Info
Warning
Danger

Study Resources (Geology)

23.3   True/False Questions 1) Without the cycling of water, biogeochemical cycles would cease. 2) Soil formation and soil characteristics have major influence on the processes of nutrient retention and release. 3) Flowing water aquatic systems (streams and rivers) contain high levels of organic matter so are rarely dependent on inputs from terrestrial.
39 Views
View Answer
11) Flowing-water ecosystems often alternate two different but related habitats: the turbulent ________ and the quiet pool. Answer:  riffle Topic:  Section 25.5 12) ________ fish are those that live most of their lives in marine environments and return to freshwater to spawn. Answer:  Anadromous Topic:  Section 25.5 13) Invertebrates that feed on the algal coating of.
62 Views
View Answer
11) Bacteria and fungi have higher C:N ratios than most of the plant litter they consume. 12) Soil organic matter contains recalcitrant compounds that are of low quality and contain little energy for decomposers. 13) Aerobic decomposition occurs at a faster rate than anaerobic decomposition. 14) The rate of nutrient cycling.
45 Views
View Answer
21.3   True/False Questions 1) When a chemical reaction results in the loss of energy from the system, the reaction is exothermic. 2) The second law of thermodynamics is valid only in a closed system, such as a living organism. 3) Productivity may be expressed in units of energy per unit area per unit.
44 Views
View Answer
11) Primary productivity in forests often increases during the early stages of stand development and then decreases again as the forest ages and standing biomass increases. 12) Secondary production in an ecosystem is always less than primary production. 13) In endotherms, an increase in mass-specific metabolic rate lowers production efficiency. 14) Primary producers.
44 Views
View Answer
21) Atmospheric sulfur dioxide returns to Earth in rain as weak sulfuric acid. 22) Oceans represent the largest natural source of sulfur gases released to the atmosphere. 23) Oxygen is taken up by plants during photosynthesis. 24) Most aerobic autotrophs produce and consume oxygen in order to live. 25) Undecomposed organic matter in the.
45 Views
View Answer
11) Ribbed mussels (Modiolus demissus), fiddler crabs (Uca spp.), and marsh periwinkles (Littorina spp.) are the dominant animals of a high salt marsh. 12) The roots of mangrove trees often have extensions called pneumatophores that facilitate oxygen absorption by the roots. 13) The environment surrounding the roots of mangrove trees provides a.
95 Views
View Answer
11) Samples of pollen taken from ________ cores in lake beds have allowed scientists to reconstruct the vegetation of many regions existing during the past 20,000 years. 12) Due primarily to drying from warmer temperatures, regions that could support tropical rain forests are expected to decrease by ________ percent. 13) ________ levels.
100 Views
View Answer
11) Nitrate is a commonly used chemical fertilizer that is harmless to human health. 12) In recent decades, the per capita land area under agricultural production has declined. 13) Increased pesticide use is one component of efforts toward sustainable farming practices today. 14) Selective cutting usually involves leaving a small number of seed-bearing.
107 Views
View Answer
30.3   True/False Questions 1) Humans are causing the first instances of significant climate change in Earth's history. 2) Greenhouse gases existed naturally in the atmosphere before the Industrial Revolution. 3) Deforestation causes a decrease in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. 4) The Earth's terrestrial ecosystems are net producers of carbon. 5) The thermocline causes most oceans.
98 Views
View Answer
11) Intertidal mud flats in tropical regions are typically composed of A) salt marshes. B) peatlands. C) mangrove forests or mangals. D) oysterbeds. 12) Mangrove swamps A) are formed by a single species of tree adapted to variable salinities. B) have relatively anoxic soils. C) occur mostly in temperate latitudes. D) typically occur along rocky coastlines subjected to heavy.
110 Views
View Answer
21) In hydrothermal vent communities, autotrophic organisms obtain energy by oxidizing A) reduced sulfur compounds. B) carbon dioxide. C) sodium chloride. D) metals such as copper and iron. Answer:  A Topic:  Section 25.11 22) The cells of reef-building corals are inhabited by symbiotic species of A) algae. B) fungi. C) bacteria. D) cyanobacteria. Answer:  A Topic:  Section 25.12 23) Coral reefs grow best where.
107 Views
View Answer
