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  PROBLEMS 4.4. Draw and label the given streams and derive expressions for the indicated quantities in terms of labeled variables. The solution of part (a) is given as an illustration. (d) A continuous stream of humid air contains water vapor and dry air, the latter containing approximately 21 mole% O2 and 79%.
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  TEST YOURSELF 1. What is an equation of state? What is the ideal gas equation of state? At what conditions (high or low temperature, high or low pressure) does the ideal gas question provide the most accurate estimate? 2. Two gas cylinders have identical volumes and contain gases at identical temperature and.
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    EXAMPLE 4.8-3 Ethane is burned with 50% excess air. The percentage conversion of the ethane is 90%; of the ethane burned, 25% reacts to form CO and the balance reacts to form CO2. Calculate the molar composition of the stack gas on a dry basis and the mole ratio of water.
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TEST YOURSELF Suggest a method that might be suitable to achieve each of the following separations. 1. Separate crude oil into volatile low molecular weight compounds (naphthas used to make gasoline and light chemicals), intermediate molecular weight compounds (used for heating oils), and nonvolatile high molecular weight compounds (used of lubricating oils). 2..
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    TEST YOURSELF However, any two of the reactions are independent. (They must be, since each one involves at least one species that does not appear in the other one.) 1. A mixture of ethylene and nitrogen is fed to a reactor in which some of the ethylene is dimerized to butene. How many.
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  TEST YOURSELF Consider the following pair of reactions: A ? 2B (desired) A ? C (undesired) Suppose 100 mol of A is fed to a batch reactor and the final product contains 10 mol aof A, 160 mol of B, and 10 mol of C. Calculate 1. The fractional conversion of A. 2. The percentage yield.
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    EXAMPLE 5.3-1 Two gram-moles of nitrogen is placed in a three-liter tank at – 150.8°C. Estimate the tank pressure using the ideal gas equation of state and then using the virial equation of state truncated after the second term. Taking the second estimate to be correct, calculate the percentage error that.
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4.34. An evaporation-crystallization process of the type described in Example 4.5-2 is used to obtain solid potassium sulfate from an aqueous solution of this salt. The fresh feed to the process contains 19.6 wt% K2SO4. The wet filter cake consists of solid K2SO4 crystals and a 40.0 wt% K2SO4 solution,.
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    EXAMPLE 4.7-3 Methanol is produced in the reaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen: CO2 + 3 H2   CH3OH + H2O The fresh feed to the process contains hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and 0.400 mole% ierts (I). The reactor effluent passes to a condenser that removes essentially all of the methanol and water formed.
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    EXAMPLE 5.4-1 Fifty cubic meters per hour of methane flows through a pipeline at 40.0 bar absolute and 300.0 K. Use z from page 2-144 of perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook to estimate the mass flow rate in Kg/h. EXAMPLE 5.4-2 One hundred gram-moles of nitrogen is contained in a 5-liter vessel at -206C..
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5.32. The oxidation of nitric oxide takes place in an isothermal batch reactor. The reactor is charged with a mixture containing 20.0 volume percent NO and the balance air at an initial pressure of 380 kPa (absolute). (a) Assuming ideal gas behaviour, determine the composition of the mixture (component mole fractions) and.
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  TEST YOURSELF A reaction with stochiometry A ? B takes place in a process with the following flowchart: 1. What is the overall conversion of A for this process? What is the single-pass conversion? 2. The separation unit and recycle pump and piping are expressive. Why not eliminate them and sell the effluent.
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4.54. The following two reactions take place in a gas-phase reactor: If the system comes to equilibrium at 3000 K and 1 atm, the product gas mole fractions satisfy the relations Write a computer program to implement the Newton-Raphson procedure of part (c) for an arbitrary starting composition. The program should take.
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4.24. The indicator dilution method is a technique used to determine flow rates of fluids in channels for which devices like rotameters and orifice meters cannot be used (e.g., rivers, blood vessels, and large diameter pipelines). A stream of an easily measured substance (the tracer) is injected into the channel.
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    EXAMPLE 4.7-1 Methane is burned with air in a continuous steady-state combustion reactor to yield a mixture of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water. The reactions taking place are CH4 + 3/2 O2 ? CO + 2H2O (1) CH4 + 2CO2 ? CO2 + 2H2O (2) The feed to the reactor contains 7.80 mole%.
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  EXAMPLE 4.8-1 1. Wet Basis Dry Basis. A stack gas contains 60.0 mole % N2, 15.0% CO2, and the balance H2O. Calculate the molar composition of the gas on a dry basis. 2. Dry Basis Wet Basis An Orsat analysis (a technique for stack analysis) yields the following dry basis composition: A humidity measurement shows.
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  TEST YOURSELF 1. What are standard temperature and pressure? What are the values of Vs in the SI, CGS, and American Engineering systems? 2. What happens to the volume of an ideal gas when you double the pressure at a fixed temperature? When you double the temperature at a fixed pressure? 3. What.
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  TEST YOURSELF The critical temperature and pressure of isopropanol (isopropyl alcohol) are Tc = 508.8 K and Pc = 53.0 atm. 1. Isopropanol is in a gaseous state at T = 400 K and P = 1 atm. Would it be classified as a vapor or a gas? 2. Isopropanol is compressed isothermally.
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4.44. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is used extensively as a white pigment. It is produced from an ore that contains ilmenite (FeTiO3) and ferric oxide (Fe2O3). The ore is digested with an aqueous sulfuric acid solution to produce an aqueous solution of titanyl sulfate [(TiO)SO4] and ferrous sulfate (FeSO4). Water is.
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    TEST YOURSELF What are the overall and single-pass conversions for the process shown in figure 4.5-1 on p. 110?   EXAMPLE 4.7-2 Propane is dehydrogenated to form propylene in a catalytic reactor: C3H8 ? C3H6 + H2 The process is to be designed for a 95% overall conversion of propane. The reaction products are separated into.
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    EXAMPLE 5.2-2 Butane (C4H10) at 360°C and 3.00 atm absolute flows into a reactor at a rate of 1100 kg/h. Calculate the volumetric flow rate of this stream using conversion from standard conditions. EXAMPLE 5.2-2 Ten cubic feet of air at 70°F and 1.00 atm is heated to 610°F and compressed to 2.50.
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