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3.Section 6.2. What are the two key concepts for this section? Define and distinguish between crude birth rate and crude death rate.  List three variables that affect the growth and decline of human populations. Explain how a given area’s population change is calculated. Define fertility rate, and distinguish between the.
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1.Core Case Study.  Describe a temperate deciduous forest (Core Case Study) and explain why it serves as an example of how differences in climate lead to the formation of different types of ecosystems.  2.Section 7-1. What is the key concept for this section? Distinguish between weather and climate. Define ocean.
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7.Section 5-3. What is the key concept for this section? Define population. Why do most populations live in clumps? List four variables that govern changes in population size. Write an equation showing how they interact. What is a population’s age structure and what are three major age groups called? Define.
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7.Section 6-3. What is the key concept for this section? What is the age structure of a population? Explain how age structure affects population growth and economic growth. Describe the American Baby Boom and some of the economic and social effects.  What are some problems related to rapid population decline.
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9.Define and distinguish among native, nonnative, indicator and keystone species and give an example of each. What major ecological roles do amphibian species play (Core Case Study)?  List six factors that contribute to the threats of extinction for frogs and other amphibians.  What are three reasons for protecting amphibians? Describe.
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1.What are three steps governments and industries could take to protect the world’s remaining coral reefs (Core Case Study)? 3.Suppose you are a defense attorney arguing in court for protecting a coral reef (Core Case Study) from harmful human activities. Give your three most important arguments for the defense of this.
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3.Explain why we should help to preserve kelp forests.   Describe three ways in which predators can increase their chances of feeding on their prey and three ways in which prey species can avoid their predators. Define and give an example of coevolution. 4.Define parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism and give an example.
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1.How might we and other species be affected if all amphibians (Core Case Study) were to go extinct? 2.What role does each of the following processes play in helping implement the three scientific principles of sustainability: (a) natural selection, (b) speciation, and (c) extinction? 3.How would you respond to someone who.
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4.What is the intertidal zone? Distinguish between rocky and sandy shores and describe some of the organisms found on each type of shoreline. Explain the importance of coral reefs. What is ocean acidification and why is it a treat to coral reefs? Describe the three major zones in the open.
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6.What is extinction? What is an endemic species and why can such a species be vulnerable to extinction? Distinguish between background extinction rate and mass extinction. 7.Section 4-5. What is the key concept for this section? Define species diversity and distinguish between species richness and species evenness. Explain why species-rich.
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1.Core Case Study. What economic and ecological roles do honeybees play? What is pollination? How are human activities contributing to the decline of many populations of European honeybees, and why should we care? What is colony collapse disorder (CCD)? 2.Section 9-1. What is the key concept for this section? What is.
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1.What difference would it make if the southern sea otter (Core Case Study) became extinct primarily because of human activities? What are three things we could do to help prevent the premature extinction of this species? 2.Use the second law of thermodynamics (see Chapter 2) to explain why predators are generally.
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9.Section 7-3. What is the key concept for this section? About what percentage of the world’s major terrestrial ecosystems are being degraded or used unsustainably? Summarize the ways in which human activities have affected the world’s deserts, grasslands, forests, and mountains. How is a warming climate likely to change the.
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1.Why do you think temperate deciduous forests (Core Case Study) are among the biomes most extensively disturbed by human activities? 2.Describe the role of temperature and precipitation in determining what parts of the earth’s land are covered with:  (a) desert, (b) arctic tundra, (c) temperate grasslands, (d) tropical rainforests, and (e).
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7.Explain how the three major types of grasslands differ in their climate and vegetation. What is a savanna? Why have many of the world’s temperate grasslands disappeared? What is permafrost? 8.Explain how the three major types of forests differ in their climate and vegetation. Why is biodiversity so high in tropical.
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6.Identify a major local, national, or global environmental problem, and describe the role population growth plays in this problem. 7.Some people believe the most important environmental goal is to sharply reduce the rate of population growth in less-developed countries, where at least 92% of the world’s population growth is expected.
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6.Section 8-4. What is the key concept for this section? Define surface water, runoff, and watershed (drainage basin). What major ecosystem and economic services do fresh-water systems provide? What is a lake? What four zones are found in deep lakes? Distinguish among oligotrophic, eutrophic, and mesotrophic lakes. What is cultural.
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6.Suppose a developer builds a housing complex overlooking a coastal marsh (Figure 8-8) and the result is pollution and degradation of the marsh. Describe the effects of such a development on the wildlife of the marsh, assuming at least one species is eliminated as a result. 7.Suppose you have a friend.
