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Study Resources (Chemistry)

1.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) In the following list, only __________ is not an example of matter. A) planets B) light C) dust D) elemental phosphorus E) table salt 2) What is the physical state in which matter has no specific shape but does have a specific volume? A) gas B) solid C) liquid D) salts E) ice 3) The law of constant composition.
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18.4   True/False Questions 1) Energy production in the cell occurs primarily in the nucleus. 2) The cytosol is an aqueous solution of salts and enzymes. 3) Reactions in the mitochondria produce most of the cell's energy. 4) Digestion of a polysaccharide is an anabolic process. 5) The production of carbon dioxide and water in the.
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81) The removal of 2-carbon segments of a fatty acid for further metabolism is called A) β-oxidation. B) transamination. C) deglyceration. D) dehydration. E) decarboxylation. 82) The 2-carbon segments removed from a fatty acid during metabolism are used to form A) glucose. B) pyruvate. C) lactate. D) CoA. E) acetyl CoA. 83) The 2-carbon units obtained by degradation of a fatty acid.
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18.2   Bimodal Questions 1) The term that refers to all of the chemical reactions in living cells is ________. A) glycolysis B) β-oxidation C) metabolism D) anabolism E) catabolism 2) The energy for most energy-requiring reactions in the cells of the body is obtained by the hydrolysis of ________. A) ATP B) ADP C) AMP D) cyclic AMP E) GTP 3) Most of.
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17.3   Matching Questions Match the following. A) tRNA B) rRNA C) mRNA D) DNA 1) picks up the specific amino acids for protein synthesis 2) synthesized by the DNA to carry the genetic message to the ribosomes 3) contains within the nucleus of the cell the information for the synthesis of protein 4) the nucleic acid that contains the.
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15.4   Matching Questions Match the following. A) cholesterol B) hydrolysis C) fatty acids D) higher E) hydrogenation F) soap G) insoluble in water H) glycerin I) unsaturated J) lower K) ester L) plants M) animals 1) Triacylglycerols are formed from glycerol and ________. 2) a lipid that cannot be hydrolyzed 3) the functional group of triacylglycerols 4) a fatty acid with at least one double bond 5) the process.
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11) The two new DNA molecules formed in replication A) are different from the original DNA. B) both contain only two new daughter DNA strands. C) both contain only the parent DNA strands. D) contain one parent and one daughter strand. E) are identical, with one containing both parent strands, and the other containing both.
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21) Coenzyme A is a molecule whose function is to A) activate enzyme A. B) undergo phosphorylation. C) provide energy for the citric acid cycle. D) activate acyl groups for reaction. E) help break down macromolecules. 22) Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the A) mouth. B) stomach. C) pancreas. D) small intestine. E) large intestine. 23) An enzyme that can facilitate the.
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11) The bonds that are important in the secondary structure of a protein are A) hydrogen bonds. B) hydrophobic interactions. C) disulfide bonds. D) salt bridges. E) peptide bonds. 12) Which of the following is a secondary protein structure? A) α-helix B) Ser-Met-Ala-Gly-Ile C) disulfide bond D) salt bridges E) hydrophobic interactions 13) Which R group would most likely be found in.
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    31) A) wax B) triacylglycerol C) glycerophospholipid D) fatty acid E) steroid 32) A) triacylglycerol B) wax C) glycerophospholipid D) fatty acid E) steroid 33) A) glycerophospholipid B) triacylglycerol C) fatty acid D) steroid E) wax 34) A) steroid B) glycerophospholipid C) wax D) triacylglycerol E) prostaglandin 35) According to the fluid-mosaic model of a cell membrane, the main component of a membrane is A) a lipid bilayer. B) a membrane protein. C) fatty acid. D) a steroid. E).
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  16.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is not a function of proteins? A) provide structural components B) stores the genetic information of a living organism C) movement of muscles D) catalyze reactions in the cells E) transport substances through the bloodstream 2) Collagen, a protein found in tendons and cartilage, would be classified as a.
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31) The result of a defective enzyme caused by a mutation in the DNA nucleotide sequence is A) a genetic disease. B) AIDS. C) HIV. D) recombinant DNA. E) translocation. 32) Small living particles, with 3 to 200 genes, that cannot replicate without a host cell are called A) recombinant DNAs. B) viruses. C) bacteria. D) tumors. E) plasmids. 33) A virus.
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16.4   Matching Questions Identify the structural level in each protein.   A) primary structure B) secondary structure C) quaternary D) tertiary 1) The protein folds into a compact structure stabilized by interactions between R groups. 2) the combination of two or more protein molecules to form an active protein 3) pleated sheet 4) the peptide bonds between the amino acids 5).
