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  11. Expanded production of primary products can stimulate ________ by making lower-cost primary goods available as inputs to other industries. a. backward linkages c. horizontal linkages b. forward linkages d. vertical linkages 12. Tariff escalation makes it harder for developing nations to move up the value-added ladder by imposing higher tariffs on imports.
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1. The single most important variable explaining the number of people in poverty in a given country is: a. the literacy rate. c. per capita income. b. the HDI. d. population. 2. Elements of a pro-poor development strategy would contain all of the following EXCEPT: a. encouraging rapid economic growth. b. improving basic health and.
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  16. Since the year 2000, economic performance in sub-Saharan Africa has improved; this can be attributed to all of the following reasons EXCEPT for: a. improved economic policies and management. b. more democratic and accountable governments. c. a return to state-directed economic policies. d. new technologies. 17. According to economists, the objective of economic growth.
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  11. The Fei-Ranis model can be used to explore the implications of: a. population growth and a rise in agricultural productivity. b. enclosure movements and the rise of urban laborers. c. becoming a resource exporting country. d. using barter as the primary method of exchanging goods. 12. The neoclassical two-sector model was developed and formalized.
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  11. Fragile environments of the world are largely populated by the world’s: a. rich. c. industrialized population. b. poor. d. developed economies. 12. Which of the following is a function of forest income in rural livelihoods? a. safety nets to help compensate production shortfalls b. support for current consumption c. a source of income growth d. all.
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  11. Rates of return on schooling depend on what happens in: a. the demographics of marriage in the country. b. secondary and tertiary educational outcomes. c. both school and the labor market after students graduate. d. regard to the average student’s body mass index by 18 years of age. 12. High unemployment rates among school.
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1. Before the 1950s, agriculture in nearly all developing countries relied on: a. hybrid crops and irrigation. b. traditional technologies and crop varieties. c. the new and emerging Green Revolution. d. grants and charity provided by the developed nations of the world. 2. By the 1960s, large public investments in crop science had begun to.
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1. Grade survival rates estimate: a. how many children actually complete a certain grade level. b. how many children die from disease and malnutrition at each grade level. c. how many grades of school the country can afford to offer. d. whether the grades earned continue to be valid, due to rampant grade inflation. 2..
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  6. Viktor and Yulia’s country comes from which of the following groups of countries? a. South c. transitional b. sub-Saharan Africa d. third world 7. Which of the following statements is true about globalization? a. It is a term used by different people to mean different things. b. It covers more than just economics. c. It.
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  11. One of the problems of the Harrod-Domar framework is that its fixed-proportion production function does not allow for any: a. population growth. c. endogenous technical change. b. substitution between labor and capital. d. depreciation. 12. From 1999–2007, Thailand’s economy experienced an annual growth rate of: a. 2.1 percent. c. 4.7 percent. b. 3.9 percent..
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  6. Gary Becker’s pioneering work was actually directed at: a. understanding the impact of HIV/AIDS on Africa. b. understanding the impact of the cold war on population momentum. c. understanding declining fertility levels in the United States and other high-income economies. d. understanding the impact of religious beliefs on population growth. 7. Most analysts still.
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  16. Research by economists John Gallup and Jeffrey Sachs concluded that the presence of a high malaria burden in a nation reduces its economic growth by: a. 0.7 percent. c. 5.8 percent. b. 1.3 percent. d. 15.7 percent. 17. Vaccines for illnesses that afflict the poor countries of the world are slow to.
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  11. A small subsidy to the poorest of the poor will leave which of the following unchanged? a. headcount index c. income distribution b. poverty gap d. none of the above 12. Major components of the Washington Consensus are: a. macroeconomic stability and economic openness. b. the promotion of peace and justice. c. exploiting the agricultural.
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  11. By the World Bank’s classification system, Malaysia, Iran, and Brazil are: a. low-income countries. c. industrial economies. b. upper-middle-income countries. d. backward economies. 12. According to Simon Kuznets, the key characteristic of the epoch of modern economic growth is: a. expansion of heavy industry. b. a rapid decline in population growth rates. c. high rates.
