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  48) Describe the coevolution hypothesis of viral origin. What evidence supports this hypothesis? 49) What is a prophage and how is the prophage established in a bacterial cell? 50) The ICTV virus classification scheme uses a number of viral attributes for the grouping of viruses into orders, families, genera, and species. List.
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  11) Which one of the following is NOT a physical factor that affects the growth rate of cells? a) nutrient concentration b) temperature c) pressure d) light intensity e) radiation 12) What term applies to a microbe that can synthesize all of its cellular constituents from a simple carbon source and inorganic salts? a) autotroph b) heterotroph c) auxotroph d).
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    11) Which of the following items that are commonly added during food preparation can be considered a preservative? A) apple juice B) meat broth C) garlic D) yeast E) whey   12) Which of the following is considered an intrinsic factor for food spoilage? A) degree of processing B) amount of preservatives C) storage temperature D) water content E) storage packaging   13) Pickling.
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  1) What is the name of the scientist who first proposed that Archaea are distinct from Bacteria and should be classified in a separate domain? a) Linus Pauling b) Barbara McClintock c) Carl Woese d) Stanley Cohen e) James Watson 2) In which of these are Archaea and Bacteriasignificantly different? a) cell size b) chromosome size and organization c).
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  31) Which of these causes transmissible spongiform encephalopathies? a) viroids b) satellite viruses c) the human delta virus d) prions e) satellite RNAs 32) How do prions cause disease? a) By corrupting mRNA expression in the cell. b) By corrupting DNA replication in the cell. c) By preventing translation from occurring in the cell. d) By causing naturally occurring proteins.
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  47) Describe how proteins made in the cytoplasm of eukaryal cells arrive at their correct destination, such as the mitochondria or nucleus. 48.Cells are able to alter the fatty acid composition of lipids in response to environmental changes in temperature. What changes would you expect in the fatty acid composition when.
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  11) What is the role of the ParM protein in bacteria? a) iDetermination of cell shape. b) To assign plasmids to each cell during cell division. c) To assist in carrying out meiosis. d) In cell movement during chemotaxis. e) In sugar and protein metabolism. 12) What protein plays an important role in determining cell shape.
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    21) Which of these microbial products is needed to produce "gasohol"? A) citric acid B) methanol C) ethanol D) hyaluronidase E) aspartame   22) What was the first substance produced by microorganisms to be used pharmaceutically? A) penicillin B) streptokinase C) taxol D) human insulin E) interferons   23) Industrial fermentation and fermentation in food production A) are both processes in which sugars are oxidized.
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  48) Why did Woese and Fox use rRNA gene sequences to compare the phylogenetic relatedness between microbes? 49) How does the chemical structure of archaeal cytoplasmic membrane lipids help these bacteria survive in very hot environments? 50) What is the function of the protein bacteriorhodopsin in Halobacterium salinarum?     .
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  48) Carl Woese proposed using ribosomal RNA as a molecule to compare the evolutionary relationship between organisms. Explain why these molecules are considered excellent molecular chronometers for studying evolutionary time. 49) What is the Endosymbiotic Theory? What evidence supports this theory? 50) What is the importance of Koch’s Postulates? List the postulates.     .
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  31) The bacterial flagellum is turned by a motor using energy from: a) ATP. b) glucose. c) a proton motive force. d) phosphoenolpyruvate. e) AMP. 32) Which of these describes the peritrichous arrangement of flagella? a) Flagella all around the cell. b) Flagella at both polar ends of the cell. c) Flagella in a tuft at one end of.
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  3) How does water quality testing make use of environmental microbiology?   4) Smallpox is considered a serious potential biological weapon, whereas anthrax has been successfully used as one. Compare and contrast their potential with regard to the criteria for assessing biological threats. 5) Compare and contrast the two types of foodborne disease.       .
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  42) Macromolecules that catalyze chemical reactions in the cell are called _________. 43) The main difference between the two cell types, prokaryote and eukaryote, is the presence of a ________________ in the eukaryote. 44) The three domains of life are ________, ________, and ________. 45) The ___________ __________ ___________ is an extremely important.
