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31) Under acid hydrolysis conditions, starch is converted to A) glucose. B) xylose. C) maltose. D) galactose. E) fructose. 32) Maltose can be classified as a(n) A) disaccharide. B) polysaccharide. C) ketose. D) pentose. E) oligosaccharide. 33) Hyperglycemia is a condition in which A) the glucose level in the blood is about 100 mg/dL. B) the amount of glucose in the urine is lower.
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16.3   Short Answer Questions 1) Collagen can be classified as a ________ protein. 2) The protein that transports oxygen in the blood is ________. 3) Proteins that stimulate immune response are known as ________. 4) Amino acids that are not synthesized in the body but must be ingested with the diet are called ________.
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21) The reaction of an ester with NaOH is known as A) esterification. B) neutralization. C) saponification. D) reduction. E) oxidation. 22) A carboxylic acid is named in the IUPAC system by replacing the e in the name of the parent alkane with A) oic acid. B) oic. C) carboxylic acid. D) acid. E) oate. 23) When compared to sulfuric acid, how.
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51) To what main class of enzymes does the enzyme that catalyzes the following reaction belong? O OH ||| CH3?C?COO-   →CH3?CH?COO- A) oxidoreductase B) transferase C) hydrolase D) lyase E) isomerase 52) To what main class of enzymes does the enzyme that catalyzes the following reaction belong? ser?ala   →   ser  +  ala A) oxidoreductase B) transferase C) hydrolase D) lyase E) isomerase 53) Compared to an.
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16.2   Bimodal Questions 1) Immunoglobulin, a protein that stimulates immune responses, would be classified as a ________ protein. A) transport B) structural C) storage D) protection E) catalytic 2) In an enzyme, the polypeptide chain folds into a compact shape known as the ________ structure. A) pleated B) primary C) secondary D) tertiary E) quaternary 3) What amino acids have polar side chains.
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31) Within hemoglobin, the heme functions as A) a disulfide bridge. B) an oxygen carrier. C) a reducing agent. D) an α subunit. E) one of the four protein subunits. 32) Hemoglobin has a total of ________ protein chains in its quaternary structure. A) one B) two C) three D) four E) five 33) Wool is primarily made up of A) protein. B) carbohydrate. C).
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51) What is the major functional group in the following compound? O || CH3?C?NH?CH3 A) ketone B) carboxylic acid C) ester D) amine E) amide 52) With the correct choice of acid, acid hydrolysis of acetamide could produce A) acetic acid and ammonium chloride. B) acetic acid and methylamine. C) ethanol and ammonia. D) acetaldehyde and ammonium hydroxide. E) formic acid and ethylamine. 53) Amines.
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21) In the synthesis of mRNA, an adenine in the DNA pairs with A) uracil. B) adenine. C) guanine. D) thymine. E) cytosine. 22) A DNA template having the base sequence -A-G-A-T-G-A- would produce a mRNA with a base sequence of A) -A-G-A-T-G-A-. B) -U-C-U-A-C-U-. C) -T-C-T-U-C-T-. D) -T-C-T-A-C-A-. E) -A-C-A-U-C-A-. 23) Codons are base pair sequences that A) signal the start of.
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13.2   Short Answer Questions State whether each of these structures is the α- or β-form. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Identify each Fischer projection as the D- or L-isomer. 6) CHO ? HO ? H ? H ? OH ? CH2OH-threose 7) CH2OH ? C = O ? HO ? H | CH2OH-erythulose 8) CHO ? HO ? H ? H ? OH ? HO ? H ? HO ? H ? CH2OH-glucose 9) CHO ? HO ? H ? H ? OH ? H ? OH ? HO ?.
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15.4   Matching Questions Match the following. A) cholesterol B) hydrolysis C) fatty acids D) higher E) hydrogenation F) soap G) insoluble in water H) glycerin I) unsaturated J) lower K) ester L) plants M) animals 1) Triacylglycerols are formed from glycerol and ________. 2) a lipid that cannot be hydrolyzed 3) the functional group of triacylglycerols 4) a fatty acid with at least one double bond 5) the process.
