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    31) All of the following are associated with ATP molecules EXCEPT A) a long-term energy supply. B) high-energy bonds. C) a recyclable energy supply. D) formation of coenzymes. E) three phosphate groups.   32) Which of the following statements concerning nucleic acids is FALSE? A) Nucleic acid strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary bases. B) Not.
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    41) DNA is composed of repeating units of sugars, phosphates, and nucleic acids. This is an example of a A) polymer. B) monomer. C) salt. D) micelle. E) lipid.   42) A polymer composed of simple sugars is a(n) A) protein. B) triglyceride. C) starch. D) glycoprotein. E) amino acid.   43) An amino acid is an example of a A) monomer. B) base. C) micelle. D) polymer. E).
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  3) You are a scientist studying the highly specific interactions of bacteriophages with their host cells when they first encounter the cell. Discuss what microscope(s) and preparation procedures you might use for this study. 4) Compare and contrast the three domains identified by Woese: Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea.   5) List and explain.
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  3.2   True/False Questions   1) Chloroplasts use light energy to produce ATP and carbohydrates.   2) Peroxisomes contain enzymes used to digest nutrients that have been brought into the cell through phagocytosis.   3) Bacterial protein synthesis can begin before the reading of the gene is complete.   4) All cell membranes contain phospholipids and a wide variety.
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  5.3   Short Answer Questions   1) ATP is produced by the phosphorylation of __________.   2) Another term for an organic catalyst is a(n) __________.   3) A __________ reaction is one in which a molecule accepts an electron.   4) The __________ point of an enzyme is reached when all active sites have bound substrate molecules.   5).
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  3) Most antibacterial drugs disrupt or destroy bacterial cellular characteristics that are different from those of eukaryotic cells or that may not even be present in eukaryotic cells. List and describe at least three cellular features of bacteria that could be targeted to inhibit or kill a bacterial pathogen. 4) Describe.
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  4.3   Short Answer Questions   1) A(n) __________ microscope has a single ocular lens.   2) A(n) __________ molecule is one that absorbs invisible radiation and emits visible light.   3) The total magnification using a 10 ocular and a 100 objective would be __________ X. (Be sure your answer is a numeral.)   4) A(n) __________.
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  31) Which of the following is an incorrect pairing? 32) What was the first disease proven to be bacterial in origin? A) yellow fever B) cholera C) anthrax D) malaria E) tuberculosis   33) The work of Lister, Nightingale, and Semmelweis all contributed to controlling infectious disease by A) developing techniques for isolating pathogens. B) developing methods for reducing nosocomial.
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  3.3   Short Answer Questions   1) In a(n) __________ solution, an animal cell can gain so much water that it may burst.   2) The presence of a cell __________ enables bacterial and plant cells to resist the effects of hypotonic solutions.   3) A higher concentration of solutes corresponds to a __________ (higher/lower) concentration.
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    11) All of the following are forms of oxidation EXCEPT A) loss of an electron. B) loss of hydrogen atom. C) a dehydrogenation event. D) substrate level phosphorylation. E) gain of an oxygen atom and its electrons.   12) Which of the following can be the final electron receptor in anaerobic respiration in bacteria? A) nitrate B) pyruvic acid C).
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    31) Which of the following is a TRUE statement concerning the structure and function of enzymes? A) All enzymes bind to cofactors necessary for their function. B) An apoenzyme is a combination of a cofactor bound to a holoenzyme. C) The higher the temperature, the faster an enzyme will work. D) Competitive inhibition of.
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    31) Acidic dyes A) work best in low pH environments. B) are negatively charged. C) are used for staining negatively charged molecular structures. D) are lipid soluble. E) are negatively charged and work best at low pH.   32) All of the following are associated with smear preparation EXCEPT A) agglutination of the specimen. B) spreading the specimen onto.
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  TRUE/FALSE.  Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 45)Most microbes need an environment that has a water activity of at least 0.90.   46)The starter culture used to make cheese determines the type of cheese produced.   47)Amino acid and vitamin supplements are prepared from extracts.
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  2.2   True/False Questions   1) The smallest chemical units of matter are elements.   2) The side groups of amino acids can interact with each other and with other molecules.   3) Monosaccharides are usually found in cyclic forms.   4) The electron shells of atoms hold eight electrons each.   5) Hydrogen bonds are stronger then covalent bonds.   6) Carbohydrates.
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    31) Which of the following is NOT a function of the eukaryotic cytoskeleton? A) anchors organelles B) gives shape to the cell C) packages cellular secretions D) performs endocytosis E) aids in contraction of the cell   32) The accumulation of glucose 6-phosphate inside a bacterial cell via phosphorylation of glucose is an example of A) facilitated diffusion. B).