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1.Core Case Study. Explain how southern sea otters act as a keystone species in their environment (Core Case Study). Explain why we should care about protecting this species from premature extinction that could result primarily from human activities. 2.Section 5-1. What is the key concept for this section? Define interspecific.
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1.What are three aspects of your lifestyle that might directly or indirectly contribute to declines in European honeybee populations and the endangerment of other pollinator species (Core Case Study)? 2.Give your response to the following statement: “Eventually, all species become extinct. So it does not really matter that the world’s remaining.
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4.Wildlife ecologist and environmental philosopher Aldo Leopold wrote this with respect to preventing extinction of wild species: “To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering.” Explain how this statement relates to the material in this chapter.  5.What would you do if fire ants invaded your.
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9.Explain how the reduction of poverty and empowerment of women can help countries to slow their population growth. What is family planning and how can it help to stabilize population? Describe the roles of reducing poverty, elevating the status of women, and family planning in slowing population growth. Describe India’s.
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8.Distinguish between the environmental resistance and the carrying capacity of an environment, and use these concepts to explain why there are always limits to population growth in nature. Why is the recovery of southern sea otters a slow one, and what factors are threatening this recovery? Describe the exploding white-tailed.
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5.Give two examples of the benefits that have been gained by the introduction of nonnative species.  Give two examples of the harmful effects of nonnative species that have been introduced deliberately. Describe the harmful and beneficial effects of introducing the kudzu vine. Give two examples of harmful results of accidental.
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4.Is the human species a keystone species? Explain. If humans were to become extinct, what are three species that might also become extinct and three species whose population would probably grow? 5.How would you respond to someone who says that because extinction is a natural process, we should not worry about.
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Some 45-53% of the world’s coral reefs have been destroyed or severely damaged (Core Case Study). A number of factors have played a role in this serious loss of aquatic biodiversity (Figure 8-13), including ocean warming, sediment from coastal soil erosion, excessive algae growth from fertilizer runoff, coral bleaching, rising.
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3.Section 9-2. What is the key concept for this section? What are three reasons for trying to avoid hastening the extinction of wild species?  Describe two economic and two ecological benefits of species diversity. Explain how saving other species and the ecosystem services they provide can help us to save.
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7.List the major threats to the world’s bird populations and give two reasons for protecting bird species from extinction. Describe environmental explorer Ça?gan Hakk? S¸ekercio? glu’s contributions to our understanding of the ecological importance of birds and threats to their extinction. 8.Section 9-4. What is the key concept for this section?.
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5.Section 7-2. What is the key concept for this section? Describe how climate and vegetation vary with latitude and elevation. What is a biome? Explain why there are three major types of each of the major biomes (deserts, grasslands, and forests). Explain why biomes are not uniform. Describe how climate.
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8.Give three examples of inland wetlands and explain the ecological and economic importance of such wetlands. 9.Section 8-5. What is the key concept for this section? What are four ways in which human activities are disrupting and degrading freshwater systems? Describe losses of inland wetlands in the United States in terms.
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The chart below shows selected population data for two different countries A and B. Country A Country B Population (millions) 144 82 Crude birth rate (cbr) 43 8 Crude death rate (cdr) 18 10 Infant mortality rate 100 3.8 Total fertility rate 5.9 1.3 % of population under 15 years old 45 14 % of population older than 65 years 3.0 19 Average life expectancy at birth 47 79 % urban 44 75 (Data from Population Reference Bureau 2007. World.
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1.Core Case Study. Summarize the story of how human population growth has surpassed 7 billion and explain why this is significant to many environmental scientists (Core Case Study). List three factors that account for the rapid increase in the world’s population over the past 200 years. 2.Section 6-1. What is.
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In this chapter you learned how long-term variations in the average temperature and average precipitation play a major role in determining the types of deserts, forests, and grasslands found in different parts of the world. Below are typical annual climate graphs for a tropical grassland (savanna) in Africa and a.
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5.Section 5-2. What is the key concept for this section? What is ecological succession? Distinguish between primary ecological succession and secondary ecological succession and give an example of each.  List three factors that can affect how ecological succession occurs. Explain why succession does not follow a predictable path. 6.Explain how living.
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9.Summarize the roles and limitations of wildlife refuges, gene banks, botanical gardens, wildlife farms, zoos, and aquariums in protecting some species.  Describe the role of captive breeding in efforts to prevent species extinction and give an example of success in returning a nearly extinct species to the wild. What is.
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6.Summarize the roles of population growth, overconsumption, pollution, and climate change in the extinction of wild species. List possible causes of the decline of European honeybee populations in the United States. Describe how human activities threaten polar bears in the Arctic. Why does poaching occur? Give three examples of species.
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