26.3   True/False Questions 1) Shoreline communities exhibit strong zonation. 2) On rocky shores, shallow pools produced by ebbing tides maintain the same temperature and salinity as the open ocean. 3) In tidal pools, carbon dioxide concentrations are higher during the day than during the night. 4) Most organisms in the intertidal zone of sandy.
109 Views
View Answer
16) Bioluminescence reaches its greatest development in the mesopelagic zone of an ocean. Answer:  TRUE Topic:  Section 25.10 17) The organisms responsible for the majority of primary production in marine environments are the copepods. Answer:  FALSE Topic:  Section 25.10 18) Because of the high pressure and cold temperatures, few species of organisms survive in the deep.
98 Views
View Answer
25.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following bodies of water best represents a lotic ecosystem? A) salt pond B) marsh C) oxbow lake D) stream Answer:  D Topic:  Introduction to Chapter 25 2) ________ are mountainous lakes that have been carved by glacial erosion and deposition. A) Marshes B) Oxbows C) Reservoirs D) Tarns Answer:  D Topic:  Section 25.1 3) In lakes.
58 Views
View Answer
6) Eutrophic lakes are typically clear, with little algal growth. Answer:  FALSE Topic:  Section 25.4 7) In rivers and streams, the invertebrates that scrape algae off rocks are referred to as shredders. Answer:  FALSE Topic:  Section 25.6 8) As a stream flows down its course, it generally becomes warmer and slower. Answer:  TRUE Topic:  Section 25.7 9) Most estuarine.
100 Views
View Answer
26.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The part of a rocky shore in which barnacles, oysters, mussels, limpets, and brown algae are most common is called the A) littoral or intertidal zone. B) infralittoral or subtidal zone. C) supralittoral or supratidal zone. D) superlittoral or supertidal zone. 2) In tidal pools, A) oxygen concentrations are usually higher during the.
106 Views
View Answer
29.3   True/False Questions 1) The mass extinction of dinosaurs and other animals at the end of the Cretaceous period is believed by most scientists to have been caused by massive volcanic activity causing an ice age. 2) The primary cause of modern extinctions is climate change. 3) Invasive plant species often outcompete native.
106 Views
View Answer
27.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The number of species of living organisms on the planet is probably closest to A) 100,000. B) 1,000,000. C) 10,000,000. D) 100,000,000. 2) Which of the following is the correct order of plant evolutionary appearance (geologically oldest to present date)? A) angiosperms, gymnosperms, psilopsids, pteriodophytes B) gymnosperms, angiosperms, psilopsids, pteriodophytes C) psilopsids, pteriodophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms D).
103 Views
View Answer
Chapter 25   Aquatic Ecosystems   25.1   Short Answer Questions 1) Classification of aquatic ecosystems is largely based on features of the ________ environment. Answer:  physical Topic:  Introduction to Chapter 25 2) The general term for flowing bodies of freshwater is ________. Answer:  lotic Topic:  Introduction to Chapter 25 3) Non-flowing water ecosystems, such as ponds and lakes, are also.
61 Views
View Answer
22.3   True/False Questions 1) Most of the nutrients in the leaves of a deciduous plant are lost from the plant when the leaves senesce and drop to the ground. 2) All heterotrophs to some degree function as decomposers. 3) Bacteria, fungi, and animals are all important in decomposition. 4) The physical fragmentation of organic.
45 Views
View Answer
21.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) According to the first law of thermodynamics, A) chemical reactions are exothermic. B) entropy tends to increase. C) potential energy tends to degrade into an unavailable form. D) energy is neither created nor destroyed. 2) Plants assimilate energy through the process of A) decomposition. B) respiration. C) photosynthesis. D) regeneration. 3) An ecologist studying productivity in.
45 Views
View Answer
11) Grasslands formerly covered 42 percent of the land surface of the Earth. 12) Grazing at moderate levels stimulates plant productivity in grassland systems. 13) Grazing ungulates are relatively common and burrowing rodents are relatively rare in temperate grasslands. 14) Deserts are typically hot throughout the year and rarely have freezing.
52 Views
View Answer
22.1   Short Answer Questions 1) ________ is the process by which plants absorb a portion of their nutrients from senescing tissues to be stored and used for the production of new tissues. 2) The breakdown of chemical bonds that were formed during the construction of plant and animal tissues is called ________. 3).
50 Views
View Answer