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    11) Human pathogens are classified as A) thermoduric. B) thermophiles. C) mesophiles. D) hyperthermophiles. E) psychrophiles.   12) The term barophile refers to which of the following growth requirements? A) hydrostatic pressure B) temperature C) nitrogen source D) pH E) osmotic pressure   13) Which of the following organisms would be most likely to contaminate a jar of pickles? A) a neutrophile B) a thermophile C) an.
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    21)Which of these microbial products is needed to produce "gasohol"? A)ethanol B)aspartame C)methanol D)citric acid E)hyaluronidase   22)What was the first substance produced by microorganisms to be used pharmaceutically? A)penicillin B)taxol C)human insulin D)streptokinase E)interferons   23)Industrial fermentation and fermentation in food production A)use entirely different starting material. B)use entirely different microorganisms. C)make use of the same microorganisms. D)are both processes in which sugars are.
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  3.4   Essay Questions   1) Compare and contrast the characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.   2) Compare and contrast archaea and bacteria, with particular attention to the features that lead to their placement in separate taxa.       .
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  2.3   Short Answer Questions   1) Another name for a unit of atomic mass is a(n) __________.   2) Prokaryotes that grow best under acidic conditions are called __________.   3) Cell surface markers composed of both carbohydrate and lipid molecules are known as __________.   4) Molecules such as amino acids that have identical atoms and functional.
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  5.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Which of the following statements concerning cellular metabolism is FALSE? A) Energy obtained from nutrients or light is stored in the bonds of ATP. B) Enzymes are used in both catabolic and anabolic reactions. C) Macromolecules are converted into cell structures via catabolism. D) The goal of metabolism is reproduction of.
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  4.2   True/False Questions   1) A resolution of 1 μm would be better than a resolution of 0.5 μm.   2) Bacterial cells are so similar to each other that physical characteristics cannot be used in identifying organisms.   3) The three domains proposed by Carl Woese are the Archaea, the Eukarya, and the Protista.   4) Gram.
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    21) Which of the following statements concerning endocytosis and exocytosis is CORRECT? A) These processes occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. B) Phagocytosis is a type of endocytosis in which liquids are brought into the cell. C) Endocytosis produces a structure called a food vesicle. D) Waste products and secretions are exported from the.
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  3) Define and discuss the importance and impact of pH on living organisms.   4) Describe the chemical properties of phospholipids that account for their behavior in water. 5) Nitrogen is an essential element for living things, as demonstrated by the fact that nearly all fertilizers contain nitrogenous compounds. Discuss why nitrogen is.
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  6.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) In microbiology, the term growth usually refers to an increase in A) a microbe's size. B) the number of microbial cells. C) the amount of ATP produced. D) the number and size of microbial cells. E) the number and size of microbial cells and the amount of ATP produced.   2) A cell that.
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  ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 70)What are the levels of microbial associations in the environment? How do they relate to an ecosystem?   71)Compare the use of biosensors with traditional methods of determining microbial contamination.   72)How does water quality testing make use of environmental.
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  2.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Which of the following is a particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom and has no electrical charge? A) electron B) neutron C) element D) proton E) isotope   2) An atom of carbon that has six protons and seven neutrons is an example of a(n) A) isotope. B) radioactive isotope. C) molecule. D) compound. E).
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  4.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Cellular organelles and viruses are generally measured in A) nanometers. B) millimeters. C) micrometers. D) centimeters. E) decimeters.   2) Which of the following is an incorrect pairing? A) magnification: refraction of radiation B) contrast: staining techniques C) numerical aperture: curved glass D) simple microscope: Leeuwenhoek E) electron beams: shorter wavelength   3) The ability of a lens to gather light.
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    41) The __________ is one in which eosin is used. A) acid-fast stain B) negative stain C) flagellar stain D) endospore stain E) electron microscopy stain   42) Which staining procedure makes use of pararosanaline? A) negative stain B) flagellar stain C) endospore stain D) electron microscopy stain E) acid-fast stain   43) Methylene blue is a reagent in the A) acid-fast stain. B) negative stain. C).
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    11) Which of the following is an incorrect pairing? A) electrolytes: anions B) synthesis: endothermic C) hydrolysis: hydrogen bonds D) catabolism: exothermic E) dehydration: anabolism   12) Compounds that readily dissociate in water are A) nonpolar. B) ionic. C) polar. D) either polar or ionic. E) never polar or ionic.   13) Which of the following is a property of water? A) it has a.
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    31)A new industrial park in your community dumps its wastewater into a large aerated pond, to which nutrients are added. The water from this pond makes its way into a nearby marsh, which eventually drains into a slow-moving stream. This is an example of A)natural fermentation. B)artificial bioremediation. C)a method to make.
