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47)Circulatory systems follow the law of bulk flow.   48)All multicellular animals have a cardiovascular system.   49)Many invertebrate animals have a circulatory system.   50)Chambered hearts are found only in vertebrates.   51)Most open circulatory systems contain blood vessels.   52)Insects have a closed circulatory system in order to support high energy activities such.
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11)In the bony fish, all heart chambers are contractile except the   A)sinus venosus.   B)atrium.   C)ventricle.   D)bulbus arteriosus.   12)In most non-crocodilian reptiles, the ventricle is divided into three chambers. Which of the following is NOT one of the chambers?   A)cavum venosum   B)cavum pulmonale   C)cavum cardiacum   D)cavum arteriosum   13)Vasoconstriction is the result.
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84)Stimulus intensity is normally coded by action potential __________.   85)In response to a stimulus, a signal transduction pathway is initiated, which ultimately leads to the opening or closing of __________.   86)Sensory cells that respond to more than one class of stimulus are called __________ receptors.   87)To help discriminate the location.
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73)An __________ contraction is one in which the length of the muscle does not change significantly.   74)__________ muscle cells can depolarize and contract on their own, as opposed to neurogenic muscle cells which require neuronal innervation.   75)The axon termini of motor neurons are found in the __________ of the sarcolemma.
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21)Mechanoreceptors translate mechanical signals into electrical signals when pressure on the cell   A)activates a G protein signal transduction cascade.   B)disrupts stability of the lipid bilayer, causing ions to flow.   C)induces a conformational change in ion channels, allowing ions to flow.   D)induces a change in cell volume that disrupts ion balance.  .
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74)Unicellular organisms rely on the process of __________ to transport substances throughout the body.   75)Sponges do not have a true circulatory system, but they can propel water through their bodies using flagellated __________.   76)In the decapod crustacean, blood returns to the heart through small holes called __________.   77)In the tetrapod.
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84)In its protective role, the blood-brain barrier becomes an obstacle in delivering therapeutic drugs to specific regions of the brain in the treatment of a variety of brain disorders. Describe what the blood-brain barrier is made of, and how different compounds are capable of crossing it.   85)Describe five differences between.
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11)Odorant receptors are   A)carbohydrates.   B)proteins.   C)nucleic acids.   D)lipids.   12)Each olfactory neuron expresses __________ odorant receptor protein and each odorant receptor protein can recognize __________ odorant.   A)one; one   B)more than one; one   C)one; more than one   D)more than one; more than one   13)In olfactory receptor cells, signal transduction cascades often follow.
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1)A paramecium is capable of responding to   A)touch.   B)chemicals.   C)temperature.   D)all of the above   2)What defines a cell as an afferent neuron?   A)It has the capacity to respond to environmental stimuli.   B)It is located at the periphery.   C)It has an axon that carries information to integrating centers.   D)It has receptor.
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1)When preparing a mummy for burial, the ancient Egyptians and Greeks preserved this organ because it was believed to be the "seat of consciousness."   A)brain   B)heart   C)kidneys   D)liver   2)Functional magnetic resonance imaging works because brain areas that are working harder use more __________ than brain areas that are resting.   A)sodium  .
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21)The efferent branch of the peripheral nervous system is composed of the __________ and __________ divisions.   A)somatic motor; autonomic   B)visceral; emotional   C)sympathetic; parasympathetic   D)autonomic; involuntary   22)The autonomic nervous system can be differentiated into three branches. Which of the following is NOT one of them?   A)enteric   B)sympathetic   C)parasympathetic   D)limbic   23)The __________.
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88)Neurons have four functional zones, and each performs a task required for communication. What are these four zones and what structural features found in each allow it to perform its function?   89)When membrane potential changes, we use the terms depolarization, hyperpolarization, and repolarization. Explain what is happening to the membrane.
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76)Vertebrate hearing and equilibrium require the activity of hair cells, so-called because of the cilia that extend from the apical end of each cell.   77)In vertebrate hearing organs, the direction of bending of the hair-cell stereocilia will cause the sensory neuron to increase or decrease its firing frequency. In this.
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103)What is the Frank-Starling effect, and why is it important during periods of increased end-diastolic volume? What would happen if the Frank-Starling effect didn't exist?  104)During the flight or fight response, sympathetic pathways cause arterioles to contract. If this is true, how is it possible to increase blood flow to.
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58)The peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system tend to operate independently.   59)The hypothalamus contains a variety of regulatory centers to maintain homeostasis.   60)The activity of a central pattern generator can be modified by sensory feedback.   61)Sensory feedback is required for the activity of a central pattern generator.   62)Habituation.
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86)In striated muscle, Ca2+ regulates contraction by interacting with troponin and tropomyosin. Explain how Ca2+ is able to regulate the timing of contraction as well as affecting the kinetics of contraction.   87)Skeletal and cardiac muscle are both types of striated muscle. You have been given one type of each sample,.
