c.complex decision making d.mental processes 4.The mental process of acquiring and retaining information for later retrieval is __________. a.cognition b.memory c.planning d.forecasting 5.Cognition does.
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71.  __________ is the practice of ending the life of people with incurable illnesses or terminal diseases. a.  Euthanasia b.  Palliative care c.  Advanced medical directive d.  Somatic death 72.  Active, passive, and physician-assisted are three types of a.  euthanasia. b.  palliative care. c.  advanced medical directives. d.  hospice care. 73.  The practice of withholding life-sustaining treatment so that.
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  Fill in the Blank/Short Answer: 101.A disruption of one mental process, but not others, as a result of brain damage is called a(n) ____________. 102.              What sort of effect is needed to show that two neurological processes are independent? 103.For a neuron, information may come in the ____________ and out the.
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41.Which lobe of the cortex is most important for vision? a.frontal b.parietal c.occipital d.temporal 42.Which lobe of the cortex is most important for memory? a.frontal b.parietal c.occipital d.temporal 43.What is the name of the numbering system used to identify different locations in the cortex? a.Brodmann’s areas b.The American Cortical Numeration (ACN) c.Freud’s index d.Catalog of Cortical Areas 44.The receptive and control centers for one side.
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21.Discontinuity in vision refers to __________. a.color opponent processing b.the attentional role of temporal persistence c.the belief that “things” shoot out of our eyes to help us see things d.the fixation–saccade cycle of visual uptake 22.A lightning strike produces visual persistence due to __________. a.continued retinal activity of the receptor cells b.the span of apprehension c.the iconic sensory.
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Essay Questions 183.  When a sample of college students and children were both asked the question, “Can a dead person become alive again,” 55 percent of the college students said, “No,” while 93 percent of the children said, “No.” Explain how these results could have occurred.  184.  List five ways that.
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121. _________is the combination of emotional, behavioral, and physiological reactions to the death of someone.  a.  Mourning b.  Bereavement c.  Grief d.  Mortality 122.  ___________ refers to the loss of a significant person by death, while ___________is the combination of emotional, behavioral, and physiological reactions to the death of someone.  a.  Mourning; bereavement b.  Bereavement;.
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187.  Describe the syndrome of imminent death, including five of the signs and when death usually occurs after these signs appear.  188. According to Medicare, many elderly cancer patients are still being treated aggressively with chemotherapy within the last month of their death and/or were scheduled for additional treatments within.
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61.Which neuroimaging technique uses x-rays to measure brain structure? a.CT scan b.MRI scan c.fMRI scan d.PET scan 62.What does an MRI scan use magnetic fields to measure? a.brain structure b.blood flow c.electrical activity d.personality characteristics 63.Which neuroimaging technique uses magnetic fields to measure brain structure? a.CT scan b.MRI scan c.fMRI scan d.PET scan 64.Which neuroimaging technique provides good “when” information but not very good “where”.
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41.__________ wrote a review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior. This review clearly illustrated the shortcomings of the behaviorist account of language. a.Descartes b.James c.Watson d.Chomsky 42.The cognitive manifesto is associated with __________. a.Thorndike b.Chomsky c.Sperling d.Bartlett 42. The essence of Chomsky’s review of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior book was that __________. a.Skinner failed to supply an adequate computer model of verbal learning b.Skinner relied.
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31.  Specific criteria for brain death differ around the world, but typical laws require physicians to document a lack of brain activity on more than one occasion in which of the following areas of the brain? a.  the higher brain regions of the cerebral cortex b.  the mid-brain regions c.  the lower.
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61.In terms of the flow of information processing, ___________ is an influence of environmental factors on thought, whereas ____________ is an influence of prior conceptions or expectations on thought. a. bottom-up processing; top-down processing b. top-down processing; bottom-up processing c. reality-based processing; imagination-based processing d. imagination-based processing; reality-based processing 62.What of the following is NOT.
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  Fill in the Blank/Short Answer:   81.The interdisciplinary development of cognitive psychology is called _______. 83.__________ is the mental processes of acquiring and retaining information for later retrieval and the mental storage system that enables the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval. 85.____________ is the scientific study of human memory and mental.
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Multiple Choice Questions: 1.What is the name of the part of the eye that converts light to neural impulses? a.cochlea b.iris c.retina d.lens 2.Items presented 20 degrees off centerline, in the right visual field, __________. a.will be processed by only the right eye and then initially processed in the brain by the occipital lobe in the left.
