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  12.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) The fusion of two gametes produces a A) zygote. B) schizont. C) chromatid. D) centromere. E) merozoite.   2) Replication of the DNA occurs during A) metaphase. B) prophase. C) telophase. D) anaphase. E) interphase.   3) Sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the cell during __________ of mitosis. A) telophase B) anaphase C) metaphase D) interphase E) prophase   4) An aligned pair of.
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    21) Betadine is an example of which of the following groups of antimicrobial agents? A) alcohols B) heavy metals C) halogens D) phenolics E) surfactants   22) Which of the following statements about quaternary ammonium compounds is FALSE? A) They are a type of detergent. B) Zephiran is an example of a quat. C) They are not effective against Pseudomonas.
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    21) Which of the following devices is used for PCR? A) an electrophoresis chamber B) a gene gun C) a DNA sequencer D) a thermocycler E) a nucleic acid synthesis machine   22) DNA fingerprinting can be used A) to detect unculturable organisms. B) to generate cDNA clones. C) in forensic investigations. D) to generate cDNA clones and libraries. E) for forensics.
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  10.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) A large percentage of antibiotics and semisynthetic drugs are produced by members of the genus A) Cephalosporium. B) Penicillium. C) Bacillus. D) Mycobacterium. E) Streptomyces.   2) An antimicrobial that inhibits cell wall synthesis will result in which of the following? A) Cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressure. B) Cells cannot attach to their hosts. C).
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    31) Which of the following statements regarding pseudomonads is FALSE? A) They are Gram-negative rods. B) They are symbiotic with plants for nitrogen fixation. C) They often contaminate food products. D) They include Pseudomonas and Azotobacter. E) They cause urinary tract infections.   32) Which of the following bacterial genera is useful for sewage treatment? A) Burkholderia B) Thiobacillus C).
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  3) Compare and contrast the streak-plate method of isolation with the pour-plate method of isolation.   4) Genetic methods of detecting microorganisms reveal that the number of bacterial species in nature exceeds previous estimates by several orders of magnitude. In the human mouth, for example, it is estimated that 500–700 microbial species.
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    31) A scientist develops a new medication that is a protein compound and that must be administered by injection. Which of the following would be the most effective and safest means of preparing a sterile solution of the new medication? A) autoclaving B) filtration C) dilution with alcohol D) lyophilization E) ultraviolet irradiation   32) Which of.
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    31) Another term for the palindromic sequence found at the ends of transposons is a(n) A) complex transposon. B) bacteriophage. C) insertion sequence. D) inverted repeat. E) transposase.   32) Which of the following is characteristic of prokaryotic genomes but not eukaryotic genomes? A) histones B) circular chromosomes C) linear chromosomes D) enclosed in a nuclear membrane E) typically consist of a.
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  10.2   True/False Questions   1) Paul Erhlich coined the term antibiotics for the "magic bullet" antimicrobials he pursued.   2) Antisense nucleic acids are designed to have no side effects against humans.   3) Beta-lactam drugs act by inhibiting formation of the cytoplasmic membrane.   4) Because all cells engage in protein synthesis, there are few antimicrobial drugs.
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    11) Which of the following is essential in PCR? A) DNA polymerase B) antisense RNAs C) reverse transcriptase D) DNA primers E) both DNA primers and DNA polymerase   12) If a researcher used Escherichia coli DNA polymerase instead of Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase in the PCR procedure, what would be the result? A) DNA replication would occur.
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  11.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Pleomorphic bacteria A) have a slightly curved rod shape. B) are flexible. C) reproduce by snapping division. D) are roughly spherical. E) vary in size and shape.   2) Which of the following bacterial arrangements is the result of snapping division? A) tetrads B) palisades C) strepto- D) sarcinae E) staphylo-   3) Which of the following is NOT associated with.
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  6.2   True/False Questions   1) Obligate anaerobes have enzymes such as superoxide dismutase to protect them from the damaging effects of oxygen.   2) Nitrogen fixation is a process that occurs in all bacteria.   3) Thermoduric mesophiles are often responsible for spoilage of improperly canned foods.   4) An obligate halophile will burst if placed in freshwater. 5).
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  9.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Standard methods of sterilization are not effective in inactivating A) viruses. B) bacterial cells. C) prions. D) bacterial endospores. E) fungi.   2) Which of the following statements is true of disinfectants? A) Disinfectants are effective in destroying endospores. B) Disinfectants are used on living tissue. C) Disinfectants are used for sterilization. D) Disinfectants are used on inanimate.