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21)A single skeletal muscle cell is referred to as a   A)cardiomyocyte.   B)sarcomyocyte.   C)myofibril.   D)myofiber.   22)During which phase of an excitation-contraction cycle does depolarization occur?   A)excitation   B)inhibition   C)contraction   D)relaxation   23)When Ca2+ is present at high levels in the sarcoplasm of striated muscles, then   A)TnI has a strong interaction with actin.   B)TnC.
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38)Phineas Gage was a railway worker who survived an accident in which a tamping iron was driven through his head. After recovery, his personality was changed based on damage to his medulla.   39)Because cnidarians are not cephalized, they are incapable of complex behavior.   40)Grouping neurons into ganglia permits more advanced.
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92)You have isolated two neurons, joined by a synapse, in a Petri dish. You have stimulated the first neuron at the axon hillock and successfully generated an action potential. However, there is no response by the postsynaptic neuron. Describe possible malfunctions in synaptic transmission that would prevent the postsynaptic neuron.
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31)The basic mechanism for short-term sensitization begins with   A)decreased neurotransmitter release.   B)increased presynaptic calcium.   C)increased expression of CREB-1.   D)increased potassium conductance.   32)Which structure is important for the formation of long-term memory in mammals?   A)hippocampus   B)hypothalamus   C)cortex   D)medulla oblongata   33)Which of the following statements is true about learning?   A)It refers to.
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31)Motor neurons release __________ into the neuromuscular synapse, which may generate depolarization at the motor end plate.   A)acetylcholine   B)adenosine   C)catecholamines   D)GABA   32)Action potentials can be conducted into the muscle along invaginations of the sarcolemma, or __________.   A)sarcoplasmic reticulum   B)T-tubules   C)terminal cisternae   D)sarcotubes   33)Dihydropyridine receptors (DHPR) are also called __________ because.
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1)The greatest diversity in muscle is seen in   A)arthropods.   B)vertebrates.   C)molluscs.   D)cnidarians.   2)Which of the following is a motor protein?   A)myosin   B)microtubules   C)microfilaments   D)intermediate filaments   3)Which of the following types of movement may NOT require use of a motor protein?   A)muscle contraction   B)flagellar movement   C)vesicle transport   D)amoeboid movement   4)Microtubules are.
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21)Based on the law of bulk flow, what is the unit for "flow"?   A)volume   B)volume/time   C)time   D)force/area   22)Small increases in blood vessel __________ can lead to big decreases in vessel resistance.   A)length   B)radius   C)pressure   D)force   23)Angiogenesis refers to   A)damage to blood vessels.   B)synthesis of blood vessels.   C)genetic analysis of blood.
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63)Animals are capable of movement because they have a unique type of cell, the __________.   64)Microtubules are organized in cells with the ends near the nucleus in a region known as the __________, or MTOC for short.   65)Microtubule-associated proteins that stabilize the tubules are called __________.   66)When microfilaments remain the.
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66)The vertebrate olfactory system can distinguish thousands of odorants through labeled line processing.   67)Arthropods do not have external sensory structures because the hard exoskeleton prevents it.   68)The gustatory system can discriminate as many compounds as the olfactory system.   69)Unlike taste receptor cells in vertebrates, invertebrate taste receptor cells are bipolar.
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1)Which of the following is NOT one of the essential components of a circulatory system?   A)a pump   B)a system of tubes   C)a fluid   D)oxygen   2)Which of the following fluids is NOT circulated by the cardiovascular system?   A)plasma   B)blood   C)hemolymph   D)lymph   3)How does the dorsal blood vessel of the earthworm pump.
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41)What is hydrostatic pressure?   A)pressure exerted by a fluid at rest   B)pressure exerted by a fluid in motion   C)resistive forces generated by fluid viscosity   D)high blood pressure   42)What is edema?   A)accumulation of interstitial fluid in any tissue   B)accumulation of interstitial fluid in the blood   C)overactivity of the lymphatic system   D)a.
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75)In species with cortical folds, the outer regions of the folds are called __________ and the inner grooves are called __________.   76)The somatosensory cortex and primary motor cortex are organized __________. That is, each part of the cortex corresponds to the specific part of the body that it governs.   77)The.
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57)In an open circulatory system, there is no need for the process of diffusion.   58)Within a species, the thickness of the arterial blood vessel wall is fixed.   59)Capillaries can assist in the process of diffusion by contracting their muscular walls.   60)When reptiles dive underwater, they redirect blood flow from the.
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84)Capillaries empty into __________.   85)In mammals, the __________ is the main blood vessel leading from the heart to the lungs.   86)In mammals, the __________ is the main blood vessel leading from the lungs to the heart.   87)In tetrapods, the __________ side of the heart pushes blood through the pulmonary circuit.  .
