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31) Nuclides below the valley of stability can become more stable through which of the following processes? A) gamma emission B) beta emission C) positron emission D) neutron emission E) neutron bombardment 32) Which of the following nuclides are most likely to decay via beta decay? A) I-131 B) Ar-40 C) F-18 D) Zr-90 E) Pb-206 33) Which of the following.
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  22.1  Multiple Choice Questions 1) Give the number of covalent bonds that a carbon atom can form. A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5 2) Identify the formula for an alkene. A) CnH2n+2 B) CnH2n-2 C) CnH2n D) CnH2n-4 E) CnH2n+4 3) Identify the formula for an alkane. A) CnH2n+2 B) CnH2n-2 C) CnH2n D) CnH2n-4 E) CnH2n+4 4) Identify the formula for an alkyne. A) CnH2n+2 B).
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  19.1  Multiple Choice Questions 1) Which of the following statements is true? A) There is a "heat tax" for every energy transaction. B) A spontaneous reaction is always a fast reaction. C) The entropy of a system always decreases for a spontaneous process. D) Perpetual motion machines are a possibility in the near future. E) None.
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6) How many microstates are possible in a collection of four particles that are present, with two particles each in two connected flasks?  Sketch them below. 7) Define the second law of thermodynamics. 8) Give the standard states for a gas, liquid, solid, and solution. 9) Define the third law of thermodynamics. 10) Define.
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  21.1  Multiple Choice Questions 1) Identify the scientist(s) that were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for the discovery of radioactivity in 1903. A) Johannes Geiger, Marie Curie B) Albert Einstein C) Antoine-Henri Becquerel, Marie Curie, Pierre Curie D) Ernest Rutherford, Johannes Geiger E) Galileo Galilei 2) Identify an alpha particle. A) e B) n C) e D) He E) γ 3) Which.
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19.3  Matching Questions Match the following. A) ΔG > ΔG° B) equilibrium C) ΔG > 0 D) standard state E) K = 0 F) DG < 0 G) ΔG < ΔG° 1) Q = K Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page Ref: 19.9 Global:  G2 2) Q < K Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page Ref: 19.9 Global:  G2 3) Q > K Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page.
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41) Below what temperature does the following reaction become nonspontaneous? 2 HNO3(aq) + NO(g) → 3 NO2(g) + H2O(l)ΔH = +136.5 kJ; ΔS = +287.5 J/K A) 39.2 K B) 151 K C) 475 K D) This reaction is nonspontaneous at all temperatures. E) This reaction is spontaneous at all temperatures. 42) What can change the direction.
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21.3  Matching Questions Match the following. A) n B) g C) p D) He E) e F) e 1) positron Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page Ref: 21.3 Global:  G2 2) gamma ray Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page Ref: 21.3 Global:  G2 3) alpha particle Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page Ref: 21.3 Global:  G2 4) beta particle Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page Ref: 21.3 Global:  G2 5) proton Diff: 1    Var: 1   .
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  20.1  Multiple Choice Questions 1) What element is being reduced in the following redox reaction? MnO4?(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) → Mn2+(aq) + CO2(g) A) C B) O C) Mn D) H 2) What element is being oxidized in the following redox reaction? MnO4?(aq) + H2C2O4(aq) → Mn2+(aq) + CO2(g) A) C B) O C) Mn D) H 3) What element is being reduced in.
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51) Calculate the cell potential for the following reaction that takes place in an electrochemical cell at 25°C. Al(s) ? Al3+(aq, 0.115 M) Al3+(aq, 3.89 M) ? Al(s) A) +1.66 V B) +0.060 V C) 0.00 V D) +0.090 V E) +0.030 V 52) Identify the battery that is in most automobiles. A) dry-cell battery B) lithium ion.
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21) Which of the following statements is true? A) Entropy is an extensive property. B) Entropy is temperature independent. C) Exothermic processes decrease the entropy of the surroundings. D) ΔSuniverse is always greater than zero for a nonspontaneous process. E) None of the above are true. 22) Calculate ΔS°rxn for the following reaction.  The S° for.
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18.3  Matching Questions Match the following. A) equivalence point of a weak acid/strong base titration B) equivalence point of a strong acid/strong base titration C) equivalence point of a weak base/strong acid titration D) half-way to equivalence point of a weak acid/strong base titration E) 3/4 of the way to second equivalence point of a diprotic.
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31) The half-life of cobalt-60 is 5.20 yr. How many milligrams of a 2.000-mg sample remains after 9.50 years? A) 0.565 B) 7.03 × 10-22 C) 7.076 D) 1.095 E) 1.435 32) Strontium-90 is a byproduct in nuclear reactors fueled by the radioisotope uranium-235. The half-life of strontium-90 is 28.8 yr. What percentage of a.
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11) Place the following in order of decreasing standard molar entropy. KCl(s)Na3PO4(aq)KCl(aq) A) KCl(s) > KCl(aq) > Na3PO4(aq) B) KCl(aq) > KCl(s) > Na3PO4(aq) C) Na3PO4(aq) > KCl(aq) > KCl(s) D) KCl(s) > Na3PO4(aq) > KCl(aq) E) KCl(aq) > Na3PO4(aq) > KCl(s) 12) Which one of the following has the highest standard molar entropy, S°, at 25°C? A).
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21) What is undergoing reduction in the redox reaction represented by the following cell notation? Cr(s) ? Cr3+(aq) I2(g) ? I?(aq) ? Pt A) Cr(s) B) Cr3+(aq) C) I2(g) D) I?(aq) E) Pt 22) What is undergoing oxidation in the redox reaction represented by the following cell notation? Fe(s) ? Fe3+(aq) F2(g) ? F?(aq) ? Pt A).
