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    31) ________ are complex communities of various types of microbes that adhere to surfaces. A) Biofilms B) Isolates C) Colonies D) Aggregates E) Media   32) The ________ method provides an estimate of the CFUs (colony-forming units) in a sample A) turbidity B) viable plate-count C) Coulter-counter D) direct microscopic-count E) streak-plate   33) Blood agar plates are an example of ________.
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  ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 71) Describe the basic similarities and differences between DNA replication and transcription.   72) Describe the various types of nucleic acids that are typically found in cells.   73) Bacterial strain A contains a plasmid. Bacterial strain B does not..
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    11) In the compound lamivudine an -SH group replaces an -OH group found in cytosine. When used as a medication it will A) disrupt membrane structure. B) disrupt lipid membrane structure. C) interfere with protein synthesis. D) interfere with nucleic acid synthesis. E) interfere with cell wall synthesis.   12) Which of the following groups of.
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  SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 56) The process by which a bacterial cell produces an endospore is called (endosporing/sporulation/vegetation).   57) The most common form of reproduction among prokaryotes is (snapping/budding/binary) fission.   58) The rod-shaped (rickettsias/chlamydias/brucella) are intracellular parasitic members of.
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    11) Which of the following describes flash pasteurization? A) heating at 72°C for 15 minutes B) passing liquid through steam at 140°C C) heating at 63°C for 30 minutes D) heating at 72°C for 15 seconds E) heating at 134°C for one second   12) The dairy creamer used in restaurants is usually treated by A).
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    31) Which of the following interferes with cell wall synthesis by blocking alanine bridge formation? A) beta-lactams B) bacitracin C) cycloserine D) vancomycin E) both cycloserine and vancomycin   32) Antimicrobial sugar analogs are effective for A) preventing nucleic acid synthesis. B) blocking a metabolic pathway. C) preventing bacterial protein synthesis. D) preventing virus attachment. E) preventing cell membrane synthesis.   33).
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  TRUE/FALSE.  Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 46) Gene therapy for human genetic diseases has not been successful yet.   47) Reverse transcriptase synthesizes a DNA molecule from an RNA template.   48) The goals of recombinant DNA technology include production of new organisms with.
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  SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 56) The process of freeze-drying microbes to preserve them is (lyophilization/dessication).   57) Natural antiseptics such as pine or clove oil are examples of antimicrobial compounds called (alcohols/phenolics/detergents).   58) A(n) (iodophor/halogen) is an iodine-containing organic compound.
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    11) Which of the following groups of bacteria lives in environments similar to those that may have existed on the early Earth? A) mycoplasmas B) proteobacteria C) thermophiles D) cyanobacteria E) deeply branching bacteria   12) Many cyanobacteria carry out both oxygenic photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, but oxygen inhibits nitrogen fixation. How do these cyanobacteria manage.
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  SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 56) Any drug that acts against a disease is called a(n) (analog/antibiotic/chemotherapeutic) agent.   57) Selective (toxicity/action/treatment) means that a given antimicrobial agent is more toxic to a pathogen than to the host being treated.   58).
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  67) The (transferases/transaminases/deaminases) generate amino acids from carbohydrate precursors and glutamic acid.     68) A (photosystem/thylakoid/grana) is a collection of pigments such as chlorophyll that are used to absorb light in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.     69) Waste products such as sulfur are produced by (oxygenic/anoxygenic/aerobic) photosynthetic bacteria as they obtain.
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    21) MacConkey agar plates represent ________ medium. A) a differential B) a selective C) a minimal D) both a differential and a selective E) both a minimal and a selective   22) A Petroff-Hauser counting chamber is a(n) A) device that measures the amount of light that passes through a culture. B) device used to count numbers.
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  TRUE/FALSE.  Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 46) Paul Erhlich coined the term antibiotics for the "magic bullet" antimicrobials he pursued.   47) Antisense nucleic acids are designed to have no side effects against humans.   48) Nucleic acid analog drugs act by inhibiting ribosome.
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  ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 71) Some sterilization procedures do not kill all the microbes that may be present. Explain how these procedures may for practical purposes still be considered sterilization.   72) Compare and contrast the nine major types of antimicrobial chemicals.
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  ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 71) A new prokaryote is recovered from a remote saline hot spring. Design a set of experiments to determine whether the organism is thermophilic or thermoduric, halophilic or halotolerant.   72) Explain how temperature and pH levels can.
