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Study Resources (Chemistry)

    EXAMPLE 6.4-2 Use either Raoult's law or henry's law to solve the following problems. 1. A gas containing 1.00 mole% ethane is in contact with water at 20.0°C and 20.0 atm. Estimate the mole fraction of dissolved ethane. 2. An equimolar liquid mixture of benzene (B) and toluene (T) is in equilibrium with.
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  EXAMPLE 6.6-1 Two hundred cubic centimeters of an acetone-water mixture that contains 10.0 wt% acetone is mixed with 400.0cm3 of chloroform at 25°C, and the phases are then allowed to settle. What percentage of the acetone is transferred from the water to the chloroform?   .
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    PROBLEMS 6.2. A quantity of liquid chloroform is placed in an open, transparent, three-liter flask and boiled long enough to purge all air from the vapor space. The flask is then sealed and allowed to equilibrate at 30°C, at which temperature chloroform has a vapor pressure of 243 mm Hg. Visual.
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    EXAMPLE 6.3-1 Air and water are contained at equilibrium in a closed chanber at 75°C and 760 mm Hg. Calculate the molar composition of the gas phase. EXAMPLE 6.3-2 A stream air at 100°C and 5260 mm HG  contains 10.0% water by voulme. 1. Calculate the dew point and degrees of superheat of the.
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Example 7.5-1 Use of tabulated Enthalpy Data. The following entries are taken from a data table for saturated methyl chloride. 1. What reference state was used to generate the given enthalpies? 2.Calculate ?H and ?U for the transition of saturated methyl chloride  vapor from  50 ?F to 0?F. 3. What assumption did you make.
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  TEST YOURSELF 1. What is a distribution coefficient? What is liquid extraction? 2. The distribution coefficient for the system water-acetic acid-vinyl acetate is Is acetic acid more or less soluble in vinyl acetate than in water? If you use vinyl acetate to extract a large portion of the acetic acid in an aqueous.
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  TEST YOURSELF 1. What is the difference between adsorption and absorption? 2. What is the difference between an absorbate and an adsorbent? 3. Why is it possible to use either molar concentration or partial pressure as the independent variable in the Langmuir isotherm without changing the form of the expression? 4. An air-purifying respirator–often.
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TEST YOURSELF: How would you simplify Equation 7.4-15 in each of the following cases? 1. There are no moving parts in the system. 2. The system and its surroundings are at the same temperature. 3.The linear velocities of all streams are the same. 4.All streams enter and leave the process at a single height. .
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  EXAMPLE 6.5-3 An aqueous solution of magnesium sulfate at 104°C containing 30.1 wt% MgSO4 is fed to a cooling crystallizer that operates at 10°C. The stream leaving the crystallizer is a slurry of solid magnesium sulfate heptahydrate particles [MgSO4 . 7H2O(s)] suspended in a liquid solution. Tabulated solubility data for magnesium.
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    TEST YOURSELF 1. What is a colligative solution property? Name three of them? 2. The vapor pressure of a solvent at 120°C is 1000 mm HG. A solution contains 15 mole% of a solute in this solvent at 120°C. If the behavior described in this section is followed, what is the effective.
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6.90. Benzene and hexane are being considered as solvents to extract acetic acid from aqueous mixtures. At 30°C, distribution coefficients for thr two solvents are KB = 0.098 mass fraction acetic acid in benzene/mass fraction acetic acid in water and KH =  0.017 mass fraction acetic acid in hexane/mass fraction.
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  EXAMPLE 6.4-4 1. Using the Txy diagram, estimate the bubble-point temperature and the equilibrium vapor composition associated with a 40 mole% benzene-60 mole% toulene liquid mixture at 1 atm. If the mixture is steadily vaporized until the remaining liquid contains 25% benzene, what is the final temperature? 2. Using the Txy diagram,.
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Example 7.4-1 calculation of enthalpy. The specific internal energy of helium at 300 K and 1 atm is 3800 J/mol, and the specific molar volume at the same temperature and pressure in 24.63 L/mol. Calculate the specific enthalpy of helium at this temperature and pressure, and the rate at which enthalpy.
