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41) Electron transport is also called A) the citric acid cycle. B) β-oxidation. C) transamination. D) the respiratory chain. E) fermentation. 42) In electron transport, NADH and FADH2 are used to provide A) oxygen. B) electrons and hydrogen ions. C) carbon atoms. D) water and carbon dioxide. E) thiol groups. 43) The energy released during electron transport is used to produce A) glucose. B).
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1.2   True/False Questions 1) The reddish-brown color of smog is due to NO2. 2) Chloroflourocarbons are broken down in the upper atmosphere to produce oxygen, O2. 3) Titanium dioxide in toothpaste is used as a detergent. 4) Alchemists believed there were four components of nature: earth, fire, air, and water. 5) Organic chemistry is the.
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21.2   True/False Questions 1) Adenine is a purine. 2) Uracil is a pyrimidine. 3) DNA is a protein. 4) A nucleotide consists of only a base and a sugar. 5) DNA differs from RNA in the sugar it contains. 6) In the DNA double helix, a purine can only bond with a pyrimidine. 7) If the DNA.
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24.3   Matching Questions Match the following. A) chylomicrons B) FAD C) GTP D) acidosis E) essential amino acid F) β oxidation G) transaminated amino acid H) ketone bodies I) Coenzyme A J) a ketogenic amino acid K) a glucogenic amino acid L) ATP M) alkalosis 1) compounds produced when there is little or no carbohydrate metabolism and a subsequent increase in fat metabolism              2).
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41) The compounds formed when fructose-1, 6-diphosphate is split are A) pyruvic acid and lactic acid. B) ethanol and acetyl CoA. C) dihydroxyacetone phosphate and pyruvic acid. D) dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. E) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and pyruvic acid. 42) When one glucose molecule undergoes glycolysis it generates A) 6 ATP. B) 6 ATP and 2 NADH. C) 2.
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  Match the type of cellular control with the description. A) enzyme induction B) enzyme repression 12) The substrate induces the synthesis of its own metabolic enzymes. 13) The end product of a reaction combines with the regulator to produce a repressor molecule that turns off the operator gene. 14) When substrate is present in the.
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11) The DNA complement of the sequence 5'-G-C-C-A-T-3' is 3'-G-C-C-A-T-5'. 12) RNA contains no phosphate. 13) Human DNA contains many nucleotides that are not used in genes. 14) Messenger RNA carries protein synthesis information from the nucleus to the ribosomes. 15) mRNA is the smallest type of RNA. 16) Down syndrome is an acquired disease,.
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21) During complete oxidation of the fatty acid CH3(CH2)18COOH, __________ molecules of acetyl CoA are produced, and the fatty acid goes through the β-oxidation cycle __________ times. A) ten; ten B) nine; ten C) nine; nine D) nine; eight E) ten; nine 22) What is the total number of ATP molecules produced from the lauric acid.
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  1.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Water, H2O, is an example of a(n) ________. A) chemical B) solid C) wave D) electric charge E) element 2) In this list, which substance can be classified as a chemical? A) salt B) sleep C) cold D) heat E) temperature 3) One example of a chemical used in toothpaste is ________. A) chlorine B) sulfur C) carbon dioxide D) calcium carbonate E) sugar 4).
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24.2   True/False Questions 1) Fatty acids can be used in the brain as an energy source. 2) Red blood cells have mitochondria, which serve as an energy production site. 3) Chylomicrons consist of bile salts and lipids. 4) β oxidation adds two-carbon segments to a fatty acid chain. 5) A ten carbon saturated fatty acid.
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21.3   Matching Questions A) rRNA B) mRNA C) tRNA D) DNA 1) picks up the specific amino acids for protein synthesis 2) synthesized by the DNA to carry the genetic message to the ribosomes 3) contains within the nucleus of the cell the information for the synthesis of protein 4) the nucleic acid that contains the codons.
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41) In the study of genetics, the abbreviation PCR refers to A) purine chain repression. B) pyrimidine complement restriction. C) purine coded ribose. D) protein combination and replication. E) polymerase chain reaction. 42) Recombinant DNA technology requires the use of bacterial A) plasmids. B) mitochondria. C) endoplasmic reticulum. D) ribosomes. E) cell walls. 43) One therapeutic product now available due to recombinant.
