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Study Resources (Political Science)

True/False 1. Most gangs are well organized.  2.  The most common gang behavior is hanging out.  3.  Organizing gangs by their dominant criminal behavior offers extensive insight into the group.  4. A clique structure can be age-graded. 5. All gangs have role differentiation.  6. Vertical/hierarchical leadership patterns are most often found.
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True/False 1. The National Youth Gang Survey finds that most gangs are Hispanic.  2.  The Watts Riots helped to solidify Hispanic gangs. 3.  Hispanic gangs are more likely than black gangs to engage in fighting and graffiti.  4. Black-Americans formed the first “modern” street gangs. 5. It is believed that MS-13.
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True/False 1. Prison gangs develop and stay in prison.  2. Prison gangs are also known as security threat groups.  3. We have extensive knowledge about the extent of prison gangs.  4. Street gangs have a prominent presence in prison due to importation. 5.  The proliferation hypothesis suggests that gangs develop as.
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11.  There is a strong comorbidity between schizophrenia and substance ________. 12.  Infusion of the stress hormone ________ into the VTA can result in drug relapse. 13. Opiate receptors in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) are responsible for the ________ caused by opiate drugs. 14. The ________ plays a key role in producing.
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True/False 1. The public health model offers a beneficial framework for understanding gang prevention.  2. Secondary prevention focuses on rehabilitation and redirecting delinquency. 3.  Communities often initial deny they have a gang problem.  4. The Community Mobilization Model provides a framework for developing local gang strategies. 5. GREAT is an example.
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True/False 1. Male gang member accounts give an accurate portrayal of female gang member experiences.  2. Many researchers find that female gang membership has remained relatively stable over time.  3.  The age of female gang joining is the same as it is for males.  4. An independent gang is exclusively female.
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Fill-in 1. A(n) ____________________ gang displays evidence of organizational sophistication in its leadership structure, membership, codes, and criminal involvement. 2. A(n) ___________ gang is an informal group that is recognized by communities and displays developing organization in leadership and membership. 3. Societal issues, such as poverty, racism, and discrimination or conflict.
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Fill-in 1. Strain that develops when an individual is unable to achieve societal goals though sanctioned institutionalized means is known as ____________. 2.  A cohesive community that is an effective agent of social control has ___________. 3. _ are a distinct set of values that are emphasized and persistent in the.
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Fill-in 1. A gang-_________ crime has its’ motive based within the gang.  2. A gang-_________ crime is any crime committed by a gang member.  R3. A definition of gang that includes crime in its’ definition is considered a _______ definition.  4. A definition of gang that emphasized group process, without including.
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Fill-in 1. ____________ is Spanish for neighborhood.  2.  Hispanic gangs adopt a culture that is outside of mainstream society known as the _________ subculture.  3. American Indian youth have been exposed to gangs due to ____________.  4. Alliances of gangs, such as the People and Folks, are known as __________. 5..
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Fill-in 1. _______________ offending refers to the involvement in several types of criminal activities with little specialization. 2.  is the cycle of violence that results when an initial act of violence instigates retaliation. 3. The _______________ model suggests that gang crime is the result of both an individual propensity for delinquent behavior and.
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  Fill-in-the-Blank Questions 1. In the opening vignette, John suffered from addiction to ________. 2. ________ abuse produces auto accidents, heart disease, and liver cirrhosis. 3. The active site of action of the marijuana is the ________ receptor. 4. The common aspect of all natural reinforcers relates to the release of ________ within the nucleus.
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91.  The risk of ________ may be increased in cannabis users. a. anxiety b. psychosis c. mania d. depression e. obesity 92.   Research on the genetics of drug dependence indicates that a. alcoholism and smoking are independent diseases. b. alcoholism and smoking share common genetic factors. c. smokers are high in status and achievement, but low in sensation seeking. d..
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Fill-in 1. The _____________ hypothesis implies that gangs develop in prison to alleviate the pains of imprisonment.  2. The ________________ hypothesis suggests that individual gang members bring their gangbanging lifestyle into prison.  3. The separation of inmates from the general inmate population is known as __________.    4. _______________ is when.
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71.    The drug rimonabant a. stimulates CB2 receptors in the brain. b. facilitates nicotine self-administration in rats. c. increases the release of dopamine with the nucleus accumbens. d. blocks nicotine receptors. e. diminishes craving for smoking during smoking cessation. 72.  Infusion of an inhibitory drug into the _______ would be expected to reduce nicotine self-administration.
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81.  Withdrawal from alcohol use leads to seizures, which may reflect a. damage to cholinergic cells in the hippocampus. b. an upregulation of GABA transmission in brain. c. facilitation of activity at NMDA receptors. d. release of GABA within the cerebellum. e. more long-term potentiation within the cortex. 82.  The anxiolytic effects of alcohol.