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1. What was GATT? a. an international organization that oversaw multilateral trade negotiations and tariff policies b. a voluntary export-restriction agreement governing international trade in textiles c. a free-trade area in southeast Asia d. an Eastern European trading bloc that disbanded in the early 1990s 2. The essence of outward-looking development is that it: a. relies.
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1. The father of modern growth theory is: a. David Ricardo. c. Robert Solow. b. Thomas Malthus. d. Jeffrey Sachs. 2. Growth depends on which two processes? a. accumulation of assets and making those assets more productive b. harnessing natural resources and marketing them to developed nations at a “fair trade” rate c. exploitation of the.
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1. The bulk of world trade originates and is exchanged between ________ economies. a. high-income c. developing b. low-income d. closed 2. Which country is the largest trading partner of the United States? a. Mexico c. China b. Canada d. Japan 3. In 2009, which nation replaced Germany as the world’s largest exporter of goods? a. United.
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  16. An increase in nontradables prices causes the real exchange rate (RER) to: a. appreciate. c. remain unchanged. b. depreciate. d. equal the nominal exchange rate. 17. The best prevention for Dutch disease effects is to avoid or reverse the initial real ________ of the currency. a. appreciation c. devaluation b. depreciation d. purchasing power 18..
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1. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as: a. the absence of illness or disability that prevents one from engaging in normal functions. b. a condition of physical well-being, consistent with the standards of one’s national culture. c. a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. d. the absence of a serious.
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  11. Higher life expectancy translates into greater economic growth later: a. at the same rate. b. first at the same rate but then later at a diminished rate. c. at no time because of the costs involved. d. only for developed countries. 12. Which of the following statements about the Panama Canal construction is NOT.
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  6. It is currently estimated that for the time period ranging from 1997 to 2020, cereal demands in developing nations will rise: a. 15 percent. c. 40 percent. b. 35 percent. d. 50 percent. 7. Which economist compared the actual performance of agricultural producers with their potential performance? a. Arthur Mosher c. Esther Duflo b..
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  6. As societies age and health improves, the pattern of disease and causes of death also shift in a generally predictable pattern; this shift in disease pattern is known as the: a. epidemiologic transition. c. diminishing returns to health. b. survival deficit. d. Hippocratic paradox. 7. With a few exceptions, famine no longer.
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  6. Diminishing returns to capital means that as you add more capital: a. output falls. b. the additional contribution to output eventually declines. c. labor usage falls. d. output rises. 7. A country’s labor force grows 1.2 percent and its capital stock grows 3 percent. Assume that labor share of output is 0.25. If the.
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  6. Suppose the saving rate for a low-income country is given. If production becomes less capital intensive, the ICOR will ________ and the growth rate will _________. a. increase; increase c. decrease; decrease b. decrease; increase d. increase; decrease 7. Consider the Harrod-Domar relationship for an economy: g = (s/v) – d Assume that the.
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  6. The ________ suggests that a sustainable development path for countries that depend on nonrenewable resources requires the rents from those resources to be continually invested rather than consumed. a. Hartwick rule c. Malthus theory b. Solow growth model d. Ricardo rule 7. Adjusted net saving is equal to gross saving minus both.
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  11. While Robert Solow established the model for the study of modern economic development, this economist’s research in the early 1990s had set the contemporary stage for explaining the variance in growth across countries: a. Milton Friedman. c. Ayn Rand. b. Walter Williams. d. Robert Barro. 12. Between 1990–2002, this nation’s growth and.
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  11. The three reproductive norms promoted in China’s wan xi shao program after 1971 included which of the following elements? a. Families should plan for longer spacing between births. b. Families should continue bearing children until a male child is born and then stop. c. China can care for all children because it.
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  6. Kuznets speculated on the relationship between growth and inequality, arguing that inequality rose when: a. industrialization and urbanization rose. b. everyone remained in the agriculture sector. c. service sector jobs reigned supreme as a model for job expansion. d. people failed to live by the premise found within It Takes a Village. 7. According.
