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  43) A group of microorganisms that are interdependent on one another for the stability of the community is called a/an__________________ 44) The type of symbiotic relationship in which one member benefits and the other member is not affected is called _________________. 45) Endophytes are microorganisms that live within the tissue of ___________. 46).
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  21) Term for the coating of a microbial surface by PRRs, complement, and/or antibodies for the enhancement of phagocytosis. a) marking b) recognition c) opsonization d) adjuvant e) endocytosis 22) Which of these would induce the liver to produce C-reactive protein?. a) A Gram positive bacterial infection. b) Inflammation. c) Complement activation. d) Phagocytosis. e) The presence of mannose. 23) Which of.
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  31) The release of high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus into streams after wastewater treatment will result in a) the production of high quality water for plant irrigation. b) water that tastes bad. c) eutrophication of the stream. d) increased nutrients for the fish in the stream. e) increase in oxygen levels in the.
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  73) Metabolic processes in the cell that yield energy are called ____________. 74) Enzymes increase the rate of a biochemical reaction by lowering the _________ _________ of the reaction. 75) ATP that is produce directly from a biochemical reaction in the cell as the result of a phosphate transfer to ADP is.
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  21) What is the oxidation state of nitrogen in ammonia? a) -3 b)-1 c) 0 d) +1 e) +3 22) What is the oxidation state of nitrogen in nitrate? a) -3 b) -1 c) +1 d) +3 e) +5 23) Which is the major nitrogen reservoir on Earth? a) plants b) microbes c) the atmosphere d) ocean biomass e) organic matter in soil 24) Which of these summarizes.
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  11) How is the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum transmitted from host to host? a) an aerosol route b) a fomite c) contaminated food or water d) a vector-borne route e) sexual contact 12) How does vertical transmission of a pathogen occur? a) By an aerosol route. b) As a result of an insect bite. c) From mother to offspring. d) By.
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  42) A community of organisms living in a specified area that are interacting with each other and their environment is called a(n) ________________. 43) The specific function role of an organism in an ecosystem is called the ___________. 44) The part of the soil that immediately surrounds the plant root is called.
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  1) What is the best classification of primary producers found in hydrothermal vents on the ocean bottom? a) photosynthetic b) organotrophs c) chemolithoautotrophs d) chemoorganoheterotrophs e) photolithoautotrophs 2) Microbes are able to generate energy through the: a) oxidation of organic compounds only. b) reduction of organic compounds only. c) oxidation of inorganic and organic compounds. d) reduction of inorganic and.
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  21) Fermented soybean products, like miso and tempeh, are produced using a) lactic acid bacteria. b) molds. c) propionate bacteria. d) acetic acid bacteria. e) Saccharomyces. 22) Vinegar production occurs through the oxidation of ethanol by a) lactic acid bacteria. b) the yeast Saccharomyces. c) various molds. d) sulfate-reducing bacteria. d) acetic acid bacteria. 23) Staphylococcus aureus causes foodborne.
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  11) Which of these statements is TRUE regarding oxygen use and utilizers of methanogenesis? a) It is aerobic, and carried out by Bacteria. b) It is aerobic, and carried out by Archaea. c) It is anaerobic, and carried out by Bacteria. d) It is anaerobic, and carried out by Archaea. e) It is anaerobic, and.
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  34) Most microbe-host relationships are harmful. 35) The nitrogenase enzyme is irreversibly inactivated by hydrogen. 36) Bradyrhizobium japonicum will form nodules on soybeans but not on peas, alfalfa, or beans. 37) Once rhizobia enter into the plant cell and differentiate they will not proliferate again. 38) Plaque on human teeth is considered a biofilm. 39).
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  36) Microbes can form a biofilm on any type of surface. 37) Biofilms in the environment are usually comprised of a single species. 38) Most of the ocean is oligotrophic or nutrient poor. 39) Estimates of overall microbial abundance in the ocean indicate that more Archaea are present than Bacteria. 40) The greatest diversity.
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  31) From the study of deep subsurface microbiology, what is the approximate upper temperature limit for microbial growth? a) 80°C b) 90°C c) 100°C d) 110°C e) 120°C 32) What is the deepest that viable microorganisms have been found in the Earth’s crust? a) 100 meters b) 500 meters c) 1000 meters d) 1500 meters e) 3000 meters 33) What possible sources.
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  49) Describe the natural defenses found in the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine that act as barriers to infection. 50) What are the visible signs of inflammation and what causes these symptoms? 51) How do toll-like receptors (TLRs) function to recognize foreign cells in the body?     .
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  44) If an individual is resistant to infection and disease development by a specific pathogen, the person is said to be _______________ to the infectious agent. 45) The body’s programmed nonspecific response to tissue injury is called ___________________. 46) ________ ________ receptors are an important group of PRRs that recognize specific PAMPs. 47).
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  11) What is the % salinity of the ocean? a) 1% or less b) 3.5% c) 8% d) 15% e) 35% 12) Which elements necessary for microbial life are often limiting in the ocean? a) magnesium and calcium b) nitrogen and phosphorous c) magnesium and chloride d) sodium and calcium e) potassium and magnesium 13) Which of these characterizes dead zones in.
