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63)Glucose levels in the blood are maintained by the antagonistic hormones glucagon and __________.   64)The genetic makeup of an organism, the __________, can be expressed in a variety of ways and has major effects on physiological traits.   65)Environmental factors can cause __________, or a range of phenotypes from a single.
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47)The term metazoan refers to single celled animals.   48)Covalent bonds are strong because electrons are shared between two atoms.   49)A semipermeable membrane allows all molecules to pass through it.   50)Buffers have the ability to mitigate the changes in pH when an acid or base is added to the solution.   51)Enzymatic.
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11)When considering spatial summation of graded potentials, it is important to keep in mind    A)how far the potential may have traveled.   B)the initial amplitude of the potential.   C)the polarity of the potential.   D)all of the above   12)Which of the following graded potentials will be most likely to generate an action.
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21)A receptor that binds to a ligand at very low concentrations has a   A)high dissociation constant.   B)low Ka.   C)high affinity for the ligand.   D)low affinity for the ligand.   22)The signal transduction cascade acts as the __________ of a transducer.   A)receiver   B)transducer   C)amplifier   D)responder   23)Which domain of intracellular receptors binds to.
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  Identify each of the following metabolic reactions. A) glycolysis B) citric acid cycle C) β-oxidation D) lipid metabolism E) transamination F) breaking down of macromolecules G) oxidative deamination H) electron transport 8) digestion 9) triacylglycerol hydrolysis 10) the conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid 11) the series of reactions that converts acetyl CoA to carbon dioxide and water 12) the series of.
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11)Per Scholander, one of the first __________ physiologists, looked at diving mechanisms, warm-blooded responses to cold environments, and fish swim bladders.   A)invertebrate   B)human   C)comparative   D)ecological   12)__________ discovered central pattern generators.   A)C. Ladd Prosser   B)Knut Schmidt-Nielsen   C)George Bartholomew   D)George Somero   13)A respiratory physiologist is an example of a/an   A)cell and molecular.
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31)Given the information below, the neuron with the characteristics listed in choice __________ would have the fastest conduction velocity.   A)myelinated, 50 μm diameter   B)myelinated, 10 μm diameter   C)unmyelinated, 50 μm diameter   D)unmyelinated, 10 μm diameter   32)When looking at a small patch of axonal membrane, the __________ and __________ are arranged.
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69)Describe some of the factors that led to an explosion of physiological research in the 1960s.    70)Why was Vesalius's work, which disproved some of Galen's earlier experiments, so important?    71)Explain how a cell and molecular physiologist can be a developmental and applied physiologist as well.    72)Explain why it is important.
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1)An explosion in physiological research occurred in the 1960s because   A)there was an increase in the number of physiologists.   B)physiologists in one specialty worked only with each other, concentrating their knowledge.   C)physiologists began focusing on local species, rather than trying to study organisms from many areas.   D)all of the above  .
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21)Which of the following polysaccharides performs a structural role?   A)amylose   B)glycogen   C)chitin   D)amylopectin   22)__________ is the metabolic pathway that synthesizes glycogen.   A)Gluconeogenesis   B)Glycogenesis   C)Glycogenolysis   D)Glycolysis   23)Glycolysis is an important metabolic pathway for the production of ATP because   A)it can proceed with or without oxygen.   B)it can produce ATP quickly.   C)it.
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1)Which of the following statements is true of any communication system?   A)Neurons are always involved.   B)The endocrine system is always involved.   C)A signal must always be sent and received.   D)Signals can be sent only in electrical form.   2)Which of the following choices is not a basic feature of cellular communication?  .
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11) FADH2 is the oxidized form of FAD. 12) Ammonium ions and carbon dioxide produce urea in the urea cycle. 13) The urea cycle is the major pathway for eliminating the excess nitrogen from amino acid degradation. 14) Chylomicrons consist of bile salts and lipids. 15) Protein digestion begins in the small intestine. 16) Carbohydrate.
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74)There are multiple ways in which two cells in an organism can communicate with each other: gap junctions, paracrine and autocrine signals, endocrine signals, and neural signals. Discuss the advantages and drawbacks for each of these types of signals.    75)The chemical properties of messengers affect how they are able to.
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66)The second law of __________ says that the universe is moving from a state of order to one of disorder.   67)The energy of movement is termed __________ energy.   68)The __________ is formed by water molecules that surround water-soluble molecules in a solution.   69)Molecules that can be positive or negative, depending.
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11)The portion of the transmembrane receptor that binds to hydrophilic messengers is termed the   A)receptor-binding domain.   B)transmembrane domain.   C)ligand-binding domain.   D)intracellular domain.   12)The vertebrate hormones involved in water and electrolyte balance in the body are called   A)mineralocorticoids.   B)glucocorticoids.   C)ecdysteroids.   D)reproductive hormones.   13)__________ is a generalized carrier protein that plays a.
