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46) The sedimentary rocks, salt and gypsum, are deposited by what process? 47) Which property of sediment describes the range of different grain sizes in a detrital sedimentary rock? 48) ________ is composed mainly of lithified, organic debris that accumulated in ancient, heavily forested swamps. 49) What is the general name for microcrystalline.
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Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern. 38) a. chert b. flint c. gypsum d. agate 39) Sandstones are lithified mainly by cementation. What is the major process involved in.
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SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern. 31) a. Modified Mercalli b. energy c..
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MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1. Match the rock with the appropriate description. 49) coarse-grained, metamorphic rock with alternating bands or stringers of light and dark minerals 50) foliated, fine-grained metamorphic rock formed from mudstone and shale 51) nonfoliated metamorphic rock consisting mostly of.
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6) Which of the following sedimentary features would typically be found in shales but not in sandstones? A) bedding B) mud cracks C) cross stratification D) ripple marks 7) Which one of the following is not a chemical sedimentary rock or evaporite? A) shale B) bedded gypsum C) oolitic limestone D) cherty dolostone 8) ________ is.
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6) The instrument that records earthquake events is termed a ________. A) polygraph B) seismograph C) barograph D) thermograph 7) Overall, this type of seismic wave is the most destructive. A) S wave B) tsunami C) surface wave D) P wave 8) ________ is the maximum possible damage designation on the Mercalli scale. A) XII.
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26) ________ have the highest velocities. A) Primary waves B) Secondary waves C) Refracted S waves D) Surface waves 27) The amount of destruction caused by earthquake vibrations is affected by ________. A) intensity and duration of the vibrations B) design of structures C) nature of the surface material D) all of these 28) The record.
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TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 38) At high pressures and elevated temperatures of regional metamorphism, silicate rocks are more resistant to flowage and deformation than at low temperatures and pressures. 39) Metamorphic rocks formed during episodes of mountain building typically show textural.
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60) The mineral dolomite, which is the major mineral of the sedimentary rock dolostone, is a carbonate of calcium and magnesium. 61) Clastic particles in a sedimentary breccia are rounded and are about the same size as fine-grained sand. 62) Boulder conglomerates suggest deposition by strong winds in a desert. 63) Water is.
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36) The ________ is the site of initial rupturing associated with an earthquake. 37) What is thought to be the material state (liquid, solid, gas) and elemental composition of Earth's outer core? Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases..
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SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 25) Which type of metamorphism occurs specifically in the heated zone around a pluton or other body of magma? 26) What strongly banded, metamorphic rocks show good evidence for having formed by partial melting? Word Analysis. Examine.
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30) What type of sedimentary rock is typically metamorphosed to form slates or phyllites? 31) What metamorphic rock forms by intense ductile deformation along fault zones at depth in the Earth? Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose.
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11) Which one of the following statements best describes erosion? A) Erosion is the disintegration and decomposition of rocks and minerals at the surface. B) Erosion is the process by which weathered rock and mineral particles are removed from one area and transported elsewhere. C) Erosion is the movement of weathered rock and.
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26) ________ sandstone contains abundant feldspar, suggesting that the sand was derived by weathering and erosion of granitic bedrock. A) Lignitic B) Quartz-rich C) Oolitic D) Arkosic 27) Coal beds originate in ________. A) shallow lakes in a dry, desert region B) freshwater coastal swamps and bogs C) channels of fast-moving streams D) deep,.
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1) What is the chemical formula for dolomite, the major mineral in dolostones? A) SiO2 B) CaSO4 ยท 2H2O C) CaMg(CO3)2 D) NaCl 2) What is probably the single most important, original, depositional feature in sedimentary rocks? A) sizes of the sand grains B) bedding or stratification C) compaction of the mud and clay.
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53) Like most other liquids, water decreases in volume when it freezes. 54) Feldspars commonly decompose during weathering to clay minerals, silica, and soluble constituents. 55) Sheeting is mainly a process of mechanical weathering. 56) Ferromagnesian minerals (like olivine and pyroxene) that crystallize at high temperatures in Bowen's reaction series are generally much.
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55) A feldspar-rich sandstone is called an arkose. 56) Graywacke sandstones are typically better sorted than sandstones lithified from ancient beach sands. 57) The chemical sedimentary rock, conglomerate, is composed of gravel-size, rounded, calcite oolites. 58) Peat is thought to be the original material from which coals are formed. 59) Many limestones are of.
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26) Under similar warm, moist climatic conditions, why would basalt and gabbro generally have higher chemical weathering rates than rhyolite and granite? A) The potassium feldspars and quartz in the rhyolite and granite are more susceptible to cracking by frost wedging. B) The ferromagnesian minerals in the gabbro and basalt are subject.
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51) Earthquakes result from the sudden release of elastic strain energy previously stored in rocks surrounding a zone of fault movement. 52) The crust, mantle, and outer core are solid. 53) The mantle is composed mainly of metallic iron with small amounts of magnesium silicate minerals. 54) The Mercalli earthquake magnitude scale is.
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16) The lithosphere is defined as ________. A) a rigid layer of crustal and mantle material B) a rocky layer composed mainly of crustal rocks C) a plastic layer composed mainly of mantle material D) a rocky layer having a relatively uniform chemical composition 17) The dense core of Earth is thought to consist predominantly.
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ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 53) What type of stress (pressure) is illustrated in diagram B above? 54) What type of stress (pressure) is illustrated in diagram A above? Critical thinking and discussion questions. Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented.