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    31) The procedure used to identify individuals by their unique genetic sequences is known as A) xenotransplantation. B) DNA fingerprinting. C) DNA sequencing. D) microarray analysis. E) northern analysis.   32) An effective tool for screening a large number of genetic sequences at once is known as A) microarray. B) cDNA synthesis. C) restriction analysis. D) gel electrophoresis. E) FISH.   33).
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    21) Inducible operons A) are active in the presence of a repressor. B) usually require a repressor to be transcribed. C) are normally active. D) are generally anabolic pathways. E) usually require an activator to be transcribed.   22) Which of the following are considered to be frameshift mutations? A) inversions only B) deletions only C) insertions only D).
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    31) A scientist develops a new medication that is a protein compound and that must be administered by injection. Which of the following would be the most effective and safest means of preparing a sterile solution of the new medication? A) ultraviolet irradiation B) filtration C) dilution with alcohol D) lyophilization E) autoclaving   32) Which.
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  ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 71) Why can microbial resistance to antibiotics and other drugs be considered a primarily genetic phenomenon?   72) Discuss the cellular factors that might make a drug's spectrum of action narrow rather than broad.   73) Explain the concept of.
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  ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 73) Describe the mechanism of feedback inhibition and the role this process plays in controlling enzyme activity.   74) The discussion of carbohydrate catabolism includes some of the many metabolic variations microbes are capable of. Devise a set.
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  TRUE/FALSE.  Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 46) Prokaryotic cells are diploid.   47) A chemical is reported to inhibit bacterial replication. Bacterial cells are placed in medium with all nutrients necessary for replication. The chemical is added to the culture, and after a.
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    11) Which of the following is essential in PCR? A) DNA primers B) both DNA primers and DNA polymerase C) reverse transcriptase D) DNA polymerase E) antisense RNAs   12) If a researcher used Escherichia coli DNA polymerase instead of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase in the PCR procedure, what would be the result? A) Many mistakes.
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    31) Which of the following statements regarding pseudomonads is FALSE? A) They include Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. B) They cause urinary tract infections. C) They often contaminate food products. D) They are symbiotic with plants for nitrogen fixation. E) They are Gram-negative rods.   32) Which of the following bacterial genera is useful for sewage treatment? A).
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MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Pleomorphic bacteria A) have a slightly curved rod shape. B) are roughly spherical. C) are flexible. D) reproduce by snapping division. E) vary in size and shape.   2) Which of the following bacterial arrangements is the result of snapping division?.
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  SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 56) The conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia is called nitrogen (metabolism/fixation).   57) Organisms that require organic sources of carbon and energy are called (chemoheterotrophs/chemoautotrophs/auxotrophs).   58) The (peroxide/superoxide/hydroxyl) radical is formed during the incomplete reduction.
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    21) Photosystems are assembled in A) thylakoids. B) cytochromes. C) grana. D) cristae. E) stroma.   22) Beta-oxidation of fatty acids produces a substrate of the A) Calvin-Benson cycle. B) pentose phosphate pathway. C) Krebs cycle. D) Embden-Meyerhof pathway. E) Entner-Doudoroff pathway.   23) Which of the following is associated with the Calvin-Benson cycle? A) FADH2 B) RuBP C) acetyl-CoA D) TMAO E) PABA   24) What is.
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    21) Which of the following pathways is specifically inhibited by sulfonamides? A) the conversion of PABA to dihydrofolic acid B) the conversion of PABA to tetrahydrofolic acid C) the conversion of tetrahydrofolic acid to PABA D) the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to PABA E) the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid   22) Which of.
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  SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 57) The conversion of phosphoenol pyruvic acid (PEP) to pyruvic acid results in the production of an ATP. This reaction is an example of (substrate-level/oxidative) phosphorylation.     58) Another term for a protein catalyst is a(n).
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    21) The use of lysozyme during the preparation of cheeses and wines is effective in reducing the numbers of A) all microbes. B) bacteria. C) fungi. D) prions. E) viruses.   22) Which of the following statements about quaternary ammonium compounds is FALSE? A) They are harmless to humans except at high concentrations. B) Zephiran is an.
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    21) Which of the following is NOT associated with bacteria in the genus Streptomyces? A) nutrient recycling in soil B) protection of plants against caterpillars C) the "musty" smell of soil D) microbial antagonism E) antibiotic production   22) What feature of mycobacteria is responsible for the unusually slow growth of these bacteria? A) They lack.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Recombinant DNA technology can be most accurately defined as the A) use of microorganisms to produce useful products. B) study of replication and recombination in microbes. C) selective breeding of organisms to create new combinations of traits. D).