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  21) Haploid Dictyostelium replicate by mitosis when nutrients are plentiful. What happens when growth conditions deteriorate? a) The cells change morphologically into a resilient structure called a cyst. b) The cells change into a gamete and fuse with another gamete to produce a zygote. c) The cells become motile by means of a.
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  31) During nitrogen fixation, microorganisms convert: a) nitrate to dinitrogen gas. b) dinitrogen gas to ammonia. c) ammonia to dinitrogen gas. d) dinitrogen gas to nitrate. e) ammonia to nitrate. 32) This early microbiology pioneer developed a set of criteria for linking a specific microorganism to a specific disease. a) Louis Pasteur b) Edward Jenner c) Robert Koch d) John.
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  25.2   True/False Questions   1) Most microbes need an environment that has a water activity of at least 0.90.   2) The starter culture used to make cheese determines the type of cheese produced.   3) Amino acid and vitamin supplements are prepared from extracts of microbial cultures.   4) Pasteurization is a more rigorous process than canning.   5).
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  11) What are the three major structures that comprise the eukaryal cytoskeleton? a) microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments b) centromeres, microtubules, and microfilaments c) telomeres, centromeres, and microtubules d) telomeres, microtubules, and microfilaments e) telomeres, centromeres, and microfilaments 12) Microtubules are composed of which protein? a) actin b) myosin c) tubulin d) flagellin e) keratin 13) Movement of the eukaryal cilia and.
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  25.1   Multiple-Choice Questions   1) Food microbiology applies to A) the use of microorganisms to make food. B) the control of microbial activity to prevent foodborne illness. C) using microbes to solve agricultural problems. D) the use of microorganisms to make food and to control microbial activity to prevent foodborne illness. E) using microbes to improve livestock.
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  25.3   Short Answer Questions   1) One definition of __________ is the partial oxidation of sugars to release energy.   2) Because the same microbes are not always present on food from harvest to harvest, __________ cultures are used in the production of alcoholic beverages.   3) The sour flavor in fermented food is usually the.
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  21) What is the he most prolific source of genetic variation in living organisms? a) mutation b) mitosis c) transcription d) translation e) viral insertion 22) Which of these best describes horizontal gene transfer? a) mitosis followed by cytokinesis b) meiosis and subsequent formation of a zygote c) transfer of genes from mother cell to daughter cell d) DNA replication.
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  36) Mitochondria replicate independently of the host cell. 37) All eukaryal microbes possess cell walls. 38) The slime-mold Dictyostelium discoideum is classified as a fungus. 39) The best way to classify all eukaryal microbes is to group them into the Protist kingdom. 40) Aggregate formation in Dictyostelium cells is the result of a cell.
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  1) Which term describes spherical-shaped bacteria? a) cocci b) bacilli c) spirilla. d) vibrios. e) pleiomorphs 2) What is the typical length of a bacterium? a) 5 – 10 nm b) 0.5 – 5 µm c) 20 – 40 µm d) 5 – 10 mm e) 20 – 40 mm 3) Which term describes straight, rod-shaped bacteria? a) cocci b) bacilli c) spirilla. d) vibrios. e) pleiomorphs 4).
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  21) The proton motive force (PMF) across a cell membrane can be used for which of these processes? a) Generate ATP. b) Propel the flagella. c) Transport nutrients into the cell. d) Transport molecules out of the cell. e) All of these choices. 22) What is a signal peptide? a) The amino acid sequence of a protein.
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  21) In the environment, one microorganism often provides a nutrient for another microbe that is unable to synthesize the nutrient by itself. What is this type of relationship called? a) auxotrophy b) prototrophy c) syntrophy d) oligotrophy e) eutrophy 22) Which of these methods can be used to obtain a viable cell count? a) counting chamber direct.
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  11) All of the following are properties that make microbes excellent models for studying basic processes in biology, EXCEPT that they: a) are easy to grow. b) are easy to manipulate genetically. c) contain a very large number of genes. d) are relatively inexpensive to maintain in the lab. e) are easy to manipulate for.
