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Study Resources (Chemistry)

101) Which of the following statements about nitrites is NOT true? A) Nitrites are very effective inhibitors of Clostridium botulinum. B) Much more nitrite is needed to prevent botulism than to keep meat looking pink. C) Nitrites have been implicated in causing stomach cancers. D) Vitamin C inhibits the conversion of nitrites to.
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21) Heat strokes resulting from physical exertion occur when the body's heat regulatory system fails.  This condition is likely to occur when A) there is a vitamin deficiency. B) the body is dehydrated. C) the sodium ion level in body fluids is low. D) one has overeaten. 22) The best thing to drink to replenish.
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61) Male sex hormones are produced in the A) brain. B) adrenal gland. C) testes. D) pancreas. 62) The female sex hormone that is particularly important during pregnancy is A) androgen. B) estrogen. C) estradiol. D) progesterone. 63) Compounds that have the same characteristic skeletal, four-ring structure are A) sugars. B) steroids. C) proteins. D) amino acids. 64) The general name for.
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41) AZT is a drug used to treat A) AIDS. B) influenza. C) chickenpox. D) herpes. 42) The genetic material of a virus is A) always DNA. B) either DNA or RNA. C) always RNA. D) none of the above 43) Viruses are usually composed of combinations of A) carbohydrates and nucleic acids. B) proteins and nucleic acids. C) fats and proteins. D) proteins.
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11) Processed foods contain more nutrients than unprocessed foods. 12) A lack of insulin will cause the liver to begin using fats for energy. 13) Malnutrition can develop from eating too many processed foods. 14) A humectant is a moisturizing agent. 15) Free radicals have an unpaired electron and are highly reactive. 16) Nitrites have.
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18.2   True/False Questions 1) Paul Ehrlich first used the term "chemotherapy" to describe the use of chemicals to control or cure infectious disease. 2) The average cost of developing a completely new drug and bringing it to market is between $500 million and $2 billion. 3) The use of aspirin to treat children's.
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  19.1   Multiple Choice Questions 1) An athlete's pre-game meal should consist mainly of A) carbohydrates. B) fat. C) protein. D) vitamins. 2) The new Dietary Guidelines recommend which of the following? A) Adults should drink 3 L of liquid per day. B) Sugary drinks need not be limited. C) Adults should compare the sodium content for processed foods and.
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  18.1   Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following provides the best definition of a drug?  It is a chemical substance that A) is a pain-reliever. B) can be used to treat an illness. C) can be used to improve one's state of health or well-being. D) affects the functioning of living things. 2) Which of.
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61) How many elements are "essential" to life? A) 10 B) 30 C) 70 D) 110 62) Iodine is an important mineral in the proper functioning of the A) brain. B) thyroid. C) intestines. D) heart. 63) Excess intake of sodium chloride (salt) can cause A) beriberi. B) goiter. C) hypertension. D) phenylketonuria. 64) Vitamins can be grouped into two broad categories: A) the B complex.
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19.3   Short Answer Questions 1) The recommended maximum percentage of calories from fat in one's diet is ________%; in the typical American diet, ________% comes from fat. 2) Vitamins C and E are considered to be possible anticarcinogens because both are ________. 3) The only way to lose weight is to increase ________.
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17.3   Short Answer Questions 1) Per capita consumption of sugars in the United States per year is approximately ________ kilograms. 2) You eat a whole pizza for dinner.  You then fall asleep.  Discuss what your body does with all of that starch. 3) The body stores some excess glucose as glycogen in.
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101) Which one of the following is strictly a synthetic drug? A) phenobarbital B) endorphin C) morphine D) THC 102) In the nineteenth century, this natural product was a common ingredient in many "patent medicines." A) acetaminophen B) novocaine C) LSD D) opium 103) "Soldier's disease" after the U.S. Civil War was A) dysentery. B) infection. C) blindness. D) morphine addiction. 104) Codeine is usually.
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31) Low-density lipoprotein is often called "bad cholesterol" because it A) breaks down cholesterol in the bloodstream. B) delivers cholesterol to the cells where it may be deposited in arteries. C) carries cholesterol to the lungs where it is oxidized. D) transports cholesterol to the liver where it is processed and excreted. 32) There is.
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121) LSD is a(n) A) amphetamine. B) barbiturate. C) hallucinogen. D) narcotic. 122) The physiological properties of LSD were A) predicted from its structure. B) designed into the molecule by Albert Hoffman. C) discovered in a chemical laboratory serendipitously. D) all of the above 123) LSD is derived from a natural product found in A) opium. B) rye fungus. C) cow manure. D) certain.
