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Study Resources (Chemistry)

9.4   Short Answer Questions 1) Describe at least three ways in which our solar system would be different if orbital resonances had never been important. 2) Describe some ways in which a meteorite can be distinguished from a terrestrial rock. 3) Describe the Deep Impact and Stardust missions and what they were designed.
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11) Why do we sometimes observe asteroids at the distances of the gaps in the asteroid belt? A) A gap is located at an average orbital distance, and asteroid orbits often have large eccentricities. B) Jupiter's gravitational tugs keep them there. C) They are held in place by resonances with other asteroids. D) They.
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21) All the following statements about Venus are true. Which one offers evidence of a global repaving about a billion years ago? A) Venus has relatively few impact craters and these craters are distributed fairly evenly over the entire planet. B) Venus has many circular features, called coronae, which appear to be.
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  A.nickel and iron B.80 percent nitrogen, 20 percent oxygen C.95 percent carbon dioxide D.mostly hydrogen and helium E.frozen methane, ammonia, water, and other gases and dust 10) Mercury's core 11) Earth's atmosphere 12) the atmosphere of Venus 13) the atmosphere of Mars 14) a Kuiper-belt object 15) Jupiter 16) Comet Hale-Bopp   .
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11) Briefly describe how the solar wind affects magnetospheres and how auroras are produced. 12) Earth and Venus both presumably had similar gases outgassed from their volcanoes. Briefly explain how their atmospheres ended up so different. 13) Why did Earth retain most of its water while Venus and Mars lost theirs? 14) Why.
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11) Suppose that Earth's atmosphere had no greenhouse gases. Then Earth's average surface temperature would be ________. A) well below the freezing point of water B) about the same as it is now C) slightly cooler, but still above freezing D) slightly warmer, but still well below the boiling point of water 12) Most of.
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10.7   MasteringAstronomy Concept Quiz 1) In the late 1800s, Kelvin and Helmholtz suggested that the Sun stayed hot due to gravitational contraction. What was the major drawback to this idea? A) It predicted that the Sun could shine for about 25 million years, but geologists had already found that Earth is much.
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10.5   Questions Based on MasteringAstronomy Tutorials 1) When the temperature of the Sun's core goes down, what happens next? A) Fusion reactions speed up, the core shrinks and cools. B) Fusion reactions speed up, core expands and cools. C) Fusion reactions slow down, core shrinks and heats. D) Fusion reactions slow down, the core expands.
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16) What is the "runaway greenhouse effect"? 17) Why does Earth have so little carbon dioxide in its atmosphere, when Earth should have outgassed about as much of it as Venus? 18) Briefly describe at least three likely consequences of continued human burning of fossil fuels adding to Earth's greenhouse effect. 19) What.
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8.2   True/False Questions 1) If Jupiter were 10 times more massive, it would actually have a smaller radius. 2) Hydrogen exists as a gas, liquid, and solid within Jupiter. 3) If Jupiter were 10 times more massive, it would generate nuclear fusion in its core and be a star instead of a planet. 4).
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10.4   Short Answer Questions 1) Briefly explain how the Sun became hot enough for nuclear fusion. 2) Describe some of the early theories for the Sun's energy source and why they are no longer accepted as viable. 3) What is the solar thermostat? 4) Briefly describe why the detection of neutrinos coming from the.
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11.2   True/False Questions 1) The apparent brightness of a star depends only on its luminosity. 2) If the distance between us and a star is doubled, its apparent brightness will decrease by a factor of four. 3) The more distant a star, the smaller its parallax. 4) We can measure the parallax of most.
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10.1   Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is the phase of matter in the Sun? A) gas B) plasma C) liquid D) solid E) a mixture of all of the above 2) Which is closest to the temperature of the Sun's core? A) 10,000 K B) 100,000 K C) 1 million K D) 10 million K E) 100 million K 3).
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10.6   MasteringAstronomy Reading Quiz 1) According to modern science, approximately how old is the Sun? A) 4 1/2 billion years B) 25 million years C) 10,000 years D) 400 million years 2) The Sun will exhaust its nuclear fuel in about ________. A) 5000 AD B) 5 million years C) 5 billion years D) 50 billion years 3) Which of the.
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9.1   Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements about comets and asteroids is true? A) Only asteroids collide with Earth. B) Comets are balls of ice and dust. C) Most of the trillions of comets in our solar system have tails. D) All asteroids lie in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. E).
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11) The faintest star visible to the naked eye has an apparent magnitude of about A) 10. B) 6. C) 1. D) 0. E) 6. 12) The spectral sequence sorts stars according to A) mass. B) surface temperature. C) luminosity. D) core temperature. E) radius. 13) The spectral sequence, in order of decreasing temperature, is A) OFBAGKM. B) OBAGFKM. C) OBAFGKM. D) ABFGKMO. E) BAGFKMO. 14) Which of.
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8.5   MasteringAstronomy Reading Quiz 1) Which of the following is not a general characteristic of the four jovian planets in our solar system? A) They are higher in average density than are the terrestrial planets. B) They lack solid surfaces. C) They are composed mainly of hydrogen, helium, and hydrogen compounds. D) They are much.