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11) Which states of matter are significantly compressible? A) gases only B) liquids only C) solids only D) liquids and gases E) solids and liquids 12) For which of the following can the composition vary? A) pure substance B) element C) both homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures D) homogeneous mixture E) heterogeneous mixture 13) If matter is uniform throughout and cannot be separated.
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17.2   True/False Questions 1) Adenine is a purine. 2) Uracil is a pyrimidine. 3) AZT is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. 4) A retrovirus uses DNA as its genetic material. 5) A nucleotide consists of only a base and a sugar. 6) The unique sequence of bases in a nucleic acid is the.
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  15.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which statement is not true? A) Lipids are found in cell membranes. B) Lipids are soluble in organic solvents. C) There are many different types of lipids. D) All lipids contain fatty acids. E) Some hormones are lipids. 2) Lipids are compounds that are soluble in A) distilled water. B) normal saline solution. C) glucose solution. D).
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31) Within hemoglobin, the heme functions as A) a disulfide bridge. B) an oxygen carrier. C) a reducing agent. D) an α subunit. E) one of the four protein subunits. 32) Hemoglobin has a total of ________ protein chains in its quaternary structure. A) one B) two C) three D) four E) five 33) Wool is primarily made up of A) protein. B) carbohydrate. C).
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11) The first stage of catabolism is A) the citric acid cycle. B) production of pyruvate. C) production of acetyl CoA. D) buildup of macromolecules from monomers. E) digestion of large molecules. 12) The middle stage of catabolism is the point at which A) acetyl CoA is produced. B) monomers are produced from macromolecules. C) macromolecules are made from.
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15.2   Bimodal Questions 1) Cholesterol belongs to the ________ group of lipids. A) glycerophospholipid B) steroid C) prostaglandin D) triacylglycerol E) wax 2) A precursor of prostaglandins is ________ acid. A) oleic B) linoleic C) arachidonic D) tauric E) palmitic 3) In a simple model of atherosclerosis and heart disease, the compound that forms plaques that adhere to the walls of the blood.
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21) In the synthesis of mRNA, an adenine in the DNA pairs with A) uracil. B) adenine. C) guanine. D) thymine. E) cytosine. 22) A DNA template having the base sequence -A-G-A-T-G-A- would produce a mRNA with a base sequence of A) -A-G-A-T-G-A-. B) -U-C-U-A-C-U-. C) -T-C-T-U-C-T-. D) -T-C-T-A-C-A-. E) -A-C-A-U-C-A-. 23) Codons are base pair sequences that A) signal the start of.
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21) Which one of the following is not an intensive property? A) density B) temperature C) melting point D) mass E) boiling point 22) Which one of the following is an intensive property? A) mass B) temperature C) heat content D) volume E) amount 23) Of the following, only __________ is an extensive property. A) density B) mass C) boiling point D) freezing point E) temperature 24) Which.
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21) The main lipid components in cellular membranes are A) glycerolphospholipids. B) fatty acids. C) steroids. D) triacylglycerols. E) waxes. 22) Which of the lipid types listed below is most soluble in water? A) triacylglycerols B) glycerolphospholipids C) oils D) steroids E) waxes 23) Which of the following compounds is a glycerophospholipid? A) jojoba wax B) estrogen C) lecithin D) triolein E) stearic acid 24) Which of the.
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  Identify each of the following metabolic reactions. A) glycolysis B) citric acid cycle C) β-oxidation D) lipid metabolism E) transamination F) breaking down of macromolecules G) oxidative deamination H) electron transport 8) digestion 9) triacylglycerol hydrolysis 10) the conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid 11) the series of reactions that converts acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide and water 12) the series of.
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71) In mammals, the ammonium ion produced in oxidative deamination is A) excreted in the feces. B) stored in the liver. C) converted to uric acid, which is excreted in the urine. D) converted to urea, which is excreted in the urine. E) converted to uric acid, which is excreted by the liver. 72) The digestion.
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11) Compared to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids have A) longer carbon chains. B) shorter carbon chains. C) higher melting points. D) lower melting points. E) greater intermolecular attraction. 12) Waxes are lipids derived from A) a long-chain alcohol and a long-chain fatty acid. B) glycerol and three fatty acids. C) glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate, and an amino.
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51) To what main class of enzymes does the enzyme that catalyzes the following reaction belong? O OH ||| CH3?C?COO-   →CH3?CH?COO- A) oxidoreductase B) transferase C) hydrolase D) lyase E) isomerase 52) To what main class of enzymes does the enzyme that catalyzes the following reaction belong? ser?ala   →   ser  +  ala A) oxidoreductase B) transferase C) hydrolase D) lyase E) isomerase 53) Compared to an.
