Search
Info
Warning
Danger

Study Resources (Chemistry)

  1) Which statement best summarizes the digestion of proteins? A) Amine groups are removed from all amino acids. B) All peptide linkages are hydrolyzed to produce a mixture of amino acids. C) Proteins are denatured by stomach acid. D) Amino acids are combined to produce proteins or enzymes. E) none of the above 2) Which of.
3 Views
View Answer
11) What is the role of a chylomicron? A) to transport triacylglycerols in the bloodstream B) to synthesize cholesterol and other steroids C) to move triacylglycerol across the cell membrane D) to store excess triacylglycerols until they are needed E) to transport acetyl-CoA from the cytosol to the mitochondria 12) High density lipoproteins contain a greater.
1 Views
View Answer
40) PKU, phenylketonuria, is caused by a defect in the enzyme that converts A) alanine to serine. B) phenylalanine to tyrosine. C) tryptophan to tyrosine. D) alanine to phenylalanine. Match the following.   A) an amino acid whose carbon skeleton can be converted to a citric acid cycle intermediate, which ultimately becomes glucose B) the transfer of an.
2 Views
View Answer
50) The intermediate that carries two-carbon units to be added to a fatty acid chain is A) malonyl-SCoA. B) fatty acyl-SCoA. C) carnitine. D) ATP. E) glycerol 3-phosphate 51) Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the ________. A) cytosol B) mitochondria C) cell membrane D) endoplasmic reticulum E) cell nucleus 52) The synthesis of fatty acids A) takes place by simply the reverse reactions.
2 Views
View Answer
69) The compound that is the immediate precursor to the prostaglandins is A) cholesterol. B) oleic acid. C) stearic acid. D) arachidonic acid. E) leukotriene. 70) Local hormones ________. A) are short-lived B) can be prostaglandins C) can be leukotrienes D) act near their point of synthesis E) all of the above 71) Prostaglandins A) are produced by prostate gland and have a.
1 Views
View Answer
11) All of the following are components of nucleotides except A) aldopentoses in the form of five-membered rings. B) heterocyclic nitrogen bases consisting of six-membered rings. C) heterocyclic nitrogen bases consisting of two fused rings. D) phosphate groups. E) metal ions. 12) Which base is normally found in RNA but not in DNA? A) thymine B) adenine C) guanine D).
2 Views
View Answer
11) When an amine group is transferred to α-ketoglutarate, one product is always A) glycine. B) glutamate. C) aspartate. D) alanine. E) leucine. 12) α-ketoglutarate is converted to glutamate by A) loss of a carbonyl group. B) loss of a carboxyl group. C) accepting an acetyl group. D) loss of an amide linkage. E) accepting an amine group. 13) When the amine.
1 Views
View Answer
  1) In order for dietary lipids to be transported in an aqueous system, they are solubilized by A) lipoproteins. B) cholesterol. C) lipases. D) bile. E) glycolipids. 2) Where do the first chemical changes in the digestion of dietary fats take place? A) mouth B) stomach C) small intestine D) large intestine E) liver 3) Enzymes that hydrolyze lipids are ________; substances.
3 Views
View Answer
  1) Most of the water in the human body is found A) in blood plasma. B) inside cells. C) as interstitial fluids. D) in miscellaneous fluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid and lymph. E) none of the above 2) The major cation and anion inside cells are ________ and ________, respectively. A) potassium; chloride B) potassium; hydrogen phosphate C) sodium;.
3 Views
View Answer
21) Fats are generally ________ at room temperature and are obtained from ________. A) liquids; plants B) liquids; animals C) solids; plants D) solids; animals E) none of the above 22) Oils are generally ________ at room temperature and are obtained from ________. A) liquids; plants B) liquids; animals C) solids; plants D) solids; animals E) none of the above 23) Which.
0 Views
View Answer
28) One example of an amino acid derivative that acts as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter is A) epinephrine. B) thyroxine. C) growth hormone (GH). D) estrogen. E) cortisone. 29) Which of the following compounds is not an amino acid derivative hormone? A) dopamine B) epinephrine C) thyroxine D) norepinephrine E) All of these are amino acid derivatives. 30) Which of.