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2. Calculate the temperature and composition of a liquid in equilibrium with a gas mixture containing 10.0 mole% benzene, 10.0 mole% toulene, and the balance nitrogen (which may be considered noncondensable) at 1 atm. Is the calculated temperature a bubble-point or-dew point temperature? 3. A gas mixture consisting of 15.0 mole%.
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Example 7.6-2: Energy balance on a Tw0-component process. A liquid stream containing 60.0 wt% thane  and 40.0 % n butane is to be heated from 150 K to 200 K at a pressure of 5 bar. Calculate the required  heat input per kilogram of the mixture, neglecting potential and kinetic energy.
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  TEST YOURSELF 1. Define and give examples of extensive and intensive variables, Define "degrees of freedom of a system." What is the Gibbs phase rule? 2. Use the phase rule to determine the degrees of freedom of each of the following equilibrium systems and give a possible set of variables that may.
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6.80. Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) is to be recovered from a 21 wt% aqueous solution in a continuous crystallization operation. The solution is joined by a recycle stream and fed to a vacuum evaporator where water is removed and the remaining solution is cooled to 30°C, at which temperature the solubility.
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6.14. It has been suggested that Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium earned the nickname "The Launching Pad" because baseballs carried farther than normal in the region's hot, humid atmosphere. With this suggestion in mind, examine the effect of temperature and humdity on the buoyant force exerted on a baseball by calculating the.
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Example 7.2-1: Kinetic energy transported by a Flowing stream. Water flows into a process unit  through a 2 cm ID pipe at a rate of 2.00 m3/h. calculate E k for this  stream in joules/second. Example 7.2-2 Potential energy Increase of a Flowing Fluid. Crude oil is pumped at a rate of 15.0.
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6.54. A liquid mixture containing 50 mole% propane, 30% n-butane, and 20% isobutane is stored in a rigid container at 77°F. The  container has a maximum allowable working pressure of 200 psig. The head space above the liquid contains only vapors of the three hydrocarbons. (a) Show that the container is.
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TEST YOURSELF: An incompressible liquid flows through a straight horizontal pipe. Friction of the fluid within the pipe causes a small amount of heat to be transferred from the fluid to compensate flow work must be done  on the fluid to move it through the system( So that WB is  less.
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Example 7.6-1 Energy balance on a one-component process. Two streams of water are mixed to form the feed to a boiler. Process data are as follows: The  exiting stream emerges from the boiler through  a 6 cm ID pipe. Calculate the required heat input to the boiler in kilojoules per minute if.
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Example 7.5-2 The stream tables. 1. Determine the vapor pressure, specific internal energy, and specific enthalpy of saturated stream at 133.5 ?C. 2. Show that water at 400?C and 10 bar is superheated stream and determine its specific volume specific internal energy, and specific enthalpy relative to liquid water at the triple.
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    EXAMPLE 6.5-1 One hundred fifty kilograms of a saturated aqueous solution of AgNO3 at 100°C is cooled to 20°C, thereby forming AgNO3 crystals, which are filtered from the remaining solution. The wet filter cake, which contains 80% solid crystals and 20% saturated solution by mass, passes to a dryer in which.
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  EXAMPLE 6.5-2 An aqueous potassium nitrate solution containing 60.0 wt% KNO3 at 80°C is fed to a cooling crystalizer in which the temperature is reduced to 40°C. Determine the temperature at which the solution reaches saturation and the percentage of the potassium nitrate in the feed forms crystals.   .
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6.68. vapor-liquid equilibrium data for mixtures of acetone (A) and ethanol at 1 atm are given in the following table: (d) A liquid mixture containing 40.0 mole% acetone and 60.0 mole% ethanol is fed to a continuous flash evaporator. Vapor and product streams leave the unit in equilibrium at 1.00 atm..
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  EXAMPLE 6.7-1 A 50.0-liter tank contains an air-carbon tetrachloride mixture at 1 atm absolute, 34°C and 30.0% relative saturation. Activated carbon is placed in the tank to absorb CCl4. The temperature of the tank contents in maintain at 34°C, and clean air is sontinuously supplied to the tank throughout the process.
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