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  SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 56) A(n) (operon/codon/gene) is a specific sequence of nucleotides that codes for a protein or an RNA molecule.     57) Loosely packed, transcriptionally active regions of a eukaryotic chromosome are called (euchromatin/heterochromatin/nucleosomes).     58) Transfer of DNA.
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  TRUE/FALSE.  Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 46) Removal of microbes from the skin is antisepsis.   47) Some viruses are inactivated by the same chemical or physical agents that damage cytoplasmic membranes.   48) Refrigeration is an effective germicidal method.   49) Antimicrobial agents usually.
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    31) Another term for the palindromic sequence found at the ends of transposons is a(n) A) inverted repeat. B) insertion sequence. C) complex transposon. D) transposase. E) bacteriophage.   32) Which of the following is characteristic of prokaryotic genomes but not eukaryotic genomes? A) circular chromosomes B) histones C) enclosed in a nuclear membrane D) linear chromosomes E) typically consist.
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    11) Typical eukaryotic genomes are composed of ________ DNA molecule(s). A) a single circular B) a single linear C) multiple circular D) multiple linear E) both linear and circular   12) A codon is a particular combination of three nucleotides. Therefore, there are ________ possible combinations of the nucleotides A, C, G, and T. A) 64.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following are associated with nucleic acid structure EXCEPT A) uracil. B) ionic bonds. C) ribose. D) hydrogen bonds. E) phosphate.   2) Which of the following is found at the 5' end of a DNA strand? A) a.
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    41) Reactions involving ligases are typically ________ reactions. A) anabolic B) catabolic C) both anabolic and catabolic D) neither anabolic nor catabolic E) exergonic   42) Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs during the ________ stage(s) of glycolysis. A) energy-conservation B) lysis C) energy-investment D) energy-investment and energy-conservation E) energy-investment, lysis, and energy-conservation   43) The production of NADH takes place during the ________ stage(s).
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  ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 71) Discuss some of the impacts that tools and techniques of recombinant DNA technology have had on medicine.   72) Discuss one of the pros and cons regarding the application of recombinant DNA technology.   73) Compare and contrast the.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A microbe recovered from an environmental sample grows on a medium composed of agar and a mix of salts. The agar is not digested during incubation. The growth rate increases in high CO2 conditions. The.
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  TRUE/FALSE.  Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 46) Obligate anaerobes have enzymes such as superoxide dismutase to protect them from the damaging effects of oxygen.   47) Nitrogen fixation is a process that occurs in all bacteria.   48) Thermoduric mesophiles are often responsible for.
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  SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 56) The use of microbes to make practical products such as vaccines or hormones is called (genomics/recombination/biotechnology).   57) A technique using fluorescent-tagged probes to detect specific DNA sequences in their natural locations is known as.
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  TRUE/FALSE.  Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 46) The majority of archaea are extremophiles.   47) When an endospore germinates, it gives rise to two daughter cells called vegetative cells.   48) Members of the Streptomyces are environmentally important because they can degrade a wide.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following infectious agents is least resistant to destruction by chemical methods? A) vegetative bacterial cells B) fungal spores C) bacterial endospores D) nonenveloped viruses E) enveloped viruses   2) Which of the following statements is TRUE of disinfectants?.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Who proposed the concept of chemotherapy, that compounds might selectively kill pathogens without harming people? A) Gerhard Domagk B) Alexander Fleming C) Selman Waksman D) Paul Ehrlich E) Joseph Lister   2) An antimicrobial that inhibits cell wall synthesis will result.
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  TRUE/FALSE.  Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 47) Reactions that are both catabolic and anabolic are amphibolic.   48) The ability to utilize different metabolites for cellular respiration is one method for identifying bacteria.   49) Environmental changes can result in the inactivation of enzymes..
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    21) Which of the following devices is used for PCR? A) a DNA sequencer B) a thermocycler C) a gene gun D) an electrophoresis chamber E) a nucleic acid synthesis machine   22) DNA fingerprinting can be used A) for forensics and detection of unculturable organisms. B) to generate cDNA clones and libraries. C) in forensic investigations. D) to.
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MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The fusion of two gametes produces a A) schizont. B) merozoite. C) chromatid. D) centromere. E) zygote.   2) Replication of the DNA occurs during ) A) interphase. B) prophase. C) metaphase. D) anaphase. E) telophase.   3) Sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles.
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    11) Human pathogens are classified as A) mesophiles. B) hyperthermophiles. C) thermophiles. D) thermoduric. E) psychrophiles.   12) In the process of ________ microbes detect the presence and density of other microbes and modify their metabolic activity in response. A) quorum sensing B) mutualism C) antagonism D) synergy E) symbiosis   13) Which of the following organisms would be most likely to.
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