1 Views
View Answer
49) Codons provide the information needed to synthesize A) nucleic acids. B) carbohydrates. C) lipids. D) proteins. 50) Which nucleic acid carries the codon for protein synthesis? A) DNA B) rRNA C) tRNA D) mRNA 51) How many three letter combinations are there present in the genetic code? A) 32 B) 64 C) 16 D) 88 52) Translation is A) copying of DNA molecules to make.
1 Views
View Answer
30) Recombinant DNA is the process of ________. A) inserting a gene from one species into the DNA sequence of another B) commingling the DNA strands of two different chromosomes C) combine one chromosome from one species with a chromosome from another species D) realigning gene sequences to form a new gene E) cross breeding.
3 Views
View Answer
11) The organ that controls the endocrine system is the A) hypothalamus. B) ovaries. C) testes. D) thyroid gland. E) adrenal gland. 12) Which type of hormone actually enters the target cell? A) amino acid derivatives B) enzymes C) peptides D) steroids E) zymogens 13) Which two types of hormones act by way of second messengers? I.amino acid derivatives II.enzymes III.peptides IV.steroids V.zymogens A) I and II B) I.
1 Views
View Answer
21) Triacylglycerols are stored in A) liposomes. B) adipocytes. C) high-density lipoproteins. D) low-density lipoproteins. E) membranes. 22) After digestion and absorption, the molecules from dietary fats and oils are transported in the bloodstream as A) glycerol. B) fatty acids. C) cholesterol. D) citric acid. E) enzymes. 23) In the synthesis of triacylglycerides, fatty acids must react with ________ before they can.
1 Views
View Answer
48) The short, tentacle like appendages coming from the main body of a nerve cell are called A) dendrites. B) axons. C) synapses. D) vesicles. E) collaterals. 49) Nerves that use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter are said to be A) antagonized. B) cholinergic. C) cholinesterases. D) inhibited. E) sympathetic. 50) Chemical messengers that carry signals between neurons are A) enzymes. B) antibodies. C) hormones. D) neurotransmitters. E).
1 Views
View Answer
21) The conversion of nitrogen derivatives to urea takes place in the A) blood. B) kidneys. C) liver. D) brain. E) intestines. 22) Which of the following types of compounds do not require nitrogen for their biosynthesis? A) purines B) pyrimidines C) neurotransmitters D) urea E) All of these require nitrogen. 23) Which of the following is the usual reactant in the.
1 Views
View Answer
39) A phospholipid with the phosphate ester group bonded to choline would be classified as a A) cephalin. B) lecithin. C) sphingomyelin. D) cerebroside. E) ganglioside. 40) Sphingomyelins are composed of sphingosine, a fatty acid, phosphoric acid, and A) choline. B) glucose. C) galactose. D) inositol. E) none of the above 41) A sphingomyelin includes all of the following components except A) amino.
0 Views
View Answer
30) Which chemical is produced from pyruvate when it is metabolized in muscle cells under aerobic conditions? A) lactate B) ethanol C) acetyl-SCoA D) phosphoenol pyruvate E) glucose 31) Pyruvate is converted to lactate under anaerobic conditions because ________. A) reduction of pyruvate provides NAD+ which is needed for glycolysis B) lactate releases oxygen upon conversion to acetyl-CoA C).
0 Views
View Answer
48) Which of the following buffer systems is associated with the respiratory system? A) phosphate B) bicarbonate C) protein D) amino acids 49) Carbon dioxide transport is an important aspect of maintaining proper pH in blood because A) carbon dioxide is basic when dissolved in water. B) a high pH causes more carbon dioxide to dissolve in.
1 Views
View Answer
49) Phospholipids differ from fats and oils by having A) one of the fatty acid ester linkages replaced by a phosphate ester linkage. B) one of the fatty acid ester linkages replaced by an amine group. C) cyclic ester structures instead of the three-carbon backbone. D) a molecule of glucose bonded to the three-carbon.
