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Study Resources (Chemistry)

18.2   True/False Questions 1) All amino acids are made of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. 2) Only 10 different amino acids are needed to build every type of protein molecule found in humans. 3) The human body is able to synthesize as much of every type of amino acid as it needs. 4).
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  41)What is the hybridization of the carbon atom numbered 1 in the structure below? A)sp B)sp2 C)sp3 D)d2sp3 E)sp-sp2 42)Which of the following improperly describes the physical properties of an alkyne? A)relatively nonpolar B)nearly insoluble in water C)less dense than water D)insoluble in most organic solvents 43)Which of the following.
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61)The reagent needed to convert 2-butyne to cis-2-butene is: A)H2/Pt B)H2/Lindlar's catalyst C)Li/NH3 D)Na/NH3 E)H+/Zinc dust 62)A mixture of 1-heptyne, 2-heptyne, and 3-heptyne was hydrogenated in the presence of a platinum catalyst until hydrogen uptake ceased. If one assumes that the hydrogenation went to completion, how many distinct seven-carbon hydrocarbons.
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6) Construct a polypeptide consisting of alanine, valine, and serine. Circle the peptide bonds. The structures of the amino acids (prior to linkage) are shown below: Circle each OCNH amide linkage (2). 7) Write the three-letter, abbreviated amino acid sequence of this polypeptide (review the figure in the text that shows the.
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  31)Which of the following is not true of enantiomers? A)They have the same melting point. B)They have the same boiling point. C)They have the same chemical reactivity with non-chiral reagents. D)They have the same density. E)They have the same specific rotation. 32)Which of the following is/are optically inactive? A)a 50-50.
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  31)Which describes the bond strength or bond dissociation energy? A)energy required to break a bond B)energy released when a bond breaks C)energy released when a bond is formed D)A and B E)A and C 32)Which statement is correct? A)Energy is released when a bond breaks. B)A sigma bond results from.
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  21)Provide an acceptable name for the alkane shown below. 22)Provide an acceptable name for the alkane shown below. 23)Draw an acceptable structure for 4-t-butyloctane. 24)Draw an acceptable structure for 3-ethyl-3-methylhexane. 25)Draw an acceptable structure for 4-isopropyl-2-methylheptane. 26)Draw an acceptable structure for 6-ethyl-2,6,7-trimethyl-5-propylnonane. 27)Provide an acceptable name for the alkane shown.
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  71)The eclipsed and staggered forms of ethane are said to differ in __________. A)molecular formula B)configuration C)conformation D)constitution E)structure 72)Which of the following is the staggered conformation for rotation about the C2?C1 bond in the following structure? A)I B)II C)III D)IV E)V 73)Draw the Newman structure for the most stable.
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  41)What is the relationship between the following compounds? A)enantiomers B)diastereomers C)constitutional isomers D)conformational isomers E)identical compounds 42)What is the relationship between the following compounds? A)enantiomers B)diastereomers C)constitutional isomers D)conformational isomers E)identical compounds 43)Draw the structure of (2R,3S)-dichloropentane. Take particular care to indicate three-dimensional stereochemical detail properly. 44)Draw the structure of.
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21)Assign the E or Z configuration to the following molecule: 22)Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below. 23)Which of the following best describes the geometry about the carbon-carbon double bond in the alkene below? A)E B)Z C)neither E nor Z D)cis E)trans 24)Draw the structure of (Z)-4-ethyl-3-methyl-3-heptene..
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  81)Describe the source of angle strain and torsional strain present in cyclopropane. 82)What is Latin for "across"? A)substituent B)cis C)trans D)geometric isomer 83)Which of the following describes the most stable conformation of trans-1-tert-butyl-3-methylcyclohexane? A)Both groups are equatorial. B)Both groups are axial. C)The tert-butyl group is equatorial. D)The tert-butyl group is.
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1)Explain what is meant by the term "saturated hydrocarbons." 2)Describe the carbon-carbon bond differences between alkanes, alkene, and alkynes. 3)Explain the relationship between alkanes and gasoline. 4)Explain why alkanes are generally considered unreactive compounds. 5)Which of the following is the best description of propane, CH3CH2CH3, at room temperature? A)liquid, soluble.
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81)What is/are the major organic product(s) of the following reaction? A)CH2?CH2 + HC?CH B)CH3CH2C?CH C)HC?CBr D)HC?CCH2CH2Br E)CH3C?CCH3 82)What is the structure of the monomer from which the following polymer is made? A)CH3CH3 B)CH2?CH2 C)CH3CH?CH2 D)CH2?CHCH?CH2 E)CH3CH?CHCH3 83)What is the structure of the monomer from which the following polymer is made? A)I B)II.
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21)How many electrons are involved in a carbon-carbon triple bond? A)1 B)2 C)3 D)4 E)6 22)What is the general formula for a noncyclic alkyne? A)CnH2n+2 B)CnH2n C)CnH2n-1 D)CnH2n-2 E)CnH2n-4 23)What is the IUPAC name for the following alkyne? A)5-Bromo-2-heptyne B)3-Bromo-5-heptyne C)2-Bromomethyl-4-hexyne D)5-Bromo-5,5-dimethylhexyne E)5-Bromo-5-methyl-2-hexyne 24)Write structures and give IUPAC names for.