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53)Feedback loops maintain the internal environment in an acceptable state, or __________.   54)__________ is known as the father of medicine.   55)Claude Bernard proposed the concept of __________: organisms maintain an internal environment, even when the external environment changes.   56)The scientist __________ studied the adaptations of animals living in harsh or.
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59)In a unipolar neuron, the process leading to the cell body has attributes of both an axon and a dendrite.   60)Action potentials are all-or-none events that are identical in all neurons of an organism, but may differ between organisms.   61)Cells using voltage-gated Ca2+ channels for depolarization tend to have longer.
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41) The electron carrier ________ provides two ATP via electron transport. A) FADH2 B) NADH C) NADPH D) CoASH E) FMNH2 42) When oxygen is in plentiful supply in the cell, pyruvate is converted to A) CoA. B) acetyl CoA. C) glucose. D) lactate. E) fructose. 43) Which of the three major stages of metabolism includes the citric acid cycle? A) stage one B).
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49)Metazoans are the only organisms capable of producing electrical signals.   50)The axon hillock joins the cell body (soma) to the axon.   51)A cell membrane can be depolarizing and repolarizing at the same time.   52)A change in membrane potential is typically more dependent on changes in the membrane permeability to an.
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21)Max Rubner's work suggesting that the scaling coefficient for metabolic rate should be 2/3 is based on   A)relationships between surface area and volume.   B)relationships between body mass and volume.   C)relationships between volume and metabolism.   D)relationships between metabolism and activity of the animal.   22)Which of the following statements about conformers and.
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37)Physiological processes function separately from physical and chemical laws.   38)Phenotype of an organism is based solely on genotype.   39)Some of the first physiological experiments occurred in the mid-100s.  40)Most of the experiments before the 20th century were performed on animals in hopes of gaining knowledge about human physiology.    41)Emergence says.
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42)Communication is required only in multicellular organisms.   43)Hydrophobic chemical messengers can easily travel through cell membranes.   44)Gap junctions can be used to transmit electrical signals directly between cells.   45)Pheromones are the chemical messengers used by the endocrine system.   46)Peptide hormones typically have a long half-life.   47)Steroid hormones are derived from.
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31)In a __________ feedback loop, both the endocrine and nervous systems can be involved.   A)first order   B)second order   C)third order   D)both B and C   32)The organ that is connected to the hypothalamus by neurons is the   A)anterior pituitary.   B)posterior pituitary.   C)adenohypophysis.   D)thyroid.   33)The posterior pituitary is   A)one of the most.
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73)How does an organism's body determine whether to utilize short-term or long-term strategies for maintaining homeostasis?    74)How is it possible for a single genotype to generate a broad range of phenotypes?    75)Explain why a certain mutation in a genome may not continue to be beneficial after an environmental stressor is.
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31)Production of ATP by the mitochondrial ATP synthase is increased by   A)high levels of ATP.   B)high levels of ADP.   C)low levels of physical activity.   D)low proton motive force.   32)Which of the following is a benefit of using phosphocreatine to store energy (as compared to ATP)?   A)Phosphocreatine can be used by.
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31)Acclimatization is a term referring to   A)irreversible changes in phenotype due to natural environmental variation.   B)irreversible changes in phenotype due to controlled environmental change.   C)reversible changes in phenotype due to natural environmental variation.   D)reversible changes in phenotype due to controlled environmental change.   32)The proximate cause of an organism's unique characteristic.
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71) In mammals, the ammonium ion produced in oxidative deamination is A) excreted in the feces. B) stored in the liver. C) converted to uric acid, which is excreted in the urine. D) converted to urea, which is excreted in the urine. E) converted to uric acid, which is excreted by the liver. 72) The digestion.
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52)Mutations of genes encoding Ras proteins are rarely involved in cancer.   53)Signal transduction cascades in the cell interact with each other leading to unique and complicated responses.   54)The most complex feedback loops are the first-order feedback loops.   55)Hormones that show additivity always show synergism as well.   56)Crustaceans use crustacean hyperglycemic.
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18.2   Bimodal Questions 1) The term that refers to all of the chemical reactions in living cells is ________. A) glycolysis B) β-oxidation C) metabolism D) anabolism E) catabolism 2) The energy for most energy-requiring reactions in the cells of the body is obtained by the hydrolysis of ________. A) ATP B) ADP C) AMP D) cyclic AMP E) GTP 3) Most of.