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11) The distance between a seismological recording station and the earthquake source is determined from the ________. A) arrival times of P and S waves B) length of the seismic record C) intensity of the earthquake D) earthquake magnitude 12) Which one of the following statements is correct? A) S waves travel through solids.
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11) During metamorphism, what is the major effect of chemically active fluids? A) They aid in the movement of dissolved silicate constituents and facilitate growth of the mineral grains. B) They increase the pressures in deeply buried, regional-metamorphic zones. C) They prevent partial melting so solid rocks can undergo very high temperature regional.
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16) A graywacke is ________. A) a sandstone with the sand grains embedded in a clay-rich matrix B) a dark, organic-rich, chemical sedimentary rock containing small crystals of halite C) a dark-gray, calcite-rich mudstone or shale containing pyrite D) a limestone with abundant, sand-sized, quartz grains 17) Which of the following is not a type.
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SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 29) Under most weathering conditions, which mineral component of granites and rhyolites would be most resistant to decomposition? Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority.
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21) Which of the following sedimentary features can each be used to determine paleocurrent directions? A) fossils and mud cracks B) grain size sorting and ripple marks C) mud cracks and ripple marks D) ripple marks and cross stratification 22) ________ is not a common cementing agent for sandstones. A) Quartz B) Fluorite C).
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TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 50) Detrital sedimentary rocks have clastic textures. 51) Chalk, coquina, and ancient coral reefs are primarily composed of microcrystalline quartz. 52) Detrital sedimentary rocks are classified according to clastic particle size; chemical sedimentary rocks are named according to.
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11) Which of the following sedimentary rocks would you expect to have originally been deposited by fast-moving streams? A) mudstone B) greywacke C) conglomerate D) oolitic limestone 12) Detrital grains of which mineral(s) are extremely rare in detrital sediments? Why? A) Feldspars; they occur only in granites. B) Calcite; it is soft and relatively.
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Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern. 42) a. limestone b. chert c. coquina d. travertine 43) What is the most characteristic, original, depositional feature preserved in sedimentary rocks? 44) What.
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36) Half Dome in Yosemite National Park, California, and Stone Mountain in Georgia, are shaped mainly by what mechanical weathering process? Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern. 37) a..
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SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. Word Analysis. Examine the words and/or phrases for each question below and determine the relationship among the majority of words/phrases. Choose the option that does not fit the pattern. 33) a. lithification b. cementation c. weathering.
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16) What is the major source of heat for contact metamorphism? A) heat from the spontaneous decomposition of micas and feldspars B) deep burial and heat from the Earth's interior C) heat from grinding and shearing on faults D) heat from a nearby magma body 17) Which of the following best describes the conditions of.
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21) Which one of the following statements about the crust is NOT true? A) Continental rocks are compositionally different than oceanic rocks. B) It is thickest where prominent mountains exist. C) It is the thinnest of the major subdivisions. D) Oceanic crust is enriched in potassium, sodium, and silicon. 22) The Mercalli Scale is a.
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16) Which of the following statements concerning oxisol soils is generally NOT true? A) They remain highly productive agriculturally without additions of fertilizers. B) They are mainly red in color. C) They consist of only the most insoluble, soil-forming minerals. D) They form in warm, moist, tropical climates. 17) Which one of the following statements.
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6) Amphibolite is a foliated metamorphic rock composed principally of hornblende and plagioclase. It forms ________. A) by regional metamorphism of volcanic rocks such as basalt B) by contact metamorphism of sandstone along the contact with a granitic batholith C) by gouging and crushing of limestone along a fault D) by the impact of.
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70) Considering the factors that influence the formation of sedimentary rocks, how might sedimentary rocks be different on another planet such as Mars or Venus? What about similarities? 71) The study of depositional environments in sedimentary rocks is critical to understanding Earth's history. What features or characteristics of sedimentary rocks are.
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ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. Critical thinking and discussion questions. Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in chapter 7 to answer the questions below. 68) Fossils often provide valuable information about climatic conditions of the geologic past. How else.
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56) Is the texture of a metamorphic rock always indicative of the conditions (degree of metamorphism) under which it formed? (Hint: Think about the protolith and how it may influence the resulting metamorphic rock.) Critical thinking and discussion questions. Use complete sentences, correct spelling, and the information presented in chapter 8.
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21) What foliated, metamorphic rock is texturally intermediate between slate and schist? A) fault breccia B) gneiss C) quartzite D) phyllite 22) In which setting would regional metamorphism be most likely? A) at shallow depths below an oceanic ridge or rift zone B) at great depths in the crust where two continents are colliding C).
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1) Which of the following environments would exhibit sheared and mechanically fragmented rocks? A) regional metamorphism of pyroclastic volcanic rocks B) intense compression in a deep-seated, regional metamorphic zone C) fault movements at shallow depths D) heating of shales and mudstones near a pluton 2) What major change occurs during metamorphism of limestone to marble? A).
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1) Major earthquakes are often followed by somewhat smaller events known as ________. A) hyposhocks B) tremors C) foreshocks D) aftershocks 2) P waves ________. A) have higher amplitudes than do S waves B) produce the strongest ground shaking C) propagate only in solids D) are faster than S waves and surface waves 3) The average composition.
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42) Slate and schist are both derived by metamorphism of shales and mudstones. 43) Hornfels are metamorphic rocks produced at great depths and high temperatures associated with regional metamorphism. 44) High-grade, regional metamorphism produces significant and recognizable changes in the textures and mineral compositions of rocks. 45) Calcite is the main mineral constituent.
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