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11) Most of the carboxylic acid in an aqueous solution is ionized. 12) An ester is derived from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid. 13) Methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is used therapeutically as a counter-irritant. 14) Butyl alcohol is one of the reactants used to make methyl butyrate. 15) Caffeine is an alkaloid. 16).
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14.2   True-False Questions 1) Soaps are the soluble salt of long chain fatty acids. 2) Carboxylic acids are strong acids. 3) Esters are formed from the reaction of an ether with a carboxylic acid. 4) Carboxylic acids are responsible for the sweet taste of fruits and vegetables. 5) Aspirin that has a smell of vinegar.
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14.3   Matching Questions Identify the family for each of the following compounds. A) ketone B) ester C) amide D) amine E) carboxylic acid 1) O || CH3?C?CH3 2) O || CH3?CH2?C?OH 3) O || CH3?CH2?C?O?CH3 4) CH3?CH2?NH?CH3 5) O || CH3?CH2?C?NH?CH3 Select the correct name for the following.   A) ethyldimethylamine B) formic acid C) ethyl formate D) sodium formate 6) O || OH?C?OH 7) O || H?C?O?CH2?CH3 8)O || H?C?O?Na+ 9) CH3 | CH3?CH2?N?CH3   .
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  14.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which functional group is found in a carboxylic acid? A) ?OH B) O || ?C?OH C) O || ?C?O? D) OH | ?C?OH | E)  ?CH2?OH 2) This functional group is known as a(n) O ? ?C?O?C A) ester. B) carboxylic acid. C) alcohol. D) aldehyde. E) acetal. 3) The functional group in acetic acid is called the A) hydroxyl group. B) aldehyde group. C) carbonyl group. D) carboxyl group. E) ester group. 4).
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  18.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which coenzyme is the electron acceptor in the following reaction? HH | | ? C? C ?    →    ? C ? C? | ||| A) FAD B) NAD+ C) CoQ D) NADH E) FADH2 2) Which coenzyme is the electron acceptor in the following reaction? OHO | || ? C?    →?C? | H A) FAD B) NAD+ C) CoQ D) NADH E) FADH2 3) Which of the following.
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7) Hydrogenation of a double bond in a triacylglycerol requires a catalyst. 8) Most plant lipids are saturated lipids. 9) One function of glycerophospholipids is to provide structure to cell membranes. 10) In the fluid-mosaic model of cell membranes, the glycerophospholipid molecules are oriented with their heads to the outside of the membrane. 11).
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17.2   True/False Questions 1) Adenine is a purine. 2) Uracil is a pyrimidine. 3) AZT is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. 4) A retrovirus uses DNA as its genetic material. 5) A nucleotide consists of only a base and a sugar. 6) The unique sequence of bases in a nucleic acid is the.
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  15.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which statement is not true? A) Lipids are found in cell membranes. B) Lipids are soluble in organic solvents. C) There are many different types of lipids. D) All lipids contain fatty acids. E) Some hormones are lipids. 2) Lipids are compounds that are soluble in A) distilled water. B) normal saline solution. C) glucose solution. D).
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31) What happens to water solubility as chain length increases in carboxylic acids? A) It increases. B) It decreases. C) It stays the same. 32) What is the product of the reaction of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid when reacted together under acidic conditions? A) an ether B) an ester C) a salt D) a ketone E) an.
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11) The first stage of catabolism is A) the citric acid cycle. B) production of pyruvate. C) production of acetyl CoA. D) buildup of macromolecules from monomers. E) digestion of large molecules. 12) The middle stage of catabolism is the point at which A) acetyl CoA is produced. B) monomers are produced from macromolecules. C) macromolecules are made from.
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11) Compared to saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids have A) longer carbon chains. B) shorter carbon chains. C) higher melting points. D) lower melting points. E) greater intermolecular attraction. 12) Waxes are lipids derived from A) a long-chain alcohol and a long-chain fatty acid. B) glycerol and three fatty acids. C) glycerol, fatty acids, phosphate, and an amino.