0 Views
View Answer
57) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are good antidepressants because they A) activate receptor sites. B) block receptor sites. C) increase the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters. D) decrease the concentration of monoamine neurotransmitters. E) none of the above 58) A neurotransmitter that controls the perception of pain in the brain is A) GABA. B) enkephalin. C) taurine. D) histamine. E) dopamine. 59) Depression is.
1 Views
View Answer
20) The chemical resulting from steps 3-5 of glycolysis which is oxidized in step 6 is A) glucose. B) acetyl-SCoA. C) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. D) citrate. E) oxaloacetate. 21) When ATP is produced by direct transfer of a phosphate group instead of from reactions coupled to electron transport, the process is referred to as ________ phosphorylation. A) oxidative B).
0 Views
View Answer
31) In DNA, a DNA sequence complementary to the strand shown below is C-G-G-T-T-A-G A) G-C-C-A-A-T-C. B) C-G-G-T-T-A-G. C) A-T-T-G-G-C-T. D) G-C-C-U-U-U-C. E) G-C-C-U-U-A-C. 32) What is the complementary strand for a single DNA strand with the sequence TCGA? A) TGCA B) AGCT C) CTAC D) GATC E) TCGA 33) The number of hydrogen bonds between cytosine and thymine in DNA is ________. A).
1 Views
View Answer
41) Which has greater "energy density," carbohydrates or fats.  Explain your answer in terms of molecular structure and net energy production. 42) Ketone bodies are primarily produced in ________ cells. A) brain B) heart C) liver D) kidney E) red blood 43) Ketogenesis occurs from a(an) A) underproduction of ketone bodies. B) consumption of too much sugar. C) overproduction of.
2 Views
View Answer
11) Which bodily fluid has the highest concentration of potassium ion? A) intracellular fluid B) extracellular fluid C) blood plasma D) blood serum E) none of the above 12) The composition of blood plasma and interstitial fluid are almost identical, except that interstitial fluid contains ________ than blood plasma. A) more water B) less water C) more proteins D) fewer.
2 Views
View Answer
11) All of the following are reactions in the oxidation of glucose which produce energy except A) glycolysis. B) glycogenolysis. C) oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl-SCoA. D) the citric acid cycle. E) reaction of reduced coenzymes in the electron transport chain. 12) The major function of the pentose phosphate pathway when energy for anabolic reactions is.
1 Views
View Answer
20) A mutation involves an error in A) mRNA manufacture. B) translation. C) tRNA manufacture. D) rRNA manufacture. E) DNA replication. 21) The statement "Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are not as serious as mutations" is A) true, because SNPs only result in minor variations between individuals. B) true, because SNPs can result in serious diseases such as sickle-cell anemia. C) false,.
1 Views
View Answer
  1) Substances originating in plant or animal material and soluble in non-polar organic solvents are classified as A) carbohydrates. B) lipids. C) nucleic acids D) proteins. E) amino acids. 2) The biochemical roles of lipids are A) short-term energy storage, transport of molecules, and structural support. B) storage of excess energy, component of cell membranes, and chemical messengers. C).
3 Views
View Answer
50) Glycogen is most commonly found in ________ cells and ________ cells. A) red blood; white blood B) red blood; liver C) muscle; white blood D) muscle; liver E) bone; white blood 51) Glycogenolysis can be correctly represented by which of the following pathways? A) glucose → glycogen B) glycogen → glucose C) pyruvate → glycogen D) glycogen → pyruvate E).
0 Views
View Answer
59) The basic structure of cell membranes consists of A) protein micelles studded with phospholipids. B) protein bilayers studded with phospholipids. C) one protein layer and one phospholipid layer. D) phospholipid micelles studded with proteins. E) phospholipid bilayers studded with proteins. 60) The function of glycoproteins and glycolipids in cell membranes is to A) vary the fluidity.
0 Views
View Answer
Match the following.   A) any substance that is foreign to the body and therefore causes an immune response B) a protein molecule that identifies foreign substances and mediates certain immune responses C) an abnormal condition in which the acidity of the blood is higher than normal and the pH is lower D) fluid inside.