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79)Most neurons show __________, such that one end of the neuron receives a signal and the other sends a signal. The cnidarians are an exception to this principle.   80)Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells wrap themselves around neuronal processes, forming __________, a substance that increases conduction rates and decreases current leak.   81)The.
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31)The rising phase of a cardiac pacemaker action potential is caused by a __________ current.  A)potassium   B)sodium   C)chloride   D)calcium   32)The rising phase of the action potential of a cardiac cardiomyocyte is caused by a __________ current.   A)potassium   B)sodium   C)chloride   D)calcium   33)Electrical signals move through the mammalian heart in a particular.
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55)The term concentric contraction is most accurately used to describe the even contraction of cardiac muscle around the center of one of the cardiac chambers.   56)The effective refractory period is the same for all types of striated muscles.   57)Tonic muscles, like twitch muscles, have a single innervation point.   58)Smooth muscle.
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11)Among other things, the hindbrain is responsible for   A)regulation of involuntary behaviors such as breathing.   B)coordination of visual and auditory information.   C)regulation of eating and reproduction.   D)conversion of short-term memories into long-term memories.   12)Relative to other major groups of vertebrates, mammals and birds both have an enlarged   A)forebrain.   B)midbrain.   C)hindbrain.  .
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46)Neurons are the only cells that can respond to environmental stimuli.   47)Sensory processing requires the release of neurotransmitter.   48)One similarity of all sensory receptors is that they must transduce some signal into a membrane potential.   49)Different sensory neurons use different types of action potentials to transmit information.   50)In vertebrates, each.
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67)An EKG is designed to measure electrical activity of the heart.   68)When a cardiomyocyte is stretched, the strength of its contraction increases.   69)Norepinephrine, released during the fight-or-flight response, causes vasoconstriction of the arterioles leading to skeletal muscle.   70)The elastic nature of the aorta helps to maintain stable blood pressure during.
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107)Both the olfactory system and the gustatory system in vertebrates work by processing chemoreceptive signals. However, there are several differences between them. Describe/explain three differences.   108)Briefly describe lateral inhibition. Why is it useful? Draw a figure if necessary.   109)How does the mammalian eye focus an image? In your description, name.
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94)In terrestrial vertebrates, taste receptor cells are clustered into groups known as __________.   95)In vertebrates, olfactory receptor cells are bipolar sensory neurons, but taste receptor cells are __________.   96)There are two main types of mechanoreceptor proteins: epithelial sodium channels and __________.   97)Touch and pressure receptors can be broadly grouped into.
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45)As organisms moved from water to land, a concurrent increase of muscle evolution occurred.   46)Microtubules have polarity, with a positive and negative end.    47)All toxins that affect microtubules work by affecting free tubulin concentrations.   48)Axonemal dyneins generate the movements of cilia and flagella by moving microtubules past each other.   49)Sperm.
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31)The small bones in the mammalian middle ear are called:   A)malleus, incus, stapes.   B)stapes, ossicle, tectorus.   C)malleus, otolith, statocyst.   D)utricle, saccule, ampulla.   32)If the orientation of your ears were changed so that your right ear still faced forward but your left ear faced backward, how would your ability to locate.
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48)The left and right cerebral hemispheres of mammals are functionally identical.   49)Visual, auditory, touch, and olfactory signals are all routed through the midbrain and thalamus before processing at higher levels.   50)The limbic system, sometimes referred to as the "emotional brain," is physically located in the hindbrain.   51)The purpose of folding.
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56)The minimum criterion for calling something an eye, rather than a photoreceptor, is the ability to detect the direction by which light has entered the organ.   57)Despite the great diversity of eye structure, there is surprising similarity at the molecular level in the development of eyes in all animals.   58)To.
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11)Which of the following statements about movement via actin polymerization is true?   A)Movement can be generated using actin polymerization by itself (no motor proteins).   B)Movement occurs only when motor proteins move across actin polymers.   C)Actin polymerization prevents growth of filapodia.   D)During cell movement there is always a net growth of.
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101)Beginning with all chambers of the heart in the "relaxed" phase, describe the cardiac cycle in mammals, with systole and diastole of the atria and ventricles. For each time point in the cycle you select, state the following: 102)The contractility of the heart can be modified through the release of norepinephrine.
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65)__________ neurons relay information from integrating centers such as the brain to effector organs like muscles or glands.   66)__________ is the evolutionary trend that describes the concentration of nervous tissue and sense organs at one end of the body.   67)In vertebrates, the __________ nerves exit directly from the braincase.   68)The.
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97)There are different types of pumping structures in animal circulatory systems. Describe the three different types. How is one-way flow ensured?  98)In birds and mammals, blood pressures are different between the pulmonary and systemic circuits. Which one is greater? Why is the difference advantageous?  99)What are angiogenic inhibitors and why.
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