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51.Which of the following is a model of visual processing using the elements of feature detection? a.PDP b.Pandemonium c.RBC d.template theory 52.Which area of the brain is where feature detection begins? a.ventral pathway b.cingulate gyrus c.V1 d.T3 53.What type of processing is area V1 specialized for? a.feature detection b.geon processing c.object mapping d.common fate tracing 54.What aspect of perception does the Pandemonium model illustrate? a.Geons are.
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91.The cerebral cortex is wrinkled in order to increase the surface area in a small volume. 92.“Language on the left” refers to contralaterality. 93.The different areas of the cortex are specialized for different kinds of neural computation. 94.Each hemisphere of the brain is a single sheet of neural tissue; the.
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31.Span of apprehension is __________. a.how long a person can retain information in iconic memory b.the number of items recallable after any short display c.the finding that it is easier to perceiving thing within reaching distance d.the finding that it is easier to perceive things that we understand 32.Sperling’s studies in visual apprehension revealed that.
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31.The top layer of the brain, responsible for higher-level mental processes, is __________. a.neocortex b.brainstem c.corpus callosum d.parietal lobe 32.The part of the brain responsible for governing functions such as digestion, heartbeat, and breathing is the __________. a.cerebellum b.parietal lobe c.corpus callosum d.brainstem 33.The structure known as the “gateway to the cortex” is the __________. a.thalamus b.brainstem c.hippocampus d.fissure of Rolando 34.The primary bridge across.
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131. Which of the following is/are TRUE regarding the evolutionary explanation of the purpose of grief? a.  Some evolutionary scientists have speculated that sad reactions to an individual leaving prevent social networks from being rapidly rearranged to accommodate their absence. b.  Grief is a part of an attachment system that maintains.
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197.  When people live in a multicultural society, why are they more likely to feel uncomfortable or to even avoid people in mourning and how can this discomfort be eliminated? 198. List and describe the four components of all grief reactions.  199.  According to the evolutionary perspective, what purpose does grieving.
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71.Overall, behaviorism contributed in a positive manner to the development of many tools we use when investigating topics in cognitive psychology. 72.The study of aggression was a major contributor to the paradigm shift away from behaviorism. 73.The information-processing approach is a general model of human memory and cognitive systems. 74.The concept.
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81.Which technique uses electrical impulses to assess brain functionality? a.direct stimulation b.lesioning c.ERP induction d.the Penfield withdrawal technique 82.What is a way to study how different brain structures influence cognition without studying people with lesions or other kinds of brain damage? a.narcotics b.stimulants c.psychotropics d.special populations 83.__________ is a computer-based technique for modeling complex systems in which knowledge is represented.
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189.  Describe hospice care, including its philosophy, the type of care and services provided, where it occurs, and the types of specialists involved.  190. Although families rated hospice care more favorably than other alternatives for level of patient comfort, patient respect, and attending to the needs of the family, why.
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41.  Which of the following is/are TRUE regarding the controversial issues of brain death? a.  Some ethicists hope that the criteria for legal death will be changed to allow physicians to harvest organs from patients who have brainstem activity but no evidence of consciousness or thinking. b.  Some ethicists worry that.
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21.Hermann Ebbinghaus was the first person to systematically study __________. a.perception b.attention c.problem solving d.memory 22.Edward Titchener believed __________. a.that nothing worthwhile would come of studying mental processes b.that mental illness, educational applications, and social psychology were “impure” because they could not be studied using introspection c.that the appropriate goal for psychology was the objective assessment of association.
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Multiple Choice Questions: 1.Neurologically, a dissociation is when __________. a.one component of mental functioning is disrupted, but others are not b.the activities of the mind can be separated from those of the body c.different neural processes operate separately d.neuroimaging can be isolated from neurophysiology 2.When there is a disruption of one mental process (but not others).
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111. Erick is a thanatologist who is studying the culturally prescribed ways of behaving and expressing feelings after the death of a loved one. Eric is studying a.  mourning. b.  bereavement. c.  grief. d.  palliative customs. 112.  Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding mourning among different cultures? a.  All cultures have funeral rituals.
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101.  Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the stages proposed by Kubler-Ross? a.  Kubler-Ross said that people could show signs of two or three stages simultaneously or in rapid succession. b.  Most people progress through Kubler-Ross’s stages in a fixed sequence from denial to acceptance. c.  Critics of Kubler-Ross’s stages.
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81.  A document that specifies the wishes for health care in the event an individual is too ill to make those decisions is known as  a.  an advance medical directive. b.  palliative care. c.  an advanced court order. d.  a “do not resuscitate” clause. 82.  Two types of advance medical directives are  a.  “durable.
