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51) In the late 1800s, photographer Eadweard Muybridge unequivocally demonstrated that during a trot, a horse always has at least one foot on the ground.   52) One advantage of studying the swimming muscles of fish is that they are composed of heterogeneous muscle fiber types.   53) White muscle comprises most.
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96) Explain the mechanism by which oxygen perfusion is increased in hypoxic muscle tissue.   97) Describe the process of bone growth.   98) How does the caudal fin of a fish generate thrust?   99) Discuss the relationship between wing size and body mass in birds.   100) What are the five attributes.
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11)In crustacean respiration, ventilation happens when water moves out of the   A)appendages.   B)branchial chamber.   C)scaphognathite.   D)carapace.   12)Sea cucumbers have internal respiratory sacs called   A)respiratory trees.   B)papulae.   C)peristomia.   D)lungs.   13)A lamprey is capable of   A)tidal ventilation.   B)unidirectional ventilation.   C)both A and B  D)neither A nor B  14)Blood flow through the gills.
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81) Animals often show elevated rates of oxygen consumption long after the cessation of exercise, a phenomenon called __________.   82) The __________ distance is the effective diffusion distance for oxygen from the capillary into the surrounding tissue.   83) Once oxygen leaves the capillary and crosses the muscle cell plasma membrane,.
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31) To date, __________ classes of antifreeze proteins have been identified.   A) 2   B) 3   C) 4   D) 5   32) The antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) share a common ancestry with   A) heat shock proteins.   B) pancreatic trypsinogen.   C) cytoskeletal actin.   D) Ca2+-dependent lectin.   33) The ability to produce endogenous body heat.
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31) Compared to other fish, the capacity for oxidative phosphorylation is significantly greater in the tuna due to the   A) homogeneous distribution of thick-fibered red muscle.   B) higher mitochondrial content of the red muscle fibers.   C) more extensive branching of the T-tubules.   D) denser packing of cristae in the mitochondria.
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109)What is lung compliance? How is it that surfactants increase lung compliance?  110)Draw and explain the sigmoidal shape of the oxygen equilibrium curve for vertebrate hemoglobin. In your drawing, be sure to label your axes.  111)Which receptors trigger the Hering-Breuer inflation reflex, and why is this reflex important?  .
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96) Explain how the molecular structure of bile salts permits them to function as emulsifiers.   97) Describe the events of the trypsinogen cascade.   98) Describe the roles of leptin, ghrelin, and peptide YY in regulating appetite.   99) Describe the series of events triggered by the entry of acidic stomach contents.
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61) Diving mammals can extend submergence times by saturating their myoglobin with oxygen prior to descent.   62) Like the vertebrates, sponges and echinoderms both possess endoskeletons.   63) Although the more derived insects employ indirect muscles to power flight, they use direct muscles to control the fine movements of their wings.  .
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11) __________ is the substrate used by both the mitochondria and in glycolysis to generate ATP.   A) Carbohydrate   B) Fatty acids   C) Amino acids   D) all of the above   12) Muscles possess low levels of __________ that can be oxidized immediately.   A) glucose   B) fatty acids and glycerol  C) free.
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31)In most mammals, the effect of increased 2,3-DPG in the blood   A)increases the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.   B)decreases the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.   C)increases iron content of hemoglobin.  D)causes anemia.   32)How is an increased P50 of hemoglobin beneficial?   A)better oxygen unloading at the tissues   B)better oxygen loading at the lungs  .
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76)Antarctic icefish have a high oxygen carrying capacity in the blood because oxygen levels in cold water are high.   77)Respiratory pigments described as having a high P50 have a high affinity for oxygen.  78)Hemoglobin has a lower P50 for oxygen than for carbon monoxide.   79)CO2 can directly reduce the oxygen.
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1 )Most animals rely on tissues such as the gills, skin, and kidney to regulate three homeostatic processes. Which of the following is NOT one of those processes?   A )osmotic regulation   B )ionic regulation   C )nitrogen excretion   D )endocrine balance   2 )Ammonia is the end product of __________ catabolism.   A.
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1) Characteristics indicative of endothermy in mammalian-like reptiles include   A) a secondary palate in the roof of the mouth.   B) a circulatory system with separate pulmonary and systemic circuits.   C) nucleated erythrocytes.   D) more than one of the above  2) At which of the following systems would environmental temperatures be.
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83)If a fish swims forward with its mouth open, water will flow across the gills without active pumping. This is known as __________.   84)The subatmospheric pressure of the __________ prevents the mammalian lung from collapsing.   85)Hemocyanins do not contain iron, but instead contain __________.   86)The equation for the ideal gas.
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61) The intestine of ruminants is composed of four chambers.   62) The Paneth cells located within the crypt of Lieberk hn secrete antimicrobial molecules into the lumen of the intestine.   63) Bicarbonate secretions from the pancreas and bile from the gallbladder neutralize the acidity of stomach contents upon entry into.
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39 )Animals and cells cannot actively pump water.   40 )All marine vertebrates have a higher internal osmolarity than that of the surrounding seawater.   41 )The camel can tolerate severe dehydration by storing excess liquid water in its hump   42 )Organic solutes occur in all animals, but are most abundant in.