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  18.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which coenzyme is the electron acceptor in the following reaction? HH | | ? C? C ?    →    ? C ? C? | ||| A) FAD B) NAD+ C) CoQ D) NADH E) FADH2 2) Which coenzyme is the electron acceptor in the following reaction? OHO | || ? C?    →?C? | H A) FAD B) NAD+ C) CoQ D) NADH E) FADH2 3) Which of the following.
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  17.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) A ________ consists of a nitrogen-containing base and a sugar. A) nucleoside B) base pair C) nucleotide D) complementary base E) pyrimidine 2) A ________ consists of a nitrogen-containing base, a sugar, and a phosphate group. A) nucleoside B) base pair C) nucleotide D) complementary base E) purine 3) Which of the following cannot be found in a nucleotide.
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    Match the correct term in enzyme action with each description. A) enzyme-substrate complex B) lock-and-key theory C) coenzyme D) active site E) cofactor 24) the temporary combination of an enzyme with the compound on which it acts 25) an organic compound that is sometimes needed to complete an enzyme 26) the portion of an enzyme molecule where catalytic.
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31) In the absence of oxygen in muscles, pyruvate is converted to A) glycogen. B) glucose. C) ethanol. D) lactate. E) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. 32) Under anaerobic conditions, there is a net production of ________ ATP during glycolysis. A) zero B) two C) four D) six E) eight 33)  In order to enter the citric acid cycle, pyruvate is first converted to A) lactate. B) acetaldehyde. C).
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7) Hydrogenation of a double bond in a triacylglycerol requires a catalyst. 8) Most plant lipids are saturated lipids. 9) One function of glycerophospholipids is to provide structure to cell membranes. 10) In the fluid-mosaic model of cell membranes, the glycerophospholipid molecules are oriented with their heads to the outside of the membrane. 11).
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21) In the peptide Ala-Try-Gly-Phe, the N-terminal amino acid is A) alanine. B) phenylalanine. C) tryptophan. D) aspartic acid. E) glycine. 22) In the peptide Ser-Cys-Ala-Gly, the C-terminal end is A) serine. B) serotonin. C) glycine. D) glycerine. E) alanine. 23) A chain made of more than 50 amino acids is usually referred to as a(n) A) peptide. B) protein. C) enzyme. D) globulin. E) hormone. 24) The.
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41) The electron carrier ________ provides two ATP via electron transport. A) FADH2 B) NADH C) NADPH D) CoASH E) FMNH2 42) When oxygen is in plentiful supply in the cell, pyruvate is converted to A) CoA. B) acetyl CoA. C) glucose. D) lactate. E) fructose. 43) Which of the three major stages of metabolism includes the citric acid cycle? A) stage one B).
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11) FADH2 is the oxidized form of FAD. 12) Ammonium ions and carbon dioxide produce urea in the urea cycle. 13) The urea cycle is the major pathway for eliminating the excess nitrogen from amino acid degradation. 14) Chylomicrons consist of bile salts and lipids. 15) Protein digestion begins in the small intestine. 16) Carbohydrate.
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41) In a typical amino acid zwitterion, the carboxylic acid end is A) positively charged. B) negatively charged. C) neutral. D) soluble in a nonpolar solvent. E) attached to an amine. 42) Methionine is an amino acid that contains A) a sulfur atom. B) a chlorine atom. C) a sodium atom. D) a phenyl ring. E) a heterocyclic ring. 43) Disulfide bonds.
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16.2   Bimodal Questions 1) Immunoglobulin, a protein that stimulates immune responses, would be classified as a ________ protein. A) transport B) structural C) storage D) protection E) catalytic 2) In an enzyme, the polypeptide chain folds into a compact shape known as the ________ structure. A) pleated B) primary C) secondary D) tertiary E) quaternary 3) What amino acids have polar side chains.
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18.5   Matching Questions Indicate the amount of ATP produced when each of the following reactions occurs. A) 36 ATP B) 12 ATP C) 3 ATP D) 2 ATP E) 6 ATP 1) complete oxidation of glucose 2) Acetyl CoA  →  2CO2 3) glucose  →  2 pyruvate under aerobic conditions 4) glucose  →  2 lactate 5) pyruvate  →  acetyl CoA Match the terms.
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  Classify each protein by function. A) contractile B) protection C) structural D) transport E) catalytic 15) trypsin for the hydrolysis of protein 16) lipoproteins in the blood 17) collagen in tendons and cartilage 18) antibodies 19) actin in muscle Identify each of the designated regions on the energy diagram for the conversion of a substrate to product with and without an.
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16.3   Short Answer Questions 1) Collagen can be classified as a ________ protein. 2) The protein that transports oxygen in the blood is ________. 3) Proteins that stimulate immune response are known as ________. 4) Amino acids that are not synthesized in the body but must be ingested with the diet are called ________.
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