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11) Sim-Planet: Make the difference between the night and day temperatures larger. A) Move the planet closer to the Sun. B) Increase the greenhouse gas content of the planet's atmosphere. C) Make the planet rotate more slowly. D) Increase the tilt of the planet's rotation axis. 12) Why is Venus so much hotter than Earth? A).
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  Use these choices for the following questions. A.the most volcanically active body in the solar system B.thought to have a deep, subsurface ocean of liquid water C.probably a captured Kuiper Belt object D.the target of the Huygens probe, which landed on its surface. E.the largest moon in the solar system 10) Which of the above applies.
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9.7   MasteringAstronomy Concept Quiz 1) Which of the following statements best describes the size of the largest asteroid, Ceres? A) It is a little less than half the diameter of our Moon. B) It is about the size of a terrestrial planet. C) It is smaller than the jovian planets but larger than the.
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6) Explain how the resonance among Io, Europa, and Ganymede makes their orbits slightly elliptical. 7) What is "ice geology"? Give an example illustrating why it is important in the outer solar system. 8) Describe some of the results from the Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons. 9) Describe two leading scenarios.
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10.2   True/False Questions 1) Gravitational equilibrium means that the surface and the core of the Sun are at the same pressure. 2) Although the Sun does not generate energy by gravitational contraction today, this energy-generation mechanism was important when the Sun was forming. 3) The Sun generates energy primarily by nuclear fission. 4) Nuclear.
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8.6   MasteringAstronomy Concept Quiz 1) Which of the following gases is not a significant ingredient of the jovian planet atmospheres? A) Carbon dioxide B) Hydrogen C) Helium D) Water 2) Jupiter and the other jovian planets are sometimes called "gas giants." In what sense is this term misleading? A) They actually contain relatively little material in a.
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6) What are "dwarf planets"? 7) Briefly describe the evidence suggesting that a 10-km asteroid or comet hit Earth at the time of the dinosaur extinction. 8) Briefly describe how an impact could lead to a mass extinction. 9) Suppose the planet Jupiter had never formed. How do you think the distribution of.
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7.6   MasteringAstronomy Reading Quiz 1) Suppose we use a baseball to represent Earth. On this scale, the other terrestrial worlds (Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars) would range in size approximately from that of ________. A) a golf ball to a baseball B) a dust speck to a golf ball C) a dust speck.
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11) All the following statements are true. Which one is most important in explaining the tremendous tidal heating that occurs on Io? A) Io orbits Jupiter on an elliptical orbit, due to orbital resonances with other satellites. B) Io is the closest to Jupiter of Jupiter's large moons. C) Io exhibits synchronous rotation,.
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9.6   MasteringAstronomy Reading Quiz 1) Which of the following statements is not true? A) Objects in the Kuiper belt are made mostly of rock and metal. B) Objects in the asteroid belt are made mostly of rock and metal. C) Objects in the Oort cloud contain large proportions of ice. D) Objects in the asteroid.
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11.1   Multiple Choice Questions 1) Since all stars begin their lives with the same basic composition, what characteristic most determines how they will differ? A) location where they are formed B) time they are formed C) luminosity they are formed with D) mass they are formed with E) color they are formed with 2) What are the.
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11) The total number of comets orbiting the Sun is estimated to be about ________. A) 1 trillion B) 1,000 C) 100,000 D) 1 million 12) What is Charon? A) The largest of Pluto's three known moons B) The largest known Kuiper belt object C) The largest known asteroid D) A captured moon of Neptune 13) According to current evidence,.
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7.7   MasteringAstronomy Concept Quiz 1) The cores of the terrestrial worlds are made mostly of metal because ________. A) metals sunk to the centers a long time ago when the interiors were molten throughout B) the terrestrial worlds as a whole are made mostly of metal C) the core contained lots of radioactive elements.
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21) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would you find stars that are cool and luminous? A) upper right B) lower right C) upper left D) lower left 22) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would you find stars that have the largest radii? A) upper right B) lower right C) upper left D) lower left 23) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where.
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9.2   True/False Questions 1) A spacecraft traveling through the asteroid belt has a high risk of being destroyed through a collision. 2) All meteorites collected on Earth come from asteroids or comets. 3) No spacecraft has ever visited an asteroid or comet. 4) A spacecraft has captured and brought material to Earth from a.
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8.1   Multiple Choice Questions 1) If Jupiter were scaled to the size of a basketball, Earth would be the closest to the size of A) a pinhead. B) a marble. C) a baseball. D) a grapefruit. E) a basketball. 2) How many more times is the atmospheric pressure in Jupiter's core greater than the atmospheric pressure at.
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11) Suppose you try to bring two protons close together. Because of the electromagnetic force, the two protons will A) collide. B) remain stationary. C) attract one another. D) repel one another. E) join together to form a deuterium nucleus. 12) What is the only force that can overcome the repulsion between two positively charged nuclei.
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7.5   Questions Based on MasteringAstronomy Tutorials 1) If the Earth rotated much more slowly, which of the following would be a consequence of that? A) Days would be shorter. B) Seasons would last longer. C) Days would get hotter and nights would get colder. D) Seasons would be more extreme. 2) Why is Mars so much.
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