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102)In terms of pressure gradients, what is the difference between how frogs fill their lungs and how lizards fill their lungs?  103)When Fick's equation is combined with Henry's and Graham's laws, an equation can be derived that describes the rate of diffusion of a gas through a fluid at constant.
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1) Invertebrate locomotor muscles are typically   A) striated.   B) smooth.   C) discontinuous.   D) pseudostriated.   2) In what way(s) are the muscle arrangements in the body wall of earthworms similar to those of the human digestive tract?   A) Both exhibit peristaltic waves of contractions.   B) Both are organized into layers of.
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11) Recent studies suggest that lionesses of the Serengeti select mates with   A) larger body masses.   B) thicker, darker manes.   C) lighter coat colors.   D) better hunting skills.   12) A __________ is an example of a temporal heterotherm.   A) python   B) swordfish   C) hummingbird   D) laminid shark   13) A __________.
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56)Gases will obey the rules of Boyle's law.   57)Liquids are incompressible.   58)An organism residing in a fast flowing river will have a large boundary layer.   59)Flatworms can rely on diffusion for gas exchange.   60)Gills originate as evaginations of the body surface.   61)Boundary layers can be reduced through the process of.
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51) Claude Bernard and many of his contemporaries believed that each tissue produced the same digestive agent, but that its behavior differed as a result of variation in acidity.   52) Arthur Kornberg has described the 1920s to 1930s of metabolic biochemistry and nutrition research as being dominated by the "vitamin.
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31 )Aldosterone stimulates Na+ absorption and K+ excretion in the kidney. This happens because   A )the cell transcribes and translates more ion transporters to be inserted in the membrane.   B )preformed ion transporters are translocated to the membrane.   C )phosphorylation of existing ion transporters increases their permeability.   D )All of.
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66)Contraction of the thoracic muscles of the spider helps draw air into the tracheae.   67)Lungfish do not have gills.   68)In birds, ventilation of the lungs requires two cycles of inhalation and exhalation.   69)Breathing in mammals requires the activity of motor neurons.   70)In a healthy human at rest, exhalation of the.
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62 )Secretion and reabsorption in Malpighian tubules is controlled by the nervous system; circulating hormones are not involved.   63 )An animal with an internal ion profile that resembles the ion composition of the external water is an __________.   64 )The force arising due to the tendency of water to move.
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46)Respiratory systems that use countercurrent flow are always more efficient than systems using concurrent flow.   47)Feeding lampreys are forced to ventilate their gills tidally.   48)Book lungs are present in most insects.  49)Low temperatures increase the solubility of oxygen in water.   50)All vertebrates extract oxygen from the environment equally efficiently.   51)No.
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11) In which portion of the generalized digestive system are symbiotic bacterial populations usually housed?   A) esophagus   B) crop   C) ceca   D) stomach   12) The pogonophorans of deep sea vents are unusual in that they lack which of the following?   A) a gastrointestinal tract   B) hemoglobin   C) cytochrome oxidase   D).
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81) Bile is produced by the __________ and stored in the __________.   82) Pancreatic proteases are produced in an inactive form called __________.   83) Peptide YY, leptin, and ghrelin, the appetite-controlling hormones, exert their effects on the region of the brain called the __________.   84) The secretion of pepsinogen by.
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1)In the context of respiratory physiology, what is ventilation?   A)the process of moving the respiratory medium across the respiratory surface   B)the movement of air   C)the respiratory rate   D)cooling caused by panting   2)Tidal ventilation is   A)when the ventilatory medium moves in and out of the respiratory chamber.   B)bulk flow of water.
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21)Bird lungs are efficient because of   A)their large size.   B)unidirectional and continuous air flow.   C)countercurrent blood flow.   D)capacity for discontinuous ventilation.   22)If lung compliance decreases, then   A)inhalation requires more energy.   B)inhalation requires less energy.   C)exhalation requires more energy.   D)exhalation requires less energy.   23)The shape of an alveolus is   A)round.   B)tubular.  .
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71) A fluid-filled internal chamber that supports the body of an animal is known as a __________.   72) Earthworms organize locomotor striated muscles into __________ and __________ layers.   73) During peristaltic burrowing in earthworms, when the __________ muscles contract, the segment extends or lengthens.   74) The white muscles of fish.
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11 )The main component of insect chitin is   A )polysaccharide.   B )protein.   C )lipid.   D )nucleic acid.   12 )Which of the following is NOT one of the general features of epithelia?   A )Membrane proteins are found only on the apical surface.   B )tight intercellular connections   C )Epithelial tissues consist of.
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1) The American surgeon William Beaumont began his studies of the digestive process by examining   A)the effect of gastric juices on retrieved tethered sponges and metal tubes.   B) the comparative anatomy of vertebrate alimentary canals.   C) samples of gastric juice from the abdominal fistula of a gunshot patient.   D) stomach.
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21) From an evolutionary perspective, animals produce myoglobin   A) to reduce the costs of building and maintaining vasculature.   B) to increase intracellular storage of CO2 and reduce dependence on carbonic anhydrase.   C) to mediate the detrimental effects of pH changes by serving as an intracellular buffer.   D) to serve as.
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