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24.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) The digestion of fats begins in the A) mouth. B) stomach. C) small intestine. D) large intestine. E) pancreas. 2) The digestion of fats begins when the fat globules are A) emulsified by bile salts. B) attacked by protease enzymes to form smaller fat globules. C) converted to lipoproteins for greater solubility. D) hydrolyzed to glucose and.
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23.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) When combined with electron transport, one turn of the citric acid cycle produces __________ ATP. A) 24 B) 12 C) 11 D) 14 E) 2 2) Which coenzyme is the electron acceptor in the following reaction? A) FAD B) NAD+ C) FMN D) NADH E) FADH2 3) Which coenzyme is the electron acceptor in the following reaction? A) FAD B) NAD+ C).
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21) The citric acid cycle step that removes the first CO2 molecule is a(n) A) oxidative decarboxylation. B) reduction. C) carbonylation. D) hydrolysis. E) combination. 22) In the third major step of the citric acid cycle, NAD+ is converted to A) NAS-. B) NAD2+. C) NADH2 D) NAD. E) NADH. 23) Step 5 of the citric acid cycle is the hydrolysis of.
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22.4   Matching Questions Identify each of the following metabolic pathways. A) the production of glucose from noncarbohydrate molecules B) the flow of lactate and glucose between muscle and liver C) the synthesis of glycogen from glucose for storage purposes D) breaking down of macromolecules E) the conversion of glucose to lactic acid F) the conversion of pyruviate.
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22.2   Bimodal Questions 1) The term that refers to all of the chemical reactions in living cells is __________. A) glycolysis B) β-oxidation C) metabolism D) anabolism E) catabolism 2) Most of the energy in the typical animal cell is produced in the __________. A) cytosol B) nucleus C) mitochondria D) lysosomes E) endoplasmic reticulum 3) The energy for most energy-requiring reactions in.
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11) Protein synthesis takes place A) in the mitochondria. B) on the endoplasmic reticulum. C) in the nucleus. D) on the ribosomes. E) in the cytosol. 12) The synthesis of glycogen can be classified as a(n) A) catabolic reaction. B) anabolic reaction. C) digestion reaction. D) phosphorylation reaction. E) β-oxidation reaction. 13) The final products of catabolic reactions are A) carbon dioxide, water,.
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  Identify each of the following metabolic pathways. A) ketogenesis B) transamination C) β oxidation D) lipogenesis E) oxidative deamination 11) the conversion of fatty acids to 2-carbon units of acetyl Coenzyme A 12) the conversion of an amino acid to an α-keto acid 13) the combination of 2-carbon units of acetyl CoA to form fatty acids 14) the removal.
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11) Oxidation involves the gain of electrons for a substance. 12) NAD+ acts as a hydrogen acceptor in metabolic reactions. 13) FADH2 is the oxidized form of FAD. 14) Pantothenic acid is a part of NADH. 15) Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth. 16) A deficiency in the enzyme lactase causes lactose intolerance. 17) In.
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1.4   Matching Questions Are the numbers in each of the following statements measured or exact? A) exact B) measured 1) In the U.S. system there are 12 inches in one foot. 2) The patient's blood sugar level is 350 mg/dL. 3) There are 452 pages in a book. 4) The rabbit weighs 2.5 pounds. 5) 1 liter is.
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41) What is the conversion factor for the relationship between millimeters and centimeters? A) 1 mm/1 cm B) 10 mm/1 cm C) 1 cm/1 mm D) 100 mm/1 cm E) 10 cm/1 mm 42) Which of the following is the smallest unit? A) gram B) milligram C) kilogram D) decigram E) microgram 43) The cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) has the same.
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11) Which of the following is a chemical change? A) cutting a rope B) bending a steel rod C) making a snowman D) burning sugar E) melting gold 12) Which of the following is a physical change? A) baking a cake B) dry ice subliming C) fermenting grapes to produce wine D) digesting a meal E) a tomato ripening 13) Which of.
