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Ethics Expert Answers & Study Resources : Page 3

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  5. Identify the major limitations of repeated measures designs. 6.  What is the difference between sequence effects and order effects? 7.  Why would counterbalancing help overcome problems of order effects? 8.  What is the difference between symmetric and asymmetric transfer? 9.  Suppose you wanted to compare students in two different classes, assessing whether research.

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  •   5. Identify the major limitations of repeated measures designs. 6.  What
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  ESSAY ITEMS (Starred questions appear in the text as study questions.) 1.  In terms of methods and conclusions, how do experiments differ from nonexperimental methods? 2.  Identify the three conditions that have to be met before we can determine causation. 3.  How does the logic of an experiment fulfill the criteria for establishing causation? 4. .

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  •   ESSAY ITEMS (Starred questions appear in the text as study questions.) 1. 
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51.  A study that looked at grades in a history class before and after students learned a memory technique would likely be a a.  static-group comparison design. b.  one-group pretest-posttest design. c.  nonequivalent control group design. d.  time series design. 52.  Which threat to internal validity is never a concern in the one-group pretest-posttest design? a. .

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  • 51.  A study that looked at grades in a history
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  ESSAY ITEMS (Starred questions appear in the text as study questions.) 1.  Why do we have to rely on operational definitions to study abstract hypothetical constructs? 2.  Why should we expect hypothetical constructs to be abandoned sometimes?  Why might the idea of emotional intelligence ultimately be an example? 3.  What is the difference between.

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  •   ESSAY ITEMS (Starred questions appear in the text as study questions.) 1. 
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8.  What is nonsampling error and why is it a problem in research? 9.  Identify and describe the major types of nonprobability sampling techniques. 10.  Why doesn’t the presence of measurement error indicate that a researcher has necessarily made a mistake in collecting data? 11.  Why is it important to distinguish between reliability.

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  • 8.  What nonsampling error and why it a problem in
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51.  Researchers who want to induce a mild, temporary form of depression in research participants often have those participants read a series of depressing statements.  Such participants often show the same cognitive behaviors as people who are clinically depressed.  These results suggest that this means of inducing “depression” shows a.  convergent.

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  • 51.  Researchers who want to induce a mild, temporary form
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21.  The test that lets you know whether you have a significant difference or differences among means but that doesn’t tell you which groups differ involves a.  planned comparisons. b.  post hoc comparisons. c.  the analysis of variance. d.  the Student’s t-test. 22.  If you created a research project using a factorial design, which statistical.

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  • 21.  The test that lets you know whether you have
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11.  In an experiment involving three independent variables, it is possible for the results to show a.  more than three main effects. b.  a factorial design. c.  higher order interactions. d.  extraneous variables. 12.  An interaction that involves more than two independent variables is called a a.  main effect. b.  participant effect. c.  logistic regression. d.  higher order interaction. 13. .

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  • 11.  In an experiment involving three independent variables, it possible
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6.  Why is it hard to make causal conclusions if an independent variable involves a subject (or participant) variable? 7.  Why don’t measured variables lend themselves to true experiments? 8.  Why is it important to distinguish between a measured and manipulated variable? 9.  In the Sommers and Ellsworth (2001) experiment on the effects.

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  • 6.  Why it hard to make causal conclusions if an
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1.  A measurement of a construct that can take on different values is known as a.  a manipulation. b.  an interaction. c.  a variable d.  a constant. 2.  The complex, abstract concepts that we cannot observe directly but that we study in psychology are a.  manipulations. b.  variables. c.  main effects. d.  constructs. 3.  When we cannot measure important hypothetical.

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  • 1.  A measurement of a construct that can take different
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61.  An advantage of an interrupted time series design is that it permits a.  the researcher to make baseline measurements. b.  the researcher to collect data without active manipulation of an independent variable. c.  eliminates the history threat to internal validity because of the multiple measurements. d.  a design that combines counterbalancing to offset.

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  • 61.  An advantage of an interrupted time series design that
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41.  Among the following types of published research, which use the most diverse types of participants? a.  experimental studies b.  nonexperimental, applied studies c.  longitudinal studies d.  quasi-experimental studies 42.  When an experiment makes use of a small number of participants, the results a.  are easier to replicate than when there are many participants. b.  may miss.

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  • 41.  Among the following types of published research, which use
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9.  Explain how demand characteristics and evaluation apprehension affect participant behavior in research. 10.  What three strategies can researchers employ to keep participants from picking up on clues about what an experiment is about? 11.  Describe the research involving different groups that has documented the negative effects of evaluation apprehension. 12.  Identify examples.

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  • 9.  Explain how demand characteristics and evaluation apprehension affect participant
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21.  Independent variables that change along a continuum are called a.  quantitative variables. b.  quasi-experimental variables. c.  measured variables. d.  qualitative variables. 22.  An independent variable a.  has at most two levels. b.  can have any number of levels. c.  is never a manipulated variable. d.  cannot be a qualitative variable. 23.  Psychologists Marian and Neisser (2000) found that people.