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61. The behavioral effects of amphetamine are due to a. the blockade of reuptake of dopamine. b. a change in transporter levels in the postsynaptic membrane. c. its ability to directly release dopamine from the terminal buttons. d. the blockade of reuptake of serotonin. e. its ability to directly release serotonin from the terminal.
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  Essay Questions 1. Explain how drugs of abuse may act via the same substrate engaged by natural rewards. 2.  Describe the changes in reward mechanisms that modulate the early reinforcing effects of drugs versus the later compulsive aspect of drug taking. 3. Compare and contrast negative reinforcement with punishment. 4.  Explain how the.
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True/False 1. Obligation recruitment occurs when applicants come to request membership. 2. Many times the initiation process is informal.  3. Elaborate initiation rituals in Chicano gangs are known as street marriages.  4. Peripheral members strongly identify with the gang but they are inconsistently involved in gang activities. 5. Tattoos are one.
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True/False 1.  An advantage of a positive definition of ‘gang’ is that it emphasizes crime as a necessary component of the group.  2. The definition of ‘gangs’ that is used by law enforcement tends to be the negative definition.  3. The positive-neutral definition of gang is important because it emphasizes the.
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Fill-in 1. A city with stable, intergenerational gangs, which have roots in the mid-20th century, is known as a ___________________.   2. A(n) ______________________ is a city with a gang problem that originated in the 1980’s due to economic plight as the result of deindustrialization. 3. The _________________________ is an annual survey.
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Multiple Choice 1. Which prevention strategy targets high-risk youth who have risk factors for gang joining and who may already be exposed to gangs? a. Primary prevention b. Secondary prevention c. Tertiary intervention d. Suppression intervention 2. What is the initial step in developing gang policy? a. Assessing the community. b. Implementing suppression efforts. c. Recognizing.
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Multiple Choice 1. What is the relationship between gang organization and criminal activities? a. Less organized gangs tend to be more criminal. b. More organized gangs tend to be more criminal. c. More organized gangs tend to be less criminal. d. There is no relationship between gang organization and criminal activity. 2.  What are.
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Multiple Choice 1. What riots increased cohesiveness of Hispanic youth groups? a. Watts Riots b. Rodney King Riots cd. Cholo Riots 2. Which Hispanic gang is the largest in Los Angeles County? a. Latin Kings b. MS-13 c. White Fence  d. 18th Street3.  What is the difference between Hispanic gangs and Black gangs? a. Hispanic gangs are.
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31.  The ________ plays a key role in the extinction of drug responding. a. orbitofrontal cortex b. ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) c.  hypothalamus d. hippocampus e. dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.   32.  Which of the following situations would be likely to induce the greatest craving in an alcoholic? a.talking to a friend who has just.
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True/False 1. It is important to understand that there is variation in gangs and gang members.      2.  Current economic conditions suggest that the gang problem will improve in the future.   3. As gangs continue to evolve they can become politically empowered.    4.  Many gangs are involved in political causes.      5..
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Fill-in 1. A(n) __________ gang has its own leadership structure, but tends to defer to a primary male gang. A 2. A(n) ____________ gang has no gender separation within the organization and everyone coexists in a gang that has one leadership structure. 3. Knowledge that is historically based on male-centered information, resulting.
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True/False 1. There were no significant contributions made in gang research during the second gang era of the 1920s. 2. The current/modern era of gangs is characterized by increased violence. 3. Chicago and Los Angeles are examples as an emerging gang city. 4. The National Youth Gang Survey is an example.
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Multiple Choice 1. Which recruitment technique relies on intimidation to recruit gang members? a. Fraternity recruitment b. Obligation recruitment c. Coercive recruitmentd. Facilitative recruitment 2. Which recruitment technique relies on community respect to recruit gang members? a. Fraternity recruitment b. Obligation recruitment c. Coercive recruitment d. Facilitative recruitment 3. What is the most common rite of passage into the gang?.
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Fill-in 1. __________________ is a gang reduction strategy that is tied to strengthening communities by fostering cooperation among key social institutions. 2. The movement of crime from one area to another to avoid harsher legal enforcement is known as ___________. 3. _________________ are high gang crime areas that are identified through.
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Multiple Choice 1.  What does history tell us about gangs? a. The ethnicity of gangs has remained stable throughout history. b. The current gang era shares few similarities with prior eras. c. The location of gangs has remained the same throughout history. d. The social experiences of gang members have remained stable throughout.
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Multiple Choice 1.  Family, school, and peer groups are what type of risk factors? a. Pull risk factors b. Individual risk factors c. Environmental risk factors d. Push risk factors 2. The desire to join a gang for money and protection would be considered what type of risk factor? a. Pull risk factorb. Individual risk factor c..
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Multiple Choice 1. Which definition of gang includes criminal behavior? a. The positive definition b.The negative definitionc. The neutral definition d. The group process definition 2. When is a tipping point reached? a.When a deviant peer group defines themselves as a gangb. When police identify a deviant group as a gang c. When crime is committed.