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    11) Which of the following microscopes produces the highest resolution images? A) dark-field B) differential interference C) scanning electron D) fluorescent E) atomic force   12) If a microbiology lab technician left the safranin out of the Gram stain procedure, what would be the result? A) All cells would be purple. B) Gram-positive cells would be purple, and Gram-negative.
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    21) Membranes containing the photosystems necessary for photosynthesis are called A) thylakoids. B) grana. C) stroma. D) chlorophylls. E) cytochromes.   22) Beta-oxidation of fatty acids produces a substrate of A) the pentose phosphate pathway. B) the Entner-Doudoroff pathway. C) the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. D) the Krebs cycle. E) the Calvin-Benson cycle.   23) Which of the following is associated with the Calvin-Benson cycle? A) acetyl-CoA B).
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    11) Bacterial cell walls that are resistant to drying contain A) carbohydrates. B) amino acids. C) lipopolysaccharide. D) tubulin. E) waxes.   12) Lipid A is also known as A) endotoxin. B) teichoic acid. C) tetrapeptide. D) mycolic acid. E) lipopolysaccharide.   13) Bacteria of the genus Mycoplasma are distinguished from other bacterial cells by A) unique ribosomes. B) the presence of mycolic acid in their.
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  SHORT ANSWER.  Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 55)The definition of (fermentation/cultivation) used by food microbiologists is the desirable change in food due to microbial activity.   56)Because the same microbes are not always present on food from harvest to harvest, (fresh/natural/starter) cultures are.
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  1.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first person in history to A) use a magnifying glass. B) develop a taxonomic system. C) view protozoa and bacteria. D) disprove spontaneous generation. E) prove the germ theory.   2) The microbes commonly known as __________ are single-celled eukaryotes that are generally motile. A) archaea B) bacteria C) fungi D) protozoa E) viruses   3).
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  5.2   True/False Questions   1) Reactions that are both catabolic and anabolic are amphibolic.   2) NAD+ and NADP+ are important examples of both coenzymes and electron carriers.   3) Environmental changes can result in the inactivation of enzymes.   4) As the concentration of substrate increases, the activity of the enzyme decreases.   5) Ribozymes are enzymes that cleave.
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    21) Which of the following is an example of a polysaccharide? A) glycogen B) glucose C) fructose D) deoxyribose E) sucrose   22) Which of the following statements about proteins is FALSE? A) They are composed of amino acids. B) They have multiple levels of structural organization. C) They can be hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or both. D) Their primary function is energy.
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    41) The cell walls of __________ contain peptidoglycan. A) archaea B) bacteria C) eukaryotes D) prokaryotes E) bacteria and eukaryotes   42) Cytoplasmic membranes of __________ are composed of phospholipids. A) bacteria B) eukaryotes C) archaea D) prokaryotes E) both bacteria and eukaryotes   43) Some members of __________ have hami. A) archaea B) bacteria C) eukaryotes D) both archaea and bacteria E) both bacteria and eukaryotes   44) __________ may.
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  11) Which of the following questions largely stimulated the research of microbes during what is known as the Golden Age of Microbiology? A) What causes disease? B) How do genes work? C) Is spontaneous generation of microbes possible? D) How are microbes related? E) What causes disease, and is spontaneous generation of microbes possible?   12) The.
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  1.3   Short Answer Questions   1) Microbes that move by means of cilia are __________.   2) A cell that contains a nucleus is called a(n) __________ cell. 3) A(n) __________ organism makes its own food using solar energy.   4) Microbes that cause infectious disease are called __________.   5) An asexual method of reproduction associated with yeasts.
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  1.2   True/False Questions   1) The taxonomic scheme developed by Linnaeus remains largely unchanged in modern biology.   2) Christian Gram devised a staining technique that divides all bacteria into two groups.   3) The production of human blood-clotting factor by E. coli is an example of bioremediation.   4) Walter Reed proved that a virus causes yellow.
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  21) Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an example of which of the following types of microbes? A) fungus B) protozoan C) prokaryote D) alga E) virus   22) Inserting a gene from the hepatitis B virus into yeast so that the yeast produces a viral protein is an example of A) etiology. B) genetic engineering. C) immunology. D) microbial genetics. E) gene therapy.   23) Which.
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  3.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Using a microscope, you observe an amoeba moving toward a food source. This is an example of A) reproduction. B) cellular structure. C) metabolism. D) growth. E) responsiveness.   2) Which of the following is NOT a component of bacterial flagella? A) flagellin B) basal body C) tubulin D) filament E) hook   3) Which of the following statements concerning the.
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