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Study Resources (Chemistry)

` 1) DNA that has wrapped around histones and is in a condensed form following interphase is called ________. A) nucleosomesB) karyokinesisC) chromosomesD) chromatin1) 2) In which stage of mitosis does exchange of genetic material between chromosomes (crossing over) occur? A) anaphase IB) prophase II C) prophase ID) none of the above2) 3) In.
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  62)What are some of the possible factors associated with aging? 63)It is possible for an individual to be genotypically one gender but appear to be the opposite gender. Suppose an individual is genotypically male (XY) but has developed as a female. Explain what has happened and when it might have happened.     .
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  10) The risk of cancer can be reduced by ________.10) A) decreasing fruit intake, because fruits can be carcinogenic B) increasing saturated fats in the diet C)avoiding unnecessary medical x- rays D)smoking more, because nicotine can kill cancerous cells 11) A(n) ________ is an abnormal mass of tissue that is surrounded by a capsule.
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16)Describe several potential applications for embryonic stem cell research. 17)As stem cell research rapidly developed, it became a political and ethical issue. Describe how the ethical and political approach toward stem cell research has changed in the past decade.     .
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  21) Why do transcription and translation take place in two different locations? A)DNA is located in the nucleus, whereas the ribosomes needed for transcription are found outside the cell. B)Translation takes place in the nucleus, whereas the DNA is located elsewhere. C)DNA is located in the nucleus, whereas the ribosomes needed for translation.
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  1) Which of the following is not a characteristic of cancerous cells? A)contact inhibition B)unusual shapes and sizes C)immortality All of the above are characteristics of cancerous cells.1) 2) Which of the following is a typical means of halting normal cell division? A) increasing the activity of p53B) the shortening of telomeres C) activating oncogenesD) triggering apoptosis2) 3).
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  1) Autism is characterized by ________. A) unusual patterns of behaviorB) poor social skills C) impaired communication skillsD) all of the above1) 2) This mercury- containing chemical was once found in vaccines and thought to cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A) PDD- NOSB) thalidomideC) thiaminD) thimerosol2) 3) Which of the following is not one of.
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  60)A 42- year- old woman becomes pregnant. Her physician recommends amniocentesis (a test for fetal chromosomal disorders). When the results are analyzed by the laboratory, it is determined that the fetus has 47 chromosomes. Name and fully explain what caused this disorder. When the woman and her husband consult a.
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  62)A baby is born with the genotype XYY. This sort of disorder is the result of nondisjunction during meiosis. In the case of the XYY genotype, can you be certain which parent had the nondisjunction in their gamete? Explain your answer. 63)Complete the following table concerning mitosis and meiosis: MitosisMeiosis IMeiosis II Is.
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  56)Explain two important sources of genetic variation in meiosis. Evolutionarily speaking, why do you think is it important that meiosis involves recombination of the genes? 57)Suppose that mitosis were used to produce our gametes. What unique problems would be encountered?     .
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  38) A(n) ________ is someone who displays the dominant phenotype but who is heterozygous for a trait and can, therefore, pass the recessive allele to descendants.              38) 39) An autosomal recessive disorder in which a young person produces thick mucus and excessively salty sweat and has serious respiratory problems is ________.             .
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  39) ________ is a syndrome that occurs in females who have only a single X chromosome (XO).39) 40) The preparation for cell division that precedes mitosis is called ________.40) 41) The condition in which there is only one representative of a particular chromosome in a cell is called ________.              41) 42) At the.
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  64)How does the nervous system change with aging? 65)Suppose someone told you that the activities of a pregnant female have no effect on the embryo during early embryonic development because the placenta is not fully formed until later. How would you respond to this statement?     .
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48)The alteration of gene activity without DNA sequence change. 49)The science of making a living cell perform a task considered useful by humans in a controlled way. A)The RNA "words"are called this.DNA polymerases B)Gene therapy C)Codons Biotechnology48) E) RNA polymerase 51) The process of replacing a faulty 51) gene with healthy functional genes. 52)An enzyme that binds with.