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  31)What does a "curved" arrow represent? A)that two structures are resonance structures B)the movement of two electrons C)a link between reactants and products D)that two structures are equivalent 32)Draw the curved arrows to show how CH3CH=CHCH3 reacts with HBr to form a carbocation. 33)A nucleophile acts as a __________ when it.
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  41)How is NH4+Cl- classified? A)a quarternary ammonium salt B)a primary amine C)a secondary amine D)a secondary ammonium salt E)a tertiary ammonium salt 42)How is the structure shown below classified?   A)a secondary alcohol B)a primary alcohol C)a quarternary alcohol D)a tertiary alcohol E)an ether 43)What is the hybridization of the nitrogen.
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  11)How should (CH3)2C(OH)CH2CH3 be classified? A)primary alcohol B)secondary alcohol C)tertiary alcohol D)quarternary alcohol E)none of the above 12)How should CH3CHClCH2CH3 be classified?  A)primary alkyl halide B)secondary alkyl halide C)tertiary alkyl halide D)quarternary alkyl halide E)pentanary alkyl halide 13)What is the common name for the following structure? A)Isobutane B)Isopropylmethane C)t-Butane D)n-Butane E)sec-Butane.
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21)Draw the Kekulé structure for each of the following: a.CH3CH2OH b.CH3CHO c.(CH3)3C+ 22)What is the formal charge on the phosphorus in the PO43- polyatomic ion? A)-3 B)-2 C)-1 D)0 E)+1 23)The formal charge on nitrogen in the compound below is __________. A)+2 B)+1 C)0 D)-1 E)-2 24)The Kekulé structure of pentane is.
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31)How many distinct terminal alkynes exist with a molecular formula of C5H8? A)1 B)2 C)3 D)4 E)5 32)How many distinct internal alkynes exist with a molecular formula of C6H10? A)1 B)2 C)3 D)4 E)5 33)What is the common name for the following alkyne? A)Neohexyne B)Trimethylpropyne C)Trimethylacetylene D)tert-Butylacetylene E)Isopropylacetylene 34)Give the.
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  31)Give the systematic name of the cycloalkane shown below. 32)Draw an acceptable structure for sec-butylcyclopentane. 33)What is the common name for the following structure? A)Isobutyl bromide B)t-Butyl bromide C)Neobutyl bromide D)sec-Butyl bromide E)Isopropyl methyl bromide 34)Give the IUPAC name for the following compound: A)1-chloro-2-methylcyclohexane B)1-methyl-2-chlorocyclohexane C)1-chloro-5-methylcyclohexane D)1-methyl-5-chlorocyclohexane E)1,2-chloromethylcyclohexane 35)Draw the structure for.
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1)Write two of the constitutional isomers for C3H8O. 2)Draw the cis and trans isomers for 2-hexene. 3)Draw the cis and trans isomers for 1-bromo-2-methylcyclopropane. 4)What is the IUPAC name of the following structure? 5)What is the IUPAC name of the following structure?   6)Explain how to determine if an object or.
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11) Lysine is considered an essential amino acid. 12) Sucrose is the smallest building block for carbohydrates. 13) Amino acids are the smallest building blocks for proteins . 14) Nylon contains only one type of monomer. 15) Teflon is synthesized with a monomer containing carbons and chlorines. 16) Polymers are very large molecules. .
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71)Which of the species below is less basic than acetylide,  ? A)CH3Li B)CH3ONa C)NaOH D)both B and C E)all of the above 72)Among the compounds water, 1-butyne, 2-butyne, and ethane, which are stronger acids than ammonia? A)1-butyne and ethane B)water and 1-butyne C)water and ethane D)1-butyne and 2-butyne 73)What type.
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  61)Explain why trimethylamine, (CH3)3N:, has a considerably lower boiling point than propylamine CH3CH2CH2NH2, even though both compounds have the same molecular formula.  62)Which of the molecules below has the higher boiling point? Briefly explain your choice. CH3CH2CH2OHorCH3CH2OCH3 63)Would you expect sodium chloride (NaCl) to be highly soluble in the organic solvent.
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  21)Which of the following terms best describes the pair of compounds shown:  enantiomers, diastereomers, or the same compound? 22)Which of the following statements correctly describes the molecule shown below? A)It is achiral. B)It is meso. C)Its asymmetric center possesses the R configuration. D)The mirror image of this molecule is its.
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  31)How many benzylic hydrogens are present in the following molecule? A)2 B)3 C)4 D)5 E)zero 32)Which of the following compounds is more stable? Explain. 33)Which of the following is the most stable diene? A)I B)II C)III D)IV E)V 34)Rank the following dienes in order of increasing stability: trans-1, 3-pentadiene, cis-1,3-pentadiene, 1,4-pentadiene,.
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1)What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon that contains 5 carbon atoms, one ring, and one π  bond? 2)What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon that contains 8 carbon atoms, one ring, and two π  bonds? 3)What is the condensed formula of an unsaturated hydrocarbon containing three carbons?.