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  2.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is an element? A) tin B) water C) salt D) sugar E) iced tea 2) Helium is a(n) A) compound. B) heterogeneous mixture. C) element. D) homogeneous mixture. E) electron. 3) Coins in a piggy bank are an example of a(n) A) compound. B) heterogeneous mixture. C) element. D) homogeneous mixture. E) none of the above 4) Gold in a ring.
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22.3   True/False Questions 1) Energy production in the cell occurs primarily in the nucleus. 2) The cytosol is an aqueous solution of salts and enzymes. 3) Reactions in the mitochondria produce most of the cell's energy. 4) Lysosomes digest and recycle old cell structures. 5) Digestion of a polysaccharide is an anabolic process. 6) The production.
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11) The heart muscle's primary source of fuel is A) glucose. B) fatty acids. C) amino acids. D) glycogen. E) lactate. 12) Red blood cells do not metabolize fatty acids because they have A) no nucleus. B) a cell wall. C) a cell membrane. D)  no mitochondria. E) no DNA. 13) Fat stores in the body are mobilized when A) adipocyte concentrations are.
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23.3   True/False Questions 1) In reaction 4 of the citric acid cycle, α-ketoglutarase , a five-carbon keto acid, is decarboxylated. 2) Cyt c is a component of complex IV. 3) The energy levels of complexes decrease as electron transport progresses. 4) NAD+ acts as a hydrogen acceptor in metabolic reactions. 5) FADH2 is the oxidized.
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  Indicate the amount of ATP produced when each of the following reactions occurs. A) 6 ATP B) 2 ATP C) 36 ATP D) 12 ATP E) 3 ATP 1) complete oxidation of glucose 2) Acetyl CoA  →  2CO2 3) glucose  →  2 pyruvate under aerobic conditions 4) glucose  →  2 lactate 5) pyruvate  →  acetate  +  CO2 A) oxidative phosphorylation B) coenzyme.
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41) The letters ACP stand for A) acetyl Coenzyme P. B) aconitate protein complex. C) acetyl condensing protein. D) acyl carrier protein. E) acetyl CoA-palmitate. 42) Fatty acid synthesis takes place primarily in A) liver cells. B) intestinal cells. C) brain cells. D) muscle cells. E) adipocytes. 43) The production of new fatty acids is called A) gluconeogenesis. B) β oxidation. C) transesterification. D) oxidation. E) lipogenesis. 44).
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23.2   Short Answer Questions In this figure depicting the Stages of Metabolism taken from your text, identify the metabolicsubstance numbered. 1) substance 1 2) substance 2 3) substance 3 4) substance 4 5) substance 5 6) substance 6 7) substance 7 8) substance 8 9) process 9 10) process 10 11) process 11   .
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21) Muscle contraction requires A) copper ion and ATP. B) iron. C) calcium ion and ATP. D) lipid hydrolysis. E) carbon dioxide. 22) Muscle contraction is an example of a(n) A) anabolic process. B) catabolic process. C) glucose storage process. D) protein degradation process. E) lipid hydrolysis process. 23) In biochemical systems, the term reduction often refers to A) a loss of hydrogen.
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31) Which of the following metabolic pathways can occur in the absence of oxygen? A) electron transport B) oxidative phosphorylation C) citric acid cycle D) glycolysis E) β-oxidation 32) Under anaerobic conditions, there is a net production of __________ ATP during glycolysis. A) zero B) two C) four D) six E) eight 33) Cyanide ion and carbon monoxide inhibit A) cytochrome c oxidase. B).
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22.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is true for prokaryotic cells? A) They are more complex than eukaryotic cells. B) They are larger than eukaryotic cells. C) They contain mitochondria. D) They are found in animals. E) They do not contain a nucleus. 2) A compound that is formed in a metabolic oxidation is called.
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31) Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the A) mouth. B) stomach. C) pancreas. D) small intestine. E) large intestine. 32) An enzyme that can facilitate the breakdown of starch into smaller units is A) glucose phosphatase. B) alcohol dehydrogenase. C) amylase. D) lactase. E) maltase. 33) Lactose intolerance occurs due to A) an excess of galactose intake. B) a deficiency of β-galactosidase. C) a deficiency.
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