2 Views
View Answer
  1) Which of the following is a major function of nucleic acids? A) storage and transfer of genetic information B) storage and intracellular transfer of energy C) catalysis of virtually all biochemical reactions D) structural support in both plants and animals E) long-term storage of energy 2) Chromatin is A) nuclear material composed of DNA and histones. B).
4 Views
View Answer
  1) The order of views of a genome map, from largest scale to smallest scale is A) chromosome, physical map, genetic map, overlapping clones, nucleotide sequence. B) nucleotide sequence, physical map, overlapping clones, genetic map, chromosome. C) physical map, genetic map, chromosome, overlapping clones, nucleotide sequence. D) chromosome, genetic map, physical map, overlapping clones,.
5 Views
View Answer
21) What is the difference between deoxyribose and ribose? A) Deoxyribose is a D form, whereas ribose is an L form. B) Deoxyribose has one less oxygen atom than does ribose. C) Ribose is found in the straight chain structure, whereas deoxyribose is not. D) Ribose is a monosaccharide, but deoxyribose is a polysaccharide. E).
1 Views
View Answer
29) The body fluid responsible for the proper functioning of the immune system is A) plasma. B) lymph. C) cerebrospinal fluid. D) urine. E) synovial fluid. 30) The amino acid that is the precursor to the substance associated with the inflammatory response is A) antihistamine. B) histamine. C) histidine. D) proline. E) phenylalanine. 31) An antigen at the site of inflammation will.
1 Views
View Answer
38) A hormone that is involved in maintaining electrolyte balance in cells is classified as a(an) A) mineralocorticoid. B) glucocorticoid. C) sex hormone. D) receptor molecule. E) inhibitor. 39) Androgens are a specific type of steroid whose function is to A) maintain pregnancy. B) promote development of secondary male sex characteristics. C) promote development of secondary female sex characteristics. D).
1 Views
View Answer
31) The saponification reaction used to form soaps can be more specifically described as A) acid hydrolysis. B) basic hydrolysis. C) hydrogenation. D) dehydrogenation. E) dehydration. 32) When a lipid is hydrolyzed to form a mixture of fatty acids, glycerol and phosphate as its products, the lipid is classified as A) simple lipid. B) complex lipid. C) nonsaponifiable. D) miscellaneous. 33).
0 Views
View Answer
  1) All of the following types of molecules function as chemical messengers in the body except A) polypeptide hormones such as insulin. B) steroid hormones such as progesterone. C) neurons, including axons and dendrons. D) amino acid derivatives classified as catecholamines. E) neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine. 2) Which statement about hormones is not correct? A) Hormones can.
4 Views
View Answer
40) Overproduction of insulin causes ________, a state in which the concentration of blood sugar is ________ than normal. A) hypoglycemia; lower B) hypoglycemia; higher C) hyperglycemia; lower D) hyperglycemia; higher E) none of the above 41) When blood sugar levels are lower than normal, this condition is called A) hypoglycemia. B) hyperglycemia. C) glucosuria. D) diabetes mellitus. 42) A lack.
0 Views
View Answer
21) All of the following are functions of blood except A) defense from foreign organisms. B) transport of waste products. C) regulation of body temperature. D) production of energy for anabolic processes. E) regulation of acid-base balance in the body. 22) Two components of blood that carry out the transport function are ________ and ________. A) immunoglobulins;.
1 Views
View Answer
11) Which molecule is not a fatty acid? A) CH3(CH2)14COOH B) CH3CH2(CH=CHCH2)3(CH2)6COOH C) (CH3)2CH(CH2)3COOH D) CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH E) none of the above 12) Which molecule is a saturated fatty acid? A) CH3(CH2)14COOH B) CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH C) CH3CH=CHCH2COOH D) (CH3)2CH(CH2)3COOH E) none of the above 13) Which molecule is an unsaturated fatty acid? A) CH3(CH2)14COOH B) CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH C) CH3CH=CHCH2COOH D) (CH3)2CH(CH2)3COOH E) none of the above 14) Which molecule is a.
1 Views
View Answer