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18.5   Matching Questions Indicate the amount of ATP produced when each of the following reactions occurs. A) 36 ATP B) 12 ATP C) 3 ATP D) 2 ATP E) 6 ATP 1) complete oxidation of glucose 2) Acetyl CoA  →  2CO2 3) glucose  →  2 pyruvate under aerobic conditions 4) glucose  →  2 lactate 5) pyruvate  →  acetyl CoA Match the terms.
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69)The electrical signal produced by neurons, called an __________, is capable of traveling over long distances.   70)A __________ transmits signals from the central nervous system to skeletal muscles.   71)When a cell __________, the charge difference between the intracellular and extracellular fluids decreases.   72)When ligand-gated receptors open channels in dendrites, the.
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1)Which of the following statements is true of nerves?   A)They are composed of groups of neurons.   B)Neurons are composed of groups of nerves.   C)They act as pipes in the body, transporting fluid.   D)Signals generated in nerves can travel only short distances.   2)Which of the following properties of action potentials is.
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89)Organisms typically release more CO2 during periods of high activity. Based on your knowledge of the TCA cycle, explain how this occurs.    90)There are multiple ways that particles may cross a cellular membrane. Discuss the salient features of passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport.   91)The Na+/K+ ATPase pump plays.
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41)Vesicles that are produced by the ER-Golgi network may be released from the cell using the process of   A)exocytosis.   B)endocytosis.   C)phagocytosis.   D)both B and C   42)The extracellular matrix performs a variety of functions, including mediation of interactions between cells. __________ is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), which provides protection and acts as.
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81) The removal of 2-carbon segments of a fatty acid for further metabolism is called A) β-oxidation. B) transamination. C) deglyceration. D) dehydration. E) decarboxylation. 82) The 2-carbon segments removed from a fatty acid during metabolism are used to form A) glucose. B) pyruvate. C) lactate. D) CoA. E) acetyl CoA. 83) The 2-carbon units obtained by degradation of a fatty acid.
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84)Your book refers to the process of diffusion and mentions that both chemical and electrical gradients may influence this process. Explain why Na+ would be influenced by both chemical and electrical gradients, but glucose would not.   85)A water molecule is held together by polar covalent bonds. Because the electrons are.
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21)What role does Ca2+ play in synaptic transmission?   A)Ca2+ is released into the synapse, transmitting a signal to the postsynaptic cell.   B)Ca2+ causes the release of vesicles from the readily releasable pool.   C)Ca2+ causes vesicles to move from the storage pool to docking proteins.   D)both B and C   22)During synaptic.
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31) In the absence of oxygen in muscles, pyruvate is converted to A) glycogen. B) glucose. C) ethanol. D) lactate. E) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. 32) Under anaerobic conditions, there is a net production of ________ ATP during glycolysis. A) zero B) two C) four D) six E) eight 33)  In order to enter the citric acid cycle, pyruvate is first converted to A) lactate. B) acetaldehyde. C).
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18.4   True/False Questions 1) Energy production in the cell occurs primarily in the nucleus. 2) The cytosol is an aqueous solution of salts and enzymes. 3) Reactions in the mitochondria produce most of the cell's energy. 4) Digestion of a polysaccharide is an anabolic process. 5) The production of carbon dioxide and water in the.
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58)A signaling cell's message may affect itself as well, in a process known as __________ signaling.   59)Chemical messengers used by the endocrine system are referred to as __________.   60)In the nervous system, chemical messages cross a __________, a short distance between the signal and target cells.   61)The three main classes.
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41)Axodendritic synapses are composed of __________ for the presynaptic cell and __________ for the postsynaptic cell.   A)axons; axons   B)dendrites; axons   C)axons; dendrites   D)axons; cell somas   42)Neurotransmitters are composed of a variety of different chemicals, including    A)amino acids.   B)neuropeptides.   C)biogenic amines.   D)all of the above   43)Metabotropic receptors typically generate a response.
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76)__________ is the process of forming acetoacetyl CoA from two acetyl CoA molecules.   77)Steroid hormones use __________ as a precursor molecule.   78)The ratio between oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production is termed the __________.   79)The __________ describes how phospholipids, proteins, and other biological molecules come together to form a flexible.
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57)All of a fatty acid is metabolized into acetyl CoA after a single trip through the β-oxidation pathway.   58)Antioxidants are useful in preventing DNA damage because they counteract the heat produced during NADH and FADH2 oxidation.   59)In a multicellular organism, the energy needs of the organism as a whole are.
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1)The first living organism, the progenote, gave rise to many characteristics frequently found in modern life-forms, including   A)no need for a nucleus.   B)ability to survive in anaerobic conditions.   C)using only twenty amino acids in proteins.   D)using sulfur as an energy source.   2)Which of the following types of energy is strictly.
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