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  51)Why is phenol a stronger acid than cyclohexanol? 52)Which of the following ions is most acidic? A)C6H5NH3+ B)C6H5CH2NH3+ C)(CH3)2CHNH3+ D)CH3CH2NH3+ E)CH3NH3+ 53)Which of the following is the weakest base? A)phenolate ion (C6H5O-) B)ethoxide ion (CH3CH2O-) C)hydroxide ion (HO-) D)acetate ion (CH3CO2-) E)methoxide ion (CH3O-) 54)Which of the following is correct.
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  11)Which of the following is an allylic alcohol? A)CH2=CHCH2OCH3 B)CH2=CHCH2CH3 C)HOCH=CHCH2CH3 D)CH3CH=CHCH2OH E)CH2=CHCH2CH2OH 12)Provide the systematic name of the compound below. 13)Which of the following statements about ethene, C2H4, is incorrect? A)The H-C-H bond angles are approximately 109.5°. B)All of the hydrogen atoms are in the same plane. C)There.
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  11)Is the molecule shown below chiral or achiral? 12)Which of the following compounds has an asymmetric center? A)I B)II C)III D)IV E)V 13)Mark each asymmetric center in the following molecule with an asterisk. 14)Mark each asymmetric center in the following molecule with an asterisk.  15)How many asymmetric centers are present in.
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  51)Which of the following is the strongest interaction? A)a covalent bond B)induced dipole-induced dipole interactions C)dipole-dipole interactions D)hydrogen bonding E)van der Waals 52)Rank the following molecules in increasing order of solubility in water: HOCH2CH2OH, CH3CH2OH, CH3CH2CH3 53)Which of the following will have the lowest boiling point? A)CH3Cl B)CH4 C)CH2Cl2 D)CHCl3.
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  41)Which carbon(s) in the following molecule is (are) sp hybridized? A)carbon 1 B)carbon 2 C)carbon 1, 3 D)carbon 4 E)carbon 4, 5 42)Which of the following is an sp2 hybridized carbon? A) B)? CH3 C) D)A and B E)A, B and C 43)What orbitals overlap to create the H-C bond in.
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  51)What is the relationship between the following compounds? A)enantiomers B)diastereomers C)constitutional isomers D)conformational isomers E)identical compounds 52)Consider the molecule C2H2Br2Cl2. a)Draw a structure that is optically inactive because it does not have an asymmetric center. b)Draw a structure that is optically inactive because it is a meso compound. c)Draw a structure that is.
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1)Which of the following statements are correct concerning localized electrons? A)Electrons are restricted to a particular region. B)Electrons belong to a single atom. C)Electrons are related to a bond between atoms. D)A, B, and C E)A, and C 2)Which of the following statements are correct concerning delocalized electrons ? A)Electrons.
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18.3   Short Answer Questions 1) Draw the repeating, monomeric unit of Kevlar, a polyamide made from terephthalic acid and 1,4-diaminobenzene. These compounds are pictured below: 2) Properly connect three monomeric styrene units (the structure of styrene is provided below) to make a short segment of the polymer polystyrene. 3) Properly connect three.
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21)Which of the following is the most stable resonance contributor to acetic acid? A) B) C) D) E) 22)Draw four resonance contributors for the following structure and indicate which is the most important contributor. Explain. 23)Order the following molecules in decreasing order of stability: 24)Stabilization of a charged species usually results.
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1)Which of the following is not a conjugate acid-base pair? A) B) C)HSO-4, H2SO4 D)-OH, O2- E)NO3-, NO2- 2)Which is defined as a species that accepts a proton? A)Arrenhius acid B)Lewis acid C)Lewis base D)Bronsted-Lowry acid E)Bronsted-Lowry base 3)What is the product formed from the following acid-base reaction? A)CH3O-   +   +NH4.
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  11)Are the following pairs of structures resonance contributors or different compounds? 12)Draw the important resonance structures of: H2—?N: 13)Draw the important resonance structure of: 14)Draw the important resonance structures of: 15)Draw the important resonance contributing forms for the structure shown below. 16)Draw the important resonance contributing forms for the structure shown below. .
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  41)Which of the following is/are the major product(s) of the following reaction? A)I B)I and II C)I and III D)II E)III 42)Provide the structure of the major organic product(s) in the reaction below. 43)Which of the following is/are the major product(s) of the following reaction? A)I B)I and III C)II D)II.
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  31)Explain why :NF3 is a weaker base than :NH3. 32)Consider the set of compounds, NH3, HF, and H2O. Rank these compounds in order of increasing acidity and discuss your rationale. 33)Would you predict trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, CF3SO3H, to be a stronger or weaker acid than methanesulfonic acid, CH3SO3H? Explain your reasoning..
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51)Which of the following species have tetrahedral bond angles? A)A, D and E B)A, D, E and F C)A and E D)D only E)A, B and E 52)The carbon-carbon double bond in ethene is __________ and __________ than the carbon-carbon triple bond in ethyne. A)stronger; shorter B)stronger; longer C)weaker; shorter D)weaker;.
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