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3.32. Perform the following pressure conversions, assuming when necessary that atmospheric pressure is 1 atm. Unless otherwise stated, the given pressures are absolute. (e) 20 cm Hg of vacuum to atm (absolute) 3. 36. The great Boston molasses flood occurred on January 15, 1919. In it, 2.3 million gallons of crude molasses.
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  EXAMPLE 4.4-2 A mixture containing 50.0 wt% acetone and 50.0 wt% water is to be separated into two streams—one enriched in acetone, the other is water. The separation process consists of extraction of the acetone from the water into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), which dissolves acetone but is nearly immiscible with.
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3.44 An open-end mercury manometer is connected to a low-pressure pipeline that supplies a gas to a laboratory because paint was spilled on the arm connected to the line during laboratory renovation, it is impossible to see the level of the manometer fluid in this arm. During a period when.
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    EXAMPLE 3.4-2 1. A differential mano meter is used to measure the drop in pressure between two points in a process line containing water. The specific gravity of the manometer fluid is 1.05. The measured levels in each arm are shown below. Calculate the pressure drop between points 1 and 2.
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  TEST YOURSELF 1. What is Bourdon gauge? What range of pressure can it be used to measure? As it is normally calibrated, does it measure gauge or absolute pressure? 2. What is an open-end manometer? A differential manometer? A sealed-end manometer? 3. True or false? (a) An open-end manometer provides a direct reading of.
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  EXAMPLE 3.1-1 Calculate the density of mercury in lbm/ft3 from a tabulated specific gravity, and calculate the volume in ft3 occupied by 215 kg of mercury. EXAMPLE 3.1-2 In Example 3.1-1, 215 kg of mercury was found to occupy 0.560 ft3 at 20°C. (1) What volume would the mercury occupy at 100°C? (2).
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  EXAMPLE 4.5-2 The flowchart of a steady-state process to recover crystalline potassium chromate (K2CrCO4) from an aqueous solution of this salt is shown below. Forty-five hundred kilograms per hour of a solution that is one-third K2CrCO4 by mass is joined by a recycle stream containing 36.4% K2CrCO4, and the combined stream is.
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  EXAMPLE 4.6-2 If the water-gas shift reaction CO(g) + H2CO(g) CO2(g) + H2(g) proceeds to equilibrium at a temperature T (K), the mole fractions of the four reactive species satisfy the relation where K(T) is the reaction equilibrium constant. At T = 1105 K, K = 1.00. Suppose the fed to a reactor contains 1.00.
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    EXAMPLE 4.3-1 An experiment on the growth rate of certain organisms requires an environment of humid air enriched in oxygen. Three input streams are fed into an evaporation chamber to produce an output stream with the desired composition. A: Liquid water, fed at a rate of 20.0 cm3/min B: Air (21 mole %.
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  TEST YOURSELF A liquid that is almost entirely water is reported to contain 125 ppb phenol (mass basis). 1. What is the mass fraction of phenol in the liquid? 2. How many milligrams of phenol are contained in one kilogram of the liquid? 3. What is the approximate concentration of phenol in the liquid.
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    EXAMPLE 4.6-1 Acrylonitrile is produced in the reaction of propylene, ammonia, and oxygen: C3H6 + NH3 + 3/2 O2 ? C3H3N + 3 H2O The feed contains 10.0 mole% propylene, 12.0% ammonia, and 78.0% air. A fractional of 30.3% of the limiting reactant is achieved. Taking 100 mol of feed as a basis,.
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  TEST YOURSELF 1. What is a balanced process? How do you scale a flowchart? What is a basis of calculation? 2. The processes shown below were balanced using the indicate bases of calculation. Scale as directed, and draw flowcharts for the scaled processes. (a) Mix C2H6 with air. Basis of calculation: 100 mol.
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  2.40. A solution containing hazardous waste is charged into a storage tank and subjected to a chemical treatment taht decomposes the waste to harmless products. The concentration of the decomposing waste C, has been reported to vary with time according to the formula C = 1 /(a + bt) When sufficient time.
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3.22. A mixture of  ethanol (ethyl alcohol) and water contains 60.0% water by mass. (a) Assuming volume additivity of the components, estimate the specific gravity of the mixture at 20C. What volume (in liters) of this mixture is required to provide 150 mol of ethanol? 3.24. A liquid mixture is prepared by.
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    2.18. Two thermocouples (temperature measurement devices) are tested by inserting their probes in boiling water, recoding the readings, removing and drying the probes, and then doing it again. The results of five measurements are as follows: (a) For each set of temperature readings, calculate the sample mean, the range, and the.
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    EXAMPLE 4.3-3 An aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide contains 20.0% NaOH by mass. It is desired to produce an 8.0% NaOH solution by a stream of the 20% solution with a stream of pure water. Calculate the rations (liters H2O/kg feed solution) and (kg product solution/kg feed solution).   .
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  EXAMPLE 4.3-5 A liquid mixture containing 45.0% benzene (B) and 55.0% toluene (T) by mass is fed to a distillation column. A product stream leaving the top of the column (the overhead product) contains 95.0 mole% B, and a bottom product stream contains 8.0% of the benzene fed to the column.
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  EXAMPLE 4.4-1 A labeled flowchart of a continuous steady-state two-unit process is shown below. Each stream contains two components. A and B, in different proportions. Three streams whose flow rates and/or compositions are not known are labeled 1, 2 and 3. Calculate the unknown flow rates and compositions off streams 1, 2,.
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  EXAMPLE 4.2-3 Two methanol-water mixtures are contained in separate flasks. The first mixture contains 40.0 wt% methanol, and the second contains 70.0 wt% methanol. If 200g of the first mixture is combined with 150 g of the second, what are the mass and composition of the product?   .
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PROBLEMS 2.2. Using the table of conversion factors on the inside front cover, convert (c) 921 kg/m3 to lbm/ft3 2.6. You are to decide which of two automobiles to buy. The first is American-made, costs $14,500, and has to rated gasoline mileage of 28 miles/gal. The second car is of European manufacture,.
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  PROBLEMS 3.2. Calculate densities in lbm/ft3 of the following sentences: (b) a solid with a specific gravity of 5.7. 3.4. Assume the price of gasoline in France is approximately 5 French francs per liter and the exchange rate is 5.22 francs per U.S. dollar. How much would you pay, in dollars, for 50.0.
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3.12. Aqueous solutions of the amino acid L-isoleucine (Ile) are prepared by putting 100.0 grams of pure water into each of six flasks and adding different precisely weighed quantities of Ile to each flask. The densities of the solutions at 50.0?0.05°C are then measured with a precision densitometer, with the.
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    2.30. Sketch the plots described below and calculate the equations for y(x)  from the given information. The plots  are all straight lines. None that  the given coordinates refer to abscissa and ordinate values, not x and y values. (d) A semilog plot of xy (logarithmetic axis)  versus y/x passes through.
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    EXAMPLE 4.2-1 Each year 50,000 people move into a city, 75,000 people move out, 22,000 are born, and 19,000 die. Write a balance on the population of the city. EXAMPLE 4.2-2 One thousand kilograms per hour of a mixture benzene (B) and toluene (T) containing 50% benzene by mass is separated by distillation.
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