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  8.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Which of the following processes did NOT contribute to the development of genetic engineering? A) transformation B) transcription C) transduction D) conjugation E) chemiosmosis   2) In the 20th century, scientists harnessed the natural metabolic reactions of bacteria to make __________ for the first time in an industrial setting. A) soy sauce B) acetone C) bread D) cheese E).
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    21) Parasitology is the study of A) fungi. B) helminths. C) algae. D) protozoa. E) both helminths and protozoa.   22) Which of the following is a dinoflagellate whose toxin causes possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS)? A) Gymnodinium B) Gonyaulax C) Balantidium D) Toxoplasma E) Pfiesteria   23) The large seaweed known as kelp is classified as a member of the A) Chlorophyta. B) Phaeophyta. C) Chrysophyta. D) Rhodophyta. E).
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    31) __________ are complex communities of various types of microbes that adhere to surfaces. A) Aggregates B) Colonies C) Isolates D) Biofilms E) Media   32) A colony-forming unit is the number of cells A) in a colony. B) that produces one colony. C) in a particular specimen. D) that is in exponential phase in a culture. E) that can be placed.
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    21) Inducible operons A) are active in the presence of a repressor. B) are generally anabolic pathways. C) are normally active. D) usually require an activator to be transcribed. E) usually require a repressor to be transcribed.   22) Which of the following are considered to be frameshift mutations? A) insertions B) inversions C) deletions D) both inversion and insertions E) both.
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  9.4   Essay Questions   1) Some sterilization procedures do not kill all the microbes that may be present. Explain how these procedures can still be considered sterilization.   2) Describe the cellular structures or processes that can be targets of antimicrobial agents.     .
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  6.3   Short Answer Questions   1) The conversion of nitrogen gas to ammonia is called nitrogen __________.   2) Organisms that require organic sources of carbon and energy are called __________.   3) The __________ radical is formed during the incomplete reduction of O2 during electron transport in aerobes. 4) The __________ growth temperature is.
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    21) Which of the following is NOT associated with bacteria in the genus Streptomyces? A) the "musty" smell of soil B) nutrient recycling in soil C) antibiotic production D) microbial antagonism E) protection of plants against caterpillars   22) Which of the following characteristics is the basis for distinguishing classes of proteobacteria? A) outer membrane carbohydrates B) cell wall.
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  11.2   True/False Questions   1) The majority of archaea are extremophiles.   2) When an endospore germinates, it gives rise to two daughter cells called vegetative cells.   3) Members of the Streptomyces are environmentally important because they can degrade a wide range of compounds including lignin from trees, chitin and keratin from animals, and latex.   4).
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  7.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) All of the following are associated with nucleic acid structure EXCEPT A) ribose. B) hydrogen bonds. C) uracil. D) ionic bonds. E) phosphate.   2) Which of the following is found at the 5 end of a DNA strand? A) a phosphate group B) a hydrogen bond C) a hydroxyl group D) histones E) a methyl group   3) The bacterial.
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  3) Discuss some of the consequences of the significant differences in transcription between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.   4) Compare and contrast the lactose operon with the tryptophan operon. 5) A point mutation can be completely harmless, or it can result in the death of a cell or organism. Explain why these types of.
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    31) An antigen is a A) molecule necessary for PCR. B) naturally occurring insecticide. C) foreign substance that stimulates immunity. D) genetic marker found in most plasmids. E) substance used to make gels for DNA electrophoresis.   32) An effective tool for screening a large number of genetic sequences at once is known as A) restriction analysis. B) FISH. C).
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  8.3   Short Answer Questions   1) The use of microbes to make practical products such as vaccines or hormones is called __________.    2) A technique using fluorescent-tagged probes to detect specific DNA sequences in their natural locations is known as __________. (Be sure to use capital letters.)   3) Nucleic acid molecules used.
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  7.3   Short Answer Questions   1) A(n) __________ is a specific sequence of nucleotides that codes for a protein or an RNA molecule.   2) Loosely packed regions of a eukaryotic chromosome are called __________.   3) Transfer of DNA between cells by viruses is called __________.   4) A(n) __________ is a mutant organism that has different.
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    11) Candida albicans invades human tissues by the use of A) pseudohyphae. B) coenocytes. C) thalli. D) hyphae. E) mycelia.   12) The __________ is the entire interwoven mass of one multicellular fungal organism. A) hyphae B) sporangium C) mycelium D) pseudoplasmodium E) conidiophore   13) Which of the following is classified among the Alveolates? A) Paramecium B) Foraminifera C) Plasmodium D) Paramecium and Foraminifera E) Paramecium and Plasmodium   14).