5) Which of the following is an example of natural sustainability? A) harvesting trees followed by replanting B) soil conservation practices on farmed land C) uptake of soil nutrients by plants following mineralization D) following fishing regulations to limit commercial catches 6) Different agricultural practices represent a trade-off between A) sustainability and economic growth. B) productivity and.
104 Views
View Answer
27.3   True/False Questions 1) All living species of organisms have now been described by scientists. 2) Over the past 100 million years, species richness has declined for gymnosperms and has increased for angiosperms. 3) Humans are responsible for more than 75 percent of all present-day extinctions since A.D.1600. 4) Species richness in both.
103 Views
View Answer
27.1   Short Answer Questions 1) Over the past 600 million years, the overall trend in the number of species has been ________. 2) A mass extinction of large mammals occurred during the ________ epoch. 3) As latitude increases, the number of terrestrial species ________. 4) As structural diversity within plant communities increases, the number.
107 Views
View Answer
11) Invertebrates that feed on coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), such as leaves that fall into streams and rivers, are referred to as A) shredders. B) gougers. C) grazers. D) collectors. Answer:  A Topic:  Section 25.6 12) As a stream or river descends, it generally grows A) faster and cooler. B) slower and warmer. C) faster and warmer. D) slower and.
52 Views
View Answer
24.1   Short Answer Questions 1) ________ is the study of the spatial or geographical distribution of organisms, both past and present. 2) A(n) ________ is a classification of plant formations and associated animal life into biotic units based on the predominant plant types, with at least eight major terrestrial types. 3) Leaves that.
49 Views
View Answer
21.1   Short Answer Questions 1) The heterotrophic component of the ecosystem is often subdivided into two subsystems: consumers and ________. 2) An ecosystem with inputs of matter and energy is a(n) ________ ecosystem. 3) A(n) ________ chemical reaction must absorb energy in order to proceed. 4) The ________ law of thermodynamics states that when.
48 Views
View Answer
11) The microbial loop results from A) fungal attack on litter and subsequent consumption by microbivores. B) leaching of litter that stimulates detritivores. C) enhanced decomposition of labile litter materials enhancing food web turnover. D) exudate release in the rhizosphere stimulating decomposition and nutrient release. 12) Aquatic arthropods that fragment organic particles and also.
42 Views
View Answer
30.1   Short Answer Questions 1) The absorption of thermal (long-wave) radiation emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere by naturally occurring chemical compounds in the atmosphere is a phenomenon referred to as the ________ effect. 2) The atmospheric concentration of ________ has increased by more than 25 percent in the past century,.
106 Views
View Answer
26.1   Short Answer Questions 1) All coastal shores have one feature in common: they are alternately exposed and submerged by the ________. 2) The ________ fringe occurs above the ocean along a rocky shoreline and is contacted by salt water only once every two weeks during spring tides. 3) The ________ zone of.
105 Views
View Answer
29.1   Short Answer Questions 1) Loss of a very large number of species in a relatively short time is called a(n) ________ extinction event. 2) The primary cause of current species extinctions is the destruction of ________. 3) The continent of ________ experienced the greatest annual loss of forest cover from 2000 through.
102 Views
View Answer
24.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The independent evolution of a similar characteristic in two species, not derived from a recent, common ancestor, is referred to as A) microevolution. B) divergent evolution. C) convergent evolution. D) macroevolution. 2) Distribution patterns of biomes can be determined based almost entirely on A) only mean annual temperature. B) both mean annual temperature.
45 Views
View Answer
23.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) In ecosystems, internal cycling is dominated by A) global nutrient turnover. B) wet and dry deposition. C) decomposition and biological uptake. D) photosynthesis and weathering. 2) In ________ biogeochemical cycles, the main reservoirs of nutrients are the atmosphere and the oceans. A) sedimentary B) gaseous C) aquatic D) terrestrial 3) Nutrients deposited on leaves as dust.
42 Views
View Answer
11) Campos, llano, and cerrado are all areas of A) tropical rain forest. B) tropical savanna. C) Mediterranean shrubland. D) desert. 12) The density of woody vegetation in a savanna is controlled through A) mean annual temperature. B) mean annual temperature, soil texture, and water-holding capacity. C) mean annual precipitation. D) mean annual precipitation, soil texture,.