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  16. An unexpected feature of Chile’s stabilization program in the 1970s was that: a. export growth was weak after the real exchange rate appreciated. b. the economy stabilized without requiring fiscal austerity. c. the market’s self-correcting mechanisms worked smoothly and quickly to eliminate the imbalances. d. inflation stayed high despite tight monetary policy and.
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1. Countries with slow growth include all of the following EXCEPT: a. Madagascar. c. Kenya. b. Nigeria. d. Venezuela. 2. Countries with rapid growth include all of the following EXCEPT: a. Indonesia. c. Botswana. b. South Korea. d. Chile. 3. Which of the following is NOT much of a problem in Botswana? a. unemployment c. inequality b. HIV/AIDS.
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  15. Compared to the situation in a competitive market, in a monopolistic market, firms generally: a. use more efficient technologies. b. sell a greater share of output in parallel markets. c. produce less, while charging higher prices. d. are more likely to succeed in response to infant industry protection. 16. Which of the following is.
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1. While working in the Japanese electronics factory in Penang, Rachmina Abdullah: a. saved money to provide herself with a better future. b. became a wealthy urbanite who sought after the better amenities of life. c. decided to permanently settle in Japan and become a citizen of that country. d. grew accustomed to spending.
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  6. The goal of the Programme for International Student Assessment is to assess how well 15-year-olds, who are approaching the end of their compulsory schooling year, can: a. read and write at a fourth-grade level. b. successfully acquire a paying job at home or abroad. c. meet the challenges of today’s societies. d. be.
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  6. Although aid to post-World War II nations was successful in helping them rebuild, similar aid to less-developed nations failed to produce the same results because: a. miscalculations of aid were based on per capita income in each nation. b. critical institutions within these governments were missing. c. countries refused to play by.
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    16. In the Solow model, an increase in the population growth rate leads to: a. capital deepening. b. dynamic economic growth and development. c. the fulfillment of the Malthusian hypothesis. d. lower average income per worker. 17. The most unsettling conclusion of the Solow model is the conclusion that once the economy reaches its long-run.
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  6. In some nations, illegal activities may even be included when calculating GDP; this is most notable in Afghanistan where the GDP includes: a. military expenses. c. money laundering. b. child trafficking. d. poppy production. 7. A criticism of using GDP to measure growth is that it does not include “social bads”; these.
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  11. When world GDP (2009) is calculated by converting each nation’s GDP into a common currency using market exchange rates, world output by low- and middle-income economies account for: a. 17 percent. c. 58 percent. b. 29 percent. d. 67 percent. 12. For which of the following countries is the divergence between GNP.
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  11. What effect do high import tariffs have on a country’s export industries? a. Tariffs reduce the demand for foreign exchange, so the home currency appreciates; this hurts exports. b. Tariffs reduce the demand for foreign exchange, so the home currency depreciates; this boosts exports. c. Tariffs reduce the demand for foreign exchange,.
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  11. Since the 1980s, the growth rate of yields in the world’s major cereal crops has: a. trended steadily upward. b. been mostly consistent and remained the same over the past 30 years. c. trended strongly downward. d. fluctuated radically because of the objectives of different governmental policies around the world. 12. The food policy.
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1. Which British economist predicted that continued population growth would bring the world to disaster? a. John Stuart Mill c. Adam Smith b. David Ricardo d. Thomas Malthus 2. Statistical estimations suggest that pollution peaks at what level of income per capita? a. $5,000 to $8,000 c. $21,000 to $24,000 b. $13,000 to $16,000 d..
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  6. The argument that the proportion of income spent on food declines as income rises is known as: a. Say’s Law. c. Engel’s law. b. the Malthusian trap. d. health consciousness. 7. ___________ is the systematic changes in sector proportions as economies grow. a. Structural transformation c. Developmental devolution b. Technical innovation d. Unit-elastic supply 8..
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