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13.3   True/False Questions 1) Sucrose is a disaccharide. 2) A reducing sugar gives a precipitate of silver metal with Benedict's reagent. 3) Sucrose is made up of glucose units only. 4) Amylopectin is a straight-chain polysaccharide. 5) The product of oxidation of an aldose is a carboxylic acid. 6) The product of reduction of mannose is.
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41) The compound is classified as a A) primary amine. B) secondary amine. C) tertiary amine. D) quaternary amine. E) hydrated amine. 42) Which of the following compounds cannot form hydrogen bonds with water? A) CH3?CH2?CH3 B) CH3?CH2-OH C)   O || CH3?C?OH D) O || CH3?C?O?CH3 E) CH3?CH2?NH2 43) Aminobenzene is properly known as A) toluene. B) aniline. C) amidine. D) histidine. E) phenylamine. 44) What is the name.
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41) In a typical amino acid zwitterion, the carboxylic acid end is A) positively charged. B) negatively charged. C) neutral. D) soluble in a nonpolar solvent. E) attached to an amine. 42) Methionine is an amino acid that contains A) a sulfur atom. B) a chlorine atom. C) a sodium atom. D) a phenyl ring. E) a heterocyclic ring. 43) Disulfide bonds.
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    31) A) wax B) triacylglycerol C) glycerophospholipid D) fatty acid E) steroid 32) A) triacylglycerol B) wax C) glycerophospholipid D) fatty acid E) steroid 33) A) glycerophospholipid B) triacylglycerol C) fatty acid D) steroid E) wax 34) A) steroid B) glycerophospholipid C) wax D) triacylglycerol E) prostaglandin 35) According to the fluid-mosaic model of a cell membrane, the main component of a membrane is A) a lipid bilayer. B) a membrane protein. C) fatty acid. D) a steroid. E).
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21) In the peptide Ala-Try-Gly-Phe, the N-terminal amino acid is A) alanine. B) phenylalanine. C) tryptophan. D) aspartic acid. E) glycine. 22) In the peptide Ser-Cys-Ala-Gly, the C-terminal end is A) serine. B) serotonin. C) glycine. D) glycerine. E) alanine. 23) A chain made of more than 50 amino acids is usually referred to as a(n) A) peptide. B) protein. C) enzyme. D) globulin. E) hormone. 24) The.
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  16.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following is not a function of proteins? A) provide structural components B) stores the genetic information of a living organism C) movement of muscles D) catalyze reactions in the cells E) transport substances through the bloodstream 2) Collagen, a protein found in tendons and cartilage, would be classified as a.
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17.3   Matching Questions Match the following. A) tRNA B) rRNA C) mRNA D) DNA 1) picks up the specific amino acids for protein synthesis 2) synthesized by the DNA to carry the genetic message to the ribosomes 3) contains within the nucleus of the cell the information for the synthesis of protein 4) the nucleic acid that contains the.
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13.4   Matching Questions Select the correct carbohydrate for each description. A) cellulose B) glucose C) sucrose D) lactose E) galactose F) glycogen G) fructose H) amylose I) maltose 1) a carbohydrate that cannot be digested by humans 2) a disaccharide that occurs as a breakdown product of starch 3) a carbohydrate that stores energy in the human body 4) a carbohydrate that is used.
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21) Coenzyme A is a molecule whose function is to A) activate enzyme A. B) undergo phosphorylation. C) provide energy for the citric acid cycle. D) activate acyl groups for reaction. E) help break down macromolecules. 22) Digestion of carbohydrates begins in the A) mouth. B) stomach. C) pancreas. D) small intestine. E) large intestine. 23) An enzyme that can facilitate the.
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  Classify each protein by function. A) contractile B) protection C) structural D) transport E) catalytic 15) trypsin for the hydrolysis of protein 16) lipoproteins in the blood 17) collagen in tendons and cartilage 18) antibodies 19) actin in muscle Identify each of the designated regions on the energy diagram for the conversion of a substrate to product with and without an.
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31) The result of a defective enzyme caused by a mutation in the DNA nucleotide sequence is A) a genetic disease. B) AIDS. C) HIV. D) recombinant DNA. E) translocation. 32) Small living particles, with 3 to 200 genes, that cannot replicate without a host cell are called A) recombinant DNAs. B) viruses. C) bacteria. D) tumors. E) plasmids. 33) A virus.