56 Views
View Answer
30.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following gases in the atmosphere is not considered a greenhouse gas? A) carbon dioxide B) nitrogen C) water vapor D) ozone 2) Deforestation is a major cause of increased atmospheric concentrations of A) carbon dioxide. B) ozone. C) oxygen. D) chlorofluorocarbons. 3) Within the past century, the major source of carbon emissions into the.
104 Views
View Answer
22.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The rate of net primary productivity can be limited directly by the availability of A) organic nutrients in the soil solution. B) inorganic nutrients in the soil solution. C) organic carbon in the soil solution. D) inorganic carbon in the soil solution. 2) The process of decomposition releases ________ to bacteria and.
45 Views
View Answer
11) General circulation models predict stabilizing climates worldwide. 12) Warmed soils result in greater emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. 13) As a consequence of global climate change, plant and animal distributions will generally shift toward higher latitudes and elevations. 14) As a consequence of global climate change, human populations in low-lying.
105 Views
View Answer
11) Microbial decomposition of organic matter results in NH4+ production through a process called ________. 12) ________ is the most common form of nitrogen exported from terrestrial ecosystems in stream water. 13) Nearly all of the phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems comes from the ________ of calcium phosphate minerals. 14) In aquatic ecosystems, the.
56 Views
View Answer
24.3   True/False Questions 1) Broad categories of vegetation based on physical similarity of appearance were initially called formations. 2) Classification of the world's major terrestrial biomes is based on the dominant forms of plant life. 3) Similar climates produce similar vegetation structure around the world. 4) Deciduous leaves usually live for more than.
59 Views
View Answer
28.1   Short Answer Questions 1) Using a resource sustainably involves a balance between ________ and demand or consumption. 2) In forest harvest, the time between harvests is called the ________ period, or harvest interval. 3) The major reduction in size of the Aral Sea is an example of ________ resource use. 4) A(n) ________.
107 Views
View Answer
28.3   True/False Questions 1) For the exploitation of a resource to be sustainable, the consumption rate must be equal to or greater than the regeneration rate. 2) The concept of sustained yield applies to nonrenewable resources. 3) Some nonrenewable resources may be recycled, which extends the effective lifetime of a resource. 4) The vast.
107 Views
View Answer
21) Species characterized by a very high rate of population growth often lose much of their production due to high density-independent mortality. 22) One of the strengths of traditional models of sustainable harvest in fisheries is that they see stocks of fish species as components of a larger ecological system. 23) The.
110 Views
View Answer
29.2   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The mass extinction of dinosaurs and other animals at the end of the Cretaceous period is believed by most scientists to have been caused by A) a massive asteroid or comet impact. B) a massive volcanic eruption. C) gamma radiation released from a supernova explosion. D) overhunting by expanding populations of.
105 Views
View Answer
23.1   Short Answer Questions 1) The two basic types of biogeochemical cycles are gaseous and ________. 2) Precipitation brings appreciable quantities of nutrients into ecosystems that are collectively called ________. 3) Large quantities of nutrients are bound tightly in ________ structure; they are not readily available until released by the activities of decomposers..
54 Views
View Answer

Welcome Back!

ScholarOn has more then 20 Million answers, flashcards & more being added everyday!

or
Forgot?
Login
Don't have an account? Signup

Join ScholarOn

ScholarOn has more then 20 Million answers, flashcards & more being added everyday!

or
Signup
By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account? Log in

Verify Your Email

Check your inbox & click on the link to activate your account.

Resend Email
Verification Mail Send Successfully. Please Check Your Email.

Forgot Password

Please enter your registered email to recieve the password reset link.

Send reset link
Already have an account? Log in
Did you know?

ScholarOn has more than 2 Million+ answers, textbook solutions & flashcards. Explore Now!

Let us boost your grade together!