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  • 21.  Independent variables that change along a continuum called a.  quantitative
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61.  The Beck Depression Inventory has been shown to be useful for Portuguese speakers, with German speakers, and with elderly people.  These findings suggest that the inventory shows a. internal validity. b.  divergent validity. c.  convergent validity. d.  external validity. 62.  Researchers try to create groups that, before an experiment begins, are similar with respect.

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  • 61.  The Beck Depression Inventory has been shown to be
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11.  If the three criteria for establishing causation are not met, we are in a state of a.  experimental realism. b.  demand characteristics. c.  causal ambiguity. d.  divergent validity. 12.  In a research project, a group that experiences the manipulated independent variables is called the a.  independent group. b.  experimental group. c.  control group. d.  placebo group. 13.  Researchers have.

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  • 11.  If the three criteria for establishing causation not met,
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31.  If a researcher deceives a participant by telling the individual that a study is about one thing, but it is really about something else, the researcher is using a.  a double blind study. b.  a cover story. c.  experimental realism d.  demand characteristics. 32.  Sometimes participants engage in certain behaviors to “help” the researcher.

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  • 31.  If a researcher deceives a participant by telling the
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31.  If you identified a group of experts and used them as research participants, you would be using what type of sampling? a.  chain-referral b.  quota c.  purposive d.  stratified 32.  Purposive sampling involves a.  using research participants from specifically identified subpopulations. b.  identifying people with particular characteristics of interest to you and testing them. c.  making sure.

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  • 31.  If you identified a group of experts and used
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31.  Quasi-experimental designs cannot be used to draw causal conclusions because a.  quasi-experiments do not use measured variables. b.  measurements in quasi-experiments are not accurate enough. c.  quasi-experiments use partial only counterbalancing. d.  pre-existing differences among groups could be the cause of differences between groups. 32.  Quasi-experiments do not lend themselves to causal conclusions because.

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  • 31.  Quasi-experimental designs cannot be used to draw causal conclusions
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1.  When a researcher manipulates the environment to see if changes affect participants’ behaviors, the behavior that are measured for change are considered a.  factorial variables. b.  dependent variables. c.  manipulated variables. d.  repeated measures variables. 2.  A variable whose value changes as a result of manipulation of some other variable is called.

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1.  When a researcher manipulates the environment to
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  ESSAY ITEMS (Starred questions appear in the text as study questions.) 1. Describe how three different types of psychologists (e.g., social psychologist, developmental psychologist) could study a concept like happiness. 2.  Identify three reasons for conducting a literature search on the topic of your research. 3.  Why is it necessary to create operational definitions.

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  •   ESSAY ITEMS (Starred questions appear in the text as study questions.) 1.
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  ESSAY ITEMS (Starred questions appear in the text as study questions.) 1.  Explain why repeated measures designs can be more useful than nonrepeated measures designs when participants provide subjective ratings.  Why are objective measures less problematic in nonrepeated designs? 2.  Identify and describe the four advantages of repeated measures designs over nonrepeated measures. 3. .

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  •   ESSAY ITEMS (Starred questions appear in the text as study questions.) 1. 
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11.  If you are interested in studying how quickly people learn in early adulthood compared to old age, you would probably choose which design? a.  Repeated measures design b.  Between groups design c.  Interrupted time series design d.  Partially counterbalanced design 12.  Independent variables that are subject (participant) variables do not lend themselves to a.  repeated.

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  • 11.  If you interested in studying how quickly people learn
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a.  randomly selecting participants from the names of everybody in your population. b.  breaking the population into subgroups and randomly selecting from each subgroup. c.  creating clusters of people in the population and selecting everybody from randomly chosen clusters. d.  using chain-referral sampling. 22.  Suppose your research population was located in small groups in.

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  • a.  randomly selecting participants from the names of everybody in
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31.  When an independent variable involves pre-existing characteristics of the participant like age or political affiliation, the independent variable is a a.  a task variable. b.  a subject variable. c.  an instructional variable. d.  a manipulated variable. 32.  An independent variable cannot be a manipulated variable if it is a.  a task variable. b.  an instructional variable. c. .

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  • 31.  When an independent variable involves pre-existing characteristics of the
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1.  A research design that involves testing the same person in more than one condition is called a a.  between subject design. b.  counterbalanced design. c.  regression design.. d.  repeated measures design. 2.  Another name for a repeated measures design is a a.  within-subjects design. b.  between groups design. c.  nonequivalent control group design. d.  longitudinal design. 3. .

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   1.  A research design that involves testing the
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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   Double-starred items appear as Review Questions in the chapter 1.  In psychology, the word experiment has a specific meaning.  A defining characteristic of an experiment is a.  the systematic collection of objective data. b.  the active manipulation of variables. c.  finding associations between variables. d.  creating operational definitions of abstract or complex constructs. 2. .

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  • MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS   Double-starred items appear as Review Questions in the
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