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51) Calculate the ΔG°rxn using the following information. 4 HNO3(g) + 5 N2H4(l) → 7 N2(g) + 12 H2O(l)ΔG°rxn = ? ΔH°f (kJ/mol)-133.950.6-285.8 S°(J/mol?K)   266.9121.2191.670.0 A) +4.90 × 103 kJ B) +3.90 × 103 kJ C) -2.04 × 103 kJ D) -3.15 × 103 kJ E) -3.30 × 103 kJ 52) Calculate the ΔG°rxn using the following information. 2.
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21.4  Short Answer Questions 1) Define radioactivity. 2) Why is an alpha emitter much more harmful if is ingested than when applied to the skin? 3) Describe what is meant by the term "valley of stability"? 4) Explain the concept of "magic numbers." 5) How does a dosimeter measure exposure to radioactivity? .
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21.2  Algorithmic Questions 1) Identify the radioactive green light that glows in the dark. A) methyl red B) radioactivity C) phosphorescence D) desensitivity E) neon 2) Which particle has the highest penetrating power? A) alpha particle B) proton particle C) gamma particle D) positron emission E) electron emission 3) Which particle has the lowest penetrating power? A) alpha particle B) beta particle C) gamma particle D) positron.
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11) Name the following compound. A) 3-ethyl-3-methylhexane B) 3-methyl-3-propylpentane C) 3-ethyl-3-propylbutane D) nonane E) 2-ethylheptane 12) Name the following compound. A) 4-methyl-4-propylpentane B) 4,4-dimethylheptane C) nonane D) 4-propyl-4-methylpentane E) 2-methyl-2-propylpentane 13) Name the following compound. A) 2-methyl-3-methylhexane B) heptane C) 2,3-dimethylpentane D) 3,4-dimethylpentane E) 2,4-dimethylpropane 14) Which of the following names is correct? A) 3-butyl-4-pentene B) 3-ethyl-1-heptene C) 3-etheneheptane D) 5-ethyl-6-heptene E) All of the above are correct. 15) Name the following compound. A).
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31) Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent? A) Br2(l) B) Au3+(aq) C) Ag(s) D) Br?(aq) E) K(s) 32) Which of the following is the weakest reducing agent? A) Cl2(l) B) ClO2-(aq) C) Ag(s) D) I?(aq) E) Au(s) 33) Which of the following is the strongest oxidizing agent? A) H2O2(aq) B) Cr3+(aq) C) ClO2(g) D) I2(s) E) Mg(s) 34) Determine which of the following pairs.
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31) Use the standard half-cell potentials listed below to calculate the standard cell potential for the following reaction occurring in an electrochemical cell at 25°C. (The equation is balanced.) Sn(s) + 2 Ag?(aq) → Sn2+(aq) + 2 Ag(s) Sn2+(aq) + 2 e? → Sn(s) E° = -0.14 V Ag?(aq) + e? → Ag(s).
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51) Write a nuclear equation to describe the spontaneous fission of Am to form I-134 and Mo-107. Determine how many neutrons are produced in the reaction. A) 0 B) 1 C) 2 D) 3 E) 4 52) Write a nuclear equation to describe the neutron induced fission of U-235 to form Xe-134 and Sr-100.  Determine how many.
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11) What is the reduction half-reaction for the following overall galvanic cell reaction? Pb2+(aq) + 2 Ag(s) → Pb(s) + 2 Ag+(aq) A) Ag(s) + e- → Ag+(aq) B) Ag+(aq) + e- → Ag(s) C) Pb2+(aq) + 2 e- → Pb(s) D) Pb2+(aq) + e- → Pb(s) 12) What is the shorthand notation that represents the.
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21) Determine the identity of the daughter nuclide from the electron capture by Pa. A) Th B) Np C) Ac D) U E) Th 22) The following reaction represents what nuclear process? Am → He + Np A) beta emission B) neutron bombardment C) alpha emission D) electron capture E) positron emission 23) The following reaction represents what nuclear process? Cs + e →.
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20.2  Algorithmic Questions 1) Identify oxidation. A) increase in oxidation number B) loss of electrons C) gain of electrons D) loss of protons E) both A and B 2) What element is being oxidized in the following redox reaction? Ni2+(aq) + NH4+(aq) → Ni(s) + NO3?(aq) A) Ni B) N C) H D) O 3) How many electrons are transferred in the following.
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19.2  Algorithmic Questions 1) In which of the following processes does the substance become more orderly? A) water freezing B) ice melting C) water evaporating D) salt dissolving in water E) dry ice subliming 2) Identify the change in state that does not have an increase in entropy. A) gasoline freezing B) water boiling C) ice melting D) dry ice subliming E).
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11) Identify the statement that is false. A) The entropy of a gas is greater than the entropy of a liquid. B) Entropy generally increases with increasing molecular complexity. C) Free atoms have greater entropy than molecules. D) Entropy increases with dissolution. E) For noble gasses, entropy increases with size. 12) Place the following in order.
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20.4  Short Answer Questions 1) What is the difference between a voltaic cell and an electrolytic cell? 2) Sketch a voltaic cell that contains the following half reactions and label all relevant components. Zn2+(aq) + 2e? → Zn(s)E°= -0.76 V Cu2+(aq) + 2e? → Cu(s)E°= +0.34 V 3) Give an example of an inert electrode. 4).
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20.3  Matching Questions Match the following. A) Ecell > 0 B) Ecell = 0 C) E°cell < 0 D) E°cell > 0 E) Ecell = E°cell F) Ecell < 0 1) Q = 1 Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page Ref: 20.6 Global:  G2 2) Q > K Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page Ref: 20.6 Global:  G2 3) Q < K Diff: 1    Var: 1    Page.
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