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51.The __________ is the part of the brain responsible for processing touch information from throughout the body. a.occipital lobe b.cerebellum c.sensory cortex d.motor cortex 52.The __________ is the part of the brain responsible for processing voluntary movement information for throughout the body. a.occipital lobe b.cerebellum c.sensory cortex d.motor cortex 53.Mirror neurons are active when __________. a.a person performs an action b.a person.
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21.What is the name of chemicals that accentuate or diminish the effects of neurotransmitters? a.neuromodulators b.magnifiers c.diminishers d.proto-neurotransmitters 22.What is acetylcholine an important neurotransmitter for? a.creating new neurons b.memory enhancement c.slowing the spread of neural activity d.mammals 23.What of the following is an excitatory neurotransmitter that is important for memory formation? a.dendrition b.magnesium c.glutamate d.GABA 24.What of the following is an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is.
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51.  When a dying person is near death, he or she may report seeing visions of people who are not present, which is referred to as    a.  terminal delirium. b.  thanalogical decline. c.  delusional paranoia. d.  the delirium tremors. 52.  Older persons may show signs of mental confusion when      a.  their sodium levels are.
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11.Rapid movement of the eye is __________. a.saccade b.smooth pursuit c.fixation d.foveation 12.What is a saccade? a.a visual neural signal b.a visual fixation c.a smooth eye movement d.a rapid eye movement 13.During __________, the eye is held steady and visual information is gathered. a.saccade b.smooth pursuit c.fixation d.foveation 14.What is a fixation? a.a visual neural signal b.a period when the eye is not moving c.a smooth eye movement d.a.
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71.Which part of an ERP recording indicates surprise, incongruence, or unexpectedness? a.P600 b.N400 c.all of it d.none of it: ERPs record baseline activity only. 72.What is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) used for? a.altering brain structure b.changing blood flow levels c.altering electrical activity d.reducing neurogenesis 73.Which neuroimaging technique uses magnetic fields to disrupt normal electrical activity in the brain? a.CT scan b.MRI scan c.ERP.
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51.Which of the following is NOT part of the “standard theory”? a.long-term memory b.sensory register c.STM/working memory d.explicit memory 52.In cognition, STM almost always refers to __________. a.sensory terminal memory b.short-term memory c.salience to me d.standard theory of memory 53.The act of taking in information and converting it to a usable mental form is __________. a.STM b.connectionism c.retrieval d.encoding 54.What is a way of making.
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61. Hospice care provides a.  for the emotional and spiritual needs of the patient. b.  after-death emotional support for family members. c.  palliative care. d.  all of these. 62. Hospice care is implemented in  a.  a special facility. b.  a nursing home. c.  individual homes. d.  all of these. 63. Currently, the most common option for hospice care.
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41.Which Gestalt principle would be best for determining the shape of two overlapping objects? a.good continuation b.resolution c.proximity d.focus 42.Which of the following is NOT a Gestalt grouping principle? a.reduction b.good continuation c.proximity d.closure 43.Which of the following is a Gestalt grouping principle in which an object is visually separated from its environment? a.reduction b.figure–ground c.proximity d.closure 44.Which of the following is a Gestalt grouping.
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31.The behaviorist manifesto is associated with __________. a.Hull b.Watson c.Skinner d.Tolman 32.__________ believed that observable, quantifiable behavior is the proper topic of psychology, not the fuzzy and unscientific concepts of thoughts, mind, and consciousness. a.Wundt b.Watson c.Ebbinghaus d.James 33.Neobehaviorism differs from behaviorism in __________. a.allowing the scientific study of observable behavior b.allowing introspective methodologies c.incorporating psychophysiological measures d.allowing unobserved mediating variables 34.Which was NOT a.
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161.  List four signs of the syndrome of imminent death.  162.  What is terminal delirium and when does it occur?    163.  Name two other reasons, besides the syndrome of imminent death that could cause an older person to show signs of mental confusion and to withdraw socially.       164.  What type.
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91.  In her most famous work, ____________, Kubler-Ross concluded that terminally ill people often progress through five stages as they face death. a.  Choosing Palliative Care b.  As I Lay Dying c.  On Death and Dying d.  Death with Dignity 92.  Denial and isolation, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance are the five stages that.
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11.If something is generalizable to real-world situations, it __________. a.is pragmatic b.acquires an air of confidence c.has ecological validity d.no longer is basic science 12.A person trying to understand complex events by breaking them down into their components is using __________. a.fragmentation b.reductionism c.a parsing approach d.distillation 13.Who said, “I think, therefore I am”? a.Rene Descartes b.William James c.Aristotle d.Immanuel Kant 14.Empirical observations are those.
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