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    31) Which of the following interferes with cell wall synthesis by blocking alanine bridge formation? A) beta-lactams B) cycloserine C) bacitracin D) vancomycin E) both cycloserine and vancomycin   32) Antimicrobial sugar analogs are effective for A) preventing bacterial protein synthesis. B) preventing cell membrane synthesis. C) preventing virus attachment. D) preventing nucleic acid synthesis. E) blocking a metabolic pathway.   33) Which of.
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    11) Which of the following describes flash pasteurization? A) heating at 63°C for 30 minutes B) heating at 72°C for 15 seconds C) heating at 72°C for 15 minutes D) heating at 134°C for one second E) passing liquid through steam at 140°C   12) The dairy creamer used in restaurants is usually sterilized by A) filtration. B) ionizing.
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    11) Which of the following is the strongest base pair? A) guanine-cytosine B) adenine-uracil C) adenine-thymine D) guanine-thymine E) both adenine-uracil and adenine-thymine   12) A codon is a particular combination of three nucleotides. Therefore, there are __________ possible combinations of the nucleotides A, C, G, and T. A) 16 B) 4 C) 12 D) 64 E) 32   13) The AUG codon functions.
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    21) MacConkey agar plates represent __________ medium. A) a minimal B) a selective C) a differential D) both a differential and a selective E) both a minimal and a selective   22) A Petroff-Hauser counting chamber is A) a glass slide containing an etched grid for counting microbes directly using a microscope. B) a device that counts cells as.
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    21) Which of the following pathways is specifically inhibited by sulfonamides? A) the conversion of tetrahydrofolic acid to PABA B) the conversion of PABA to dihydrofolic acid C) the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid D) the conversion of PABA to tetrahydrofolic acid E) the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to PABA   22) Which of the.
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  9.3   Short Answer Questions   1) The process of freeze-drying microbes to preserve them is __________.    2) Natural antiseptics such as pine or clove oil are examples of antimicrobial compounds called __________.   3) A(n) __________ is an iodine-containing organic compound found in such antiseptics as Betadine.   4) Disinfectants known as __________ have the chemical.
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  8.2   True/False Questions   1) Gene therapy for human genetic diseases has not been successful yet.   2) Reverse transcriptase synthesizes a DNA molecule from an RNA template.   3) Large DNA molecules such as chromosomes are easier to work with than small molecules.   4) Circular DNA molecules are generally more stable inside cells than linear molecules.   5).
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    11) Which of the following groups of bacteria lives in environments similar to those that may have existed on the early Earth? A) deeply branching bacteria B) cyanobacteria C) mycoplasmas D) thermophiles E) proteobacteria   12) Which of the following statements regarding cyanobacteria is FALSE? A) They are oxygenic. B) Many perform nitrogen fixation. C) They contain chlorophyll a. D) They.
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  9.2   True/False Questions   1) An environment may contain some microbes and still be considered sterile.   2) Some viruses are inactivated by the same chemical or physical agents that damage cytoplasmic membranes.   3) UV light has the most effect on protein structure.   4) Antimicrobial agents usually work best at high temperatures and pH levels.   5) The.
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  10.3   Short Answer Questions   1) Any drug that acts against a disease is called a(n) __________ agent.   2) Selective __________ means that a given antimicrobial agent is more toxic to a pathogen than to the host being treated.   3) Nucleotide or nucleoside __________are antimicrobial agents that mimic the chemical structure of DNA.
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  7.2   True/False Questions   1) Prokaryotic cells are diploid.   2) Prokaryotes have one type of DNA polymerase, which is different from that of eukaryotes.   3) The most common type of mutation is a point mutation.   4) Most bacteria have a natural ability to take up DNA from their environment.   5) The structure of DNA explains both.
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  3) Explain the concept of selective toxicity.   4) Examine the diffusion susceptibility plate results shown in Figure 10.9. Propose an explanation for the appearance of the zone around the AM/10 disk, and discuss the implications for therapeutic use of this antibiotic for the pathogen tested.   5) Explain why many antibiotics are effective.
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  11.3   Short Answer Questions   1) A bacterial cell that produces an endospore is called a(n) ___________ cell.   2) Bacteria that can colonize and spoil meats preserved with high concentrations of salt are called __________.   3) Bacteria that use chlorophyll a and engage in oxygenic photosynthesis, just like plants and algae, are called.
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