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  11) What are the most numerous white blood cells in the body? a) eosinophils b) lymphocytes c) neutrophils d) basophils e) monocytes 12) The inflammatory response will sometimes produce a fever. Why is fever considered a defense mechanism? a) Fever slows the body’s metabolism. b) Fever decreases the inflammatory response. c) Fever prevents a person from becoming cold. d) Fever.
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  11) The process of antigen cross presentation is especially important in: a) developing a strong antibody response. b) developing an appropriate response to viruses that do not infect APCs. c) developing an appropriate response to virus-infected APCs. d) processing of exogenous antigen. e) processing of endogenous antigen. 12) Which of these is NOT a function of.
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  46) Food storage temperature is an ____________ factor that affects the rate at which a food will spoil. 47) The amount of water in a food that is available to microorganisms is referred to as ________ ______. 48) Small proteins produced by some bacterial to inhibit the growth of closely related bacteria.
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  39) The replication of a microbial pathogen on or within a host is called a(n) __________________. 40) When the virulence of a pathogen is decreased to such a degree that it no longer can cause disease it is termed a(n) _______________ strain. 41) A(n) _____________________ disease is an infectious disease of animals.
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  48) What two major human activities have contributed to an increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? What are the consequences of high carbon dioxide in the atmosphere? 49) Describe the processes involved in the decomposition of polymers in an anaerobic environment for the ultimate production of methane. 50) Describe the metabolic.
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  11) Pickling is a preservation method that uses __________ to help preserve the food. a) alcohol b) heat c) acid d) freezing e) spices 12) Small protein molecules produced by a microorganism that adversely affect a closely related microorganism are called a) siderophores. b) bacteriocins. c) lysozymes. d) beta-blockers. e) proteases. 13) Which of the following type of radiation may be.
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  21) Proteorhodopsin has been found in many marine bacteria, including the SAR-11 group. What is this protein’s function? a) In the digestion of proteins. b) As a light-driven proton pump. c) As a photosynthetic reaction center. d) As a repressor for global regulation. e) As an activator for global regulation. 22) In terrestrial environments, where is.
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  11) Lichens reproduce asexually by ___________, which are hyphal -packaged algae cells. a) soredia b) ascus c) conidia d) zygospores e) sporozoites 12) What is the human microbiome composed of? a) Microbes that live in the intestinal tract of humans. b) All the microbes that cause disease in humans. c) All microbes that live on or within the human.
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  33) The spleen is an example of a secondary lymphoid tissue. 34) Lymph nodes are an example of primary lymphoid organs. 35) Every time an antigen is encountered the immune memory response increases. 36) CD4+ T cells can be activated by binding soluble antigen. 37) The main effector function of activated CD4+ T cells.
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  28) Primary pathogens are distinguished from opportunistic pathogens in that they always cause a more severe disease. 29) Individuals that are carriers of a particular pathogen but do not develop the disease cannot transmit the pathogen to other individuals. 30) A single mutation in a pathogenic gene may cause the pathogen to.
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  1) Which of these is an example of “non-sterile immunity”? a) The complete destruction of the measles virus by the immune system response. b) The removal of a toxin from the body by a specific antibody response. c) Preventing the spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by encasing it in tubercles in the lungs. d) Immunization.
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  31) The oxidation state of carbon in carbonate (CO32-) is +4) 32) Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas. 33) The carbon reservoir in the atmosphere is actively cycled. 34) Members of the Plantae are the primary producers in aquatic environments. 35) Methanogenesis is an anaerobic process. 36) Methanogenesis helps drive a number of.
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  21) Acetogenesis is the production of acetic acid from which material(s)? a) lactate b) pyruvate c) carbon dioxide and hydrogen d) oxaloacetate e) glucose 22) Microbes in the rumen are very efficient at converting ____________ and _________ into amino acids. a) ammonia and urea b) glucose and pyruvate c) starch and cellulose d) fatty acids and acetate e) pyruvate and lactate 23).
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  51) Describe the process of vinegar production by the trickle method. Name the two genera of bacteria involved. Why do they produce vinegar? 52) Compare and contrast a food-borne infection to intoxication. 53) Describe the activated sludge method for treatment of wastewater effluent. What is the major goal of this method?     .
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  41) The oxidation state of the carbon atom in methanol (CH3OH) is ______. 42) The burning of fossil fuels has contributed to an increase in the atmospheric gas _______ ________. 43) Methanogens are members of the Domain _______. 44) An interacting community of interdependent organisms is called a/an _________. 45) The enzyme ___________ ____________.
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  36) Iron is usually freely available in the body for access by invading pathogens. 37) Iron deficiency may protect the body against certain pathogens. 38) Septic shock may be induced by exposure to a large amount of LPS. 39.TLR binding to PAMPs is very important for the initiation of the adaptive immune response. 40).
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  31) When the antibody class IgE binds to mast cells or basophils, what does it stimulate them to do? a) enhance phagocytosis b) produce more antibody c) undergo degranulation d) activate complement e) differentiate into lymphocytes 32) Natural Killer (NK) cells specialize in destroying these. a) fungi b) protozoa c) parasitic worms d) pathogen infected