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  1) What is the defining organelle of eukaryal cells? a) mitochondron b) chloroplast c) Golgi apparatus d) nucleus e) lysosome 2) Eukaryal proteins that are secreted outside of the cell undergo modification before secretion. Which organelles are involved in this secretion pathway? a) the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum b) the mitochondria and Golgi apparatus c) the endoplasmic reticulum and.
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  31) Which of these is an example of a eukaryal intestinal pathogen that is transmitted to humans through contaminated food and water? a) Epulopiscium fischeri b) Plasmodium vivax c) Giardia lamblia d) Listeria monocytogenes e) Legionella pneumophila 32) Which of these diseases is caused by Entamoeba histolytica? a) severe dysentery b) malaria c) pneumonia d) tuberculosis e) African sleeping sickness 33) Which.
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  1) Which of these is considered to be the smallest unit of life? a) the nucleus b) the mitochondrion c) a plasmid d) the cell e) a prion 2) The study of microbiology includes all of the following EXCEPT _____ . a) plants b) viruses c) bacteria d) fungi e) algae 3) Which of these is an example of a macromolecule? a) an.
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  21) The term for bacteriophage DNA that has integrated into the host cell chromosome and replicates along with the host cell chromosome. a) a plasmid b) a transposon c) a prophage d) a lysogen e) a retrophage 22) Term for bacteriophages that have the ability to either cause a lytic infection or integrate their genome into.
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    31) A new industrial park in your community dumps its wastewater into a large aerated pond, to which nutrients are added. The water from this pond makes its way into a nearby marsh, which eventually drains into a slow-moving stream. This is an example of A) artificial bioremediation. B) natural bioremediation. C) bioreporter.
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  36) Magnetosomes are an example of membrane enclosed organelles found in some bacteria. 37) If the cytoplasm has a higher solute concentration than the external environment, you would expect the cell to lose water due to osmosis. 38) The ABC transporter system uses phosphoenolpyruvate as the energy source to drive transport. 39) Diaminopimelic.
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  42.The area between the inner and outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is called the _________ space. 43) Protein channels in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that allow the diffusion of small molecules (600 daltons or less) across the membrane into the periplasmic space are called ____. 44) The movement of a.
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  1) Which of these comprises the viral genome? a) single-stranded DNA b) single-stranded RNA c) double-stranded DNA d) double-stranded RNA e) All of these choices are seen in viruses. 2) What is the viral capsid composed of? a) protein b) nucleic acid c) lipid d) polysaccharide e) glycogen 3) What protective structure contains the viral nucleic acid? a) envelope b) nucleus c) capsid d) endosome e) vacuole 4).
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  21) Some researchers think the crenarchaeotes may comprise about ___ of all bacterial and archaeal cells in moderate and cold environments marine environments. a) one percent b) five percent c) twenty percent d) fifty percent e) eighty percent 22) Which of these is true about methanogens? a) They are aerobic and grow on methane. b) They are anaerobic.
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  31) What does Halobacterium salinarum use the protein bacteriorhodopsin for? a) energy production b) protection from high salt concentrations c) moving water into the cell d) degradation of large polysaccharides e) sensing nutrient in the environment 32) What is the specific action of bacteriorhodopsin? a) Modification of vitamins for use in metabolism. b) Assembles ADP and phosphate to.
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  36) All viruses require host cell enzymes for translation. 37) Enveloped viruses acquire their envelope from host cell membranes. 38) Filtration of a bacteriophage preparation replicated in E. coli will effectively separate viable cells from phage particles. 39) Electron microscopy is the most precise way to identify an unknown virus. 40) All viruses that.
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  1) Which one of the following elements is considered a microelement, usually required in minute amounts in microbiological media? a) phosphate b) potassium c) iron d) manganese e) magnesium 2) What is the function of siderophores? a) Transporting waste products out of the cell. b) Binding iron for transport into the cell. c) Binding glucose for transport into the.
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  36) All members of the Archaea live in extreme environments. 37) Evidence clearly shows that Archaea are direct descendants of the earliest life forms. 38) One characterized halophilic archaeal species has an unusual cellular morphology in which cells are flat and square. 39) The Archaea contain a cytoskeleton. 40) All members of the Archaea.
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