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11) The fact that acetominophen is prescribed more frequently in hospitals than aspirin is probably due to the fact that acetaminophen is NOT A) an anticoagulant. B) an antipyretic. C) an anti-inflammatory. D) synthetic. 12) Which of the following is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)? A) acetaminophen. B) caffeine. C) phenacetin. D) ibuprofen. 13) An antipyretic is a drug.
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11) The enzyme reverse transcriptase can synthesize RNA from DNA. 12) Vaccines are available to provide protection against most viral diseases. 13) An antimetabolite is a compound that closely resembles a substance that is needed for normal body metabolism and that interferes with physiological reactions involving it. 14) Methotrexate is an alkylating agent.
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91) All of the following are sweet additives EXCEPT A) corn syrup. B) saccharin. C) aspartame. D) sodium propionate. 92) Which of the following combinations account for roughly 98% of the additives we use in our food? A) corn syrup, salt and sugar B) Vitamin C, corn syrup and MSG C) Flavor extracts, salt and sugar D) salt, corn.
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  17.1   Multiple Choice Questions 1) It is estimated that over ________ of adults in the United States are overweight. A) 25% B) 45% C) 65% D) 85% 2) What proportion of the human body is water? A) ≈ 1/10 B) ≈ 1/4 C) ≈ 1/2 D) ≈ 2/3 3) Blood sugar is A) fructose. B) glucose. C) lactose. D) galactose. 4) Corn syrup is primarily A) glucose. B).
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16.3   Short Answer Questions 1) The structural unit of living things is the ________. 2) The largest structure in a cell is usually the ________. 3) The major distinguishing feature between plant and animal cells is the chloroplast.  Discuss this difference. 4) The series of chemical reactions that degrade molecules to provide energy to.
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16.2   True/False Questions 1) The genetic information of a cell is found in the ribosomes. 2) The series of chemical reactions that keep cells alive are known as metabolism. 3) Chloroplasts convert light energy into heat energy. 4) The main difference between starch and glycogen is that starch has alpha (α) linkages between glucose.
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21) The first step in the hydrolysis of fats is splitting them into fatty acids and A) glucose. B) fructose. C)  methanol. D) glycerol. 22) Arteriosclerosis is a condition affecting the A) heart. B) arteries. C) brain. D) lungs. 23) Saturated fats have A) primarily C?C bonds. B) a large proportion of C?C bonds. C) one or more C?C bonds. D) an odd number.
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18.3   Short Answer Questions 1) People who are susceptible to bleeding can take acetaminophen because it is NOT a(n) ________. 2) An antipyretic is a drug that relieves ________. 3) AIDS stands for ________. 4) Antimetabolites are a class of anticancer agents that interfere with ________. 5) Hormones are produced by the ________ system. 6) PGF2α.
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71) Base pairing in DNA occurs through A) covalent bonds between complementary bases on nucleic acid chains. B) hydrogen bonds between complementary bases on nucleic acid chains. C) salt bonds between complementary bases on nucleic acid chains. D) an interaction that is not well understood. 72) Which of the following statements comparing DNA and RNA.
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81) The symptoms of ________ include acidosis. A) beriberi B) diabetes C) kwashiorkor D) scurvy 82) The U.S. government agency charged with keeping our food safe is the A) EPA. B) OSHA. C) FDA. D) NCAA. 83) Vanilla extract and imitation vanilla flavoring differ in that the extract A) is purer. B) is more healthful. C) contains a greater variety of chemicals. D) contains.
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51) Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body and must be obtained in food sources are called A) nucleic acids. B) carboxylic acids. C) essential amino acids. D) vitamins. 52) The number of different amino acids that combine to form human protein is generally recognized as A) 10. B) 20. C) 35. D) 45. 53) People who.
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  20.1   Multiple Choice Questions 1) Green plants are the ultimate source of our food.  Which of the following statements about the source of the raw materials that plants incorporate into food is NOT correct? A) Sunlight provides the plant with energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars. B) Plants obtain carbon,.
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91) Most gaseous and volatile liquid organics produce some A) analgesic action. B) anesthetic action. C) hallucinogenic action. D) stimulant action. 92) The anesthetic (or intoxicating) dose of most volatile organics like chloroform is very close to the A) lethal dose. B) stimulant dose. C) therapeutic dose. D) hallucinogenic dose. 93) The first successful local anesthetic was A) amphetamine. B) cocaine. C) diethyl.