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16.4   Matching Questions Identify the structural level in each protein.   A) primary structure B) secondary structure C) quaternary D) tertiary 1) The protein folds into a compact structure stabilized by interactions between R groups. 2) the combination of two or more protein molecules to form an active protein 3) pleated sheet 4) the peptide bonds between the amino acids 5).
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31) Quinine is an alkaloid used for treatment of malaria. 32) Nicotine is a pharmacologically active aromatic amine. 33) Meperidine is a synthetic compound developed from morphine. 34) Urea is one end product of protein metabolism in humans. 35) Aspirin substitutes may contain amide rather than ester functional groups. .
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11) The bonds that are important in the secondary structure of a protein are A) hydrogen bonds. B) hydrophobic interactions. C) disulfide bonds. D) salt bridges. E) peptide bonds. 12) Which of the following is a secondary protein structure? A) α-helix B) Ser-Met-Ala-Gly-Ile C) disulfide bond D) salt bridges E) hydrophobic interactions 13) Which R group would most likely be found in.
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11) The two new DNA molecules formed in replication A) are different from the original DNA. B) both contain only two new daughter DNA strands. C) both contain only the parent DNA strands. D) contain one parent and one daughter strand. E) are identical, with one containing both parent strands, and the other containing both.
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21) The main lipid components in cellular membranes are A) glycerolphospholipids. B) fatty acids. C) steroids. D) triacylglycerols. E) waxes. 22) Which of the lipid types listed below is most soluble in water? A) triacylglycerols B) glycerolphospholipids C) oils D) steroids E) waxes 23) Which of the following compounds is a glycerophospholipid? A) jojoba wax B) estrogen C) lecithin D) triolein E) stearic acid 24) Which of the.
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61) A deficiency of which amine is responsible for the signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease? A) histamine B) dopamine C) epinephrine D) diphenhydramine E) methedrine 62) The prefix nor- in a drug name means that there is A) one more amine in the new molecule than in the original. B) one more methyl group on the nitrogen.
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21) Aniline is the IUPAC approved name for aminobenzene. 22) The prefix meth- means that there is one less methyl group on the nitrogen atom of an amine. 23) Amines do not form hydrogen bonds. 24) Tertiary amines form strong hydrogen bonds. 25) Amines act as weak acids by accepting protons from water. 26) Amines.
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15.2   Bimodal Questions 1) Cholesterol belongs to the ________ group of lipids. A) glycerophospholipid B) steroid C) prostaglandin D) triacylglycerol E) wax 2) A precursor of prostaglandins is ________ acid. A) oleic B) linoleic C) arachidonic D) tauric E) palmitic 3) In a simple model of atherosclerosis and heart disease, the compound that forms plaques that adhere to the walls of the blood.
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11) Which compound below contains an ester functional group? A) OH | CH3?CH?CH2?CH3 B) CH3?CH2?O?CH2?CH3 C) O || H?C?O?CH2?CH3 D) O || CH3?C?CH2?CH3 E) O || CH3?C?OH 12) Many of the fragrances of flowers and the flavors of fruits are due to A) ethers. B) carboxylic acids. C) esters. D) amines. E) amides. 13) What is the name of this compound? O || CH3?C?O ?CH2?CH3 A) ethyl methyl ester B) diethyl ester C) ethyl.
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  17.1   Multiple-Choice Questions 1) A ________ consists of a nitrogen-containing base and a sugar. A) nucleoside B) base pair C) nucleotide D) complementary base E) pyrimidine 2) A ________ consists of a nitrogen-containing base, a sugar, and a phosphate group. A) nucleoside B) base pair C) nucleotide D) complementary base E) purine 3) Which of the following cannot be found in a nucleotide.
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    Match the correct term in enzyme action with each description. A) enzyme-substrate complex B) lock-and-key theory C) coenzyme D) active site E) cofactor 24) the temporary combination of an enzyme with the compound on which it acts 25) an organic compound that is sometimes needed to complete an enzyme 26) the portion of an enzyme molecule where catalytic.
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