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True/False 1. Gang members have considerably higher levels of criminal behavior than nongang peers. 2. The selection model suggests that the gang fosters delinquent behavior among gang members. 3. Criminal behavior leads to gang member status because it is supported by the gang.  4.  There is much specialization in the criminal.
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True/False 1.  The high rates of crime in zones of transition are explained by strain theory.  2.  Status frustration theory suggests that the inability to measure up to the middle class measuring rod is a cause of gangs.  3. Areas with limited economic opportunity but access to illegitimate opportunity structures will.
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Multiple Choice 1. In which model would delinquency of a gang member be similar to other youth before joining the gang but increase upon entrance into the gang? a. The selection model b. The enhancement model c. The facilitation modeld. The delinquency model 2. In which model would the delinquency of a gang member.
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Fill-in 1. ________________ was the voter registration drive organized by the Black Gangster Disciples. 2. Temporary and stable relationships between gangs and political institutions are _______________. 3. ___________________ theory helps explain the idea that gangs give voice to oppressed minorities and can be potential revolutionary organizations. 4. As gangs continue.
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41.   Which of the following factors is a predictor of your risk for hospitalization for schizophrenia? a. your religious preference b. smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day c. whether you had served in the military d. consuming at least 10 diet drinks per day e. having a friend who developed schizophrenia 42.  A common.
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Fill-in 1. _________________ is the natural process of gang leaving that coincides with maturation. 2. ___________________ recruitment is often used to quickly increase gang membership.  3. _________ members only marginally identify with gang life. 4. Hard-core gang members who age and achieve a senior gang standing are known as ___________.  5. Gang.
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Multiple Choice 1. What is the connection between prison gangs and street gangs? a. All prison gangs are street gangs. b. Some street gangs overlap with prison gangs. c. All street gangs are prison gangs.  d. There is no connection between street and prison gangs. 2. What was the first known prison gang? a..
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True/False 1. The strongest predictor of gang membership is school performance.  2. Family disadvantage is an example of a push risk factor.  3. Deviant value systems are an example of pull risk factors. 4. Gang research finds support for social learning theory principles. 5. A General Theory of Crime specifies that.
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21.  Activation of neurons within the ________ appears to play a key role in the early reinforcing actions of drugs. a. thalamus b. nucleus accumbens c. amygdala d. dorsal striatum e. hippocampus 22. Volkow and colleagues, using an imaging technique, reported that release of dopamine in the ________ was increased by human exposure to drug-associated cues. a..
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Fill in 1.  is Hirschi’s social bond that refers to the connectedness to conventional others, allowing the internalization of societal norms to take place. 2. The unique persona of a gang member that results from growing up with limited resources is known as _________________________.  3. _________________ is the need to experience.
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11.  A person who is compelled to continue drug taking, despite adverse consequences, is said to suffer from a. addiction. b. psychic dependence. c. tolerance. d. physical dependence. e. euphoria. 12.  Match up the correct pairing of a drug with its site of action: a. cocaine; nicotinic ACh receptor agonist b. ethanol; release of norepinephrine c..
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51.  Match up the correct pairing of opiate receptor and opiate effect: a. mu; sedating b. delta; aversive c. kappa; aversive d. mu; aversive e. kappa; reinforcing 52.  Match up the correct pairing of opiate receptor and opiate effect: a. mu; sedating b. delta; aversive c. kappa; aversive d. mu; aversive e. mu; reinforcing 53.  Opiate receptors in.
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Multiple Choice 1. What term defines the cohesion that enables a community to be an effective agent of social control? a. Anomie b. Social disorganization c. Social embeddedness dCollective efficacy 2. What term describes the cumulative effect of joblessness, teenage pregnancy, female-headed families, welfare dependency, and crime? a. Anomie bSocial dislocationc. Social.
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Multiple Choice 1.  Gangs that have become an institution can be found in which type of city?  a. Persistent gang city b. Modern gang city c. Emerging gang city d. Chronic gang city 2.  How did gangs of the first era transition into conventional lifestyles? a. Through organized crime bThrough employment opportunities c. Through social programming.
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Multiple-Choice Questions 1. The major issue John faced in the opening vignette of the drug abuse chapter was ________ addiction. a. alcohol b. nicotine c. heroin d. cocaine e. food 2. Which of the following is a known negative consequence of alcohol addiction? a. fetal alcohol syndrome b. lung cancer c. stroke d. cirrhosis of the kidney e..
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Multiple Choice 1. What do early studies find regarding female gang membership? a. Females played a regular, active part of gang life. b. Female gang members had a sexualized role in gangs. c. Females regularly formed independent gangs. d. Females gang members were usually treated as equals by male gang members. 2. How does the age.
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