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71) Vitamins are specific organic compounds that are required in the diet to A) aid in digestion of proteins. B) prevent deficiency diseases. C) provide essential amino acids. D) provide fiber. 72) Fiber in the diet appears to benefit individuals with all of the following EXCEPT A) high blood pressure. B) scurvy. C) diabetes. D) diverticulitis. 73) Fiber in the.
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81) Transcription is the process by which DNA passes information to A) another strand of DNA. B) transfer RNA. C) messenger RNA. D) a new cell. 82) Which nucleic acid carries the amino acid that is added onto the growing amino acid chain during translation? A) adenine B) tRNA C) mRNA D) DNA 83) Which molecule is made in the.
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41) A 2000 Calorie per day diet should contain not more than ________ grams of saturated fat. A) 67 B) 22 C) 33.5 D) 10 42) Cholesterol is a A) fully saturated triglyceride. B) highly unsaturated triglyceride. C) fatty acid. D) steroidal alcohol. 43) Cholesterol does not occur in A) coconut oil. B) butter. C) beef fat. D) lard. 44) Cholesterol that is present.
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71) Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for approximately ________ of deaths in the United States. A) 5% B) 20% C) 34% D) 50% 72) Which of the following is NOT a major goal of drugs that are used for cardiovascular diseases? A) lowering blood pressure B) normalizing heart rhythm C) preventing accumulation of lipid plaque deposits in blood.
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51) Some nitrogen mustards that were originally developed as chemical warfare agents are used in the treatment of A) hypertension. B) viral infection. C) cancer. D) AIDS. 52) Nitrogen mustards are used as effective anticancer agents against certain cancers.  Nitrogen mustards are A) bifunctional alkylating agents that act by cross-linking two DNA strands. B) antimetabolites that.
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111) The discovery of opiate receptors in the human brain led to the discovery of A) amphetamines. B) barbiturates. C) endorphins. D) LSD. 112) Which of the following groups of compounds would NOT be considered to be antianxiety agents? A) cephalosporins B) benzodiazepines C) phenothiazides D) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) 113) The amphetamines are structurally similar to A) neurotransmitters. B) narcotics. C).
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81) Chemicals that transmit nerve impulses from neuron to neuron are called A) neurons. B) nerve chemicals. C) amphetamines. D) neurotransmitters. 82) The common name of epinephrine is A) androgen. B) amphetamine. C) adrenaline. D) codeine. 83) Abnormal levels of what neurotransmitter(s) is believed to be involved in depression and other mental illness? A) serotonin B) norepinephrine C) epinephrine D) serotonin and norepinephrine 84) Norepinephrine.
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11) From your body's perspective, glucose is A) a fuel. B) an oxidizing agent. C) a source of structural material. D) all of the above 12) Which of the following is NOT produced during the metabolism of glucose? A) energy B) carbon dioxide C) ammonia D) water 13) Complex carbohydrates are essentially polymers of A) glucose. B) fatty acids. C) nucleic acids. D) glycerol. 14).
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61) Muscles are built through A) eating a protein rich diet. B) taking an amino acid supplement. C) taking megavitamin and mineral supplements. D) exercise. 62) For a person at rest, muscle activity accounts for what percent of the body's energy requirements? A) 5-10 % B) 15-30 % C) 45-60 % D) 75-90 % 63) The drug most commonly used.
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19.2   True/False Questions 1) It is healthier to eat too much rather than too little. 2) Drugs such as the statins are equally as effective in preventing heart attacks as diet and exercise are. 3) The human body does not synthesize vitamin C. 4) There are no consequences that result from taking more than.
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51) If insufficient oxygen is available to muscles during energy conversion, the by-products of energy production are water and A) pyruvic acid. B) lactic acid. C) carbon dioxide. D) ATP. 52) If sufficient oxygen is available to muscles during energy conversion, the by-products of energy production are water and A) pyruvic acid. B) lactic acid. C) carbon dioxide. D).
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17.2   True/False Questions 1) Complex carbohydrates are better nutrition for humans than simple sugars. 2) Some vegetable oils contain cholesterol and others are cholesterol free. 3) Fats are stored in adipose tissue in the human body. 4) A total vegetarian diet supplies an adequate amount of everything a human needs to be totally healthy. 5).
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21) Which of the following types of drugs would be used as a cough suppressant? A) analgesic B) anticoagulant C) antipyretic D) antitussive 22) An expectorant A) reduces the swelling of nasal passages. B) helps bring up mucus from the bronchial passages. C) lowers a fever. D) increases the effectiveness of neurotransmitters. 23) The E-factor for chemical production is defined.
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