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  28) A(n) ________ directs the making of a protein.28) 29) PKU is a hereditary condition that appears only if a person has two copies of the gene. Therefore, it is said to be ________.              29) 30) The principle that states that different homologous chromosomes travel randomly to different ends of the cell.
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  42)The cause of cri- du- chat syndrome. 43)The alteration of a chromosome that involves the addition of a piece of chromosome. 44)A chart showing the genetic connections among individuals in a family. 45)A situation in which both alleles for a certain trait produce functional proteins. 46)A condition in which someone has different alleles for.
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  32) Translation occurs at the ________.32) 33) A(n) ________ is composed of one sugar (deoxyribose or ribose), one phosphate, and one nitrogenous base.              33) 34) ________ is attached to a specific amino acid and transports it to the appropriate region of mRNA.              34) 35) The end product of transcription is the production of.
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  21) If a sperm cell contains 6 chromosomes, it must have come from an original parent cell that21) contained ________ chromosomes. A) 24B) 4C) 6D) 12 22)Crossing over occurs during ________ and is important because it ________.22) A)prophase I; generates variation B)metaphase I; reduces the chromosome number by half C) anaphase II; separates the homologous.
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  62)Gene testing allows the parents to learn more about their child in the prenatal period. However, there are genetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, that show no phenotypic signs until age 35. This disease is caused by a dominant allele, resulting in degeneration of the brain, muscle spasms, and death.
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  1) Specific segments of DNA that are the functional units of inheritance are called ________. A) chromosomesB) telomeresC) genesD) chromatids1) 2) Emery had no freckles. His wife, Marguerite, was clearly freckled but known to be heterozygous for the gene. Predict the chance that any one of their children will have freckles. A) 75%B).
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  1) Which of the following is a method of gene amplification that involves complementary primers and uses heat to unzip DNA to make multiple copies of a particular gene? A) recombinantB) polymerase chain reaction C) sticky endsD) vector1) 2) In which part of the molecule does tRNA pair with mRNA? A) codonB) anticodonC) geneD).
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  11) Which of the following combination of sex chromosomes results in Klinefelter syndrome? A) XXXB) XXYC) XOD) XYY11) 12) The most appropriate form of cell division for repairing an injured tissue is ________.12) A) mitosisB) cytokinesisC) cloningD) meiosis 13) Oogenesis differs from spermatogenesis in ________. A) the number of functional gametes produced B) the size.
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  11) The base sequences that are left behind after the introns have been spliced out by enzymes are the ________. A) anticodonsB) phosphatesC) genesD) exons11) 12) Which of the following is the signal that functions to begin transcription and consists of a sequence on the DNA? A) promoterB) exonC) mRNAD) vector12) 13) The process.
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  29) Oogenesis is completed at ________.29) 30) The arrangement of an individual's chromosomes by size and centromere location is called the ________.              30) 31) The ________ cells are those body cells of humans that contain 23 chromosomes.31) 32) The ________ are the 22 pairs of chromosomes not including the X and Y32) chromosomes. 33) The.
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  14)Before stem cell research was such a prominent topic in the news, many people were misinformed about embryonic stem cell research. Many people thought that this form of stem cell research could be completed only by collecting stem cells from electively aborted fetuses. Explain specifically where embryonic stem cells come.
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  11) Mary died suddenly of an aortic aneurysm (the sudden bursting of one of the body's largest11) blood vessels). Which of the following conditions should her children worry most about? A) hemophiliaB) Marfan syndrome C) Turner syndromeD) albinism 12) Someone who is heterozygous for a recessive genetic illness is said to be ________. A) pleiotropicB).
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  58)A significant percentage of pre-embryos fail to continue their development or to implant in the uterus. Explain what may happen to prevent development from continuing. 59)Explain how a pregnancy test works. Make sure to indicate the hormone that the test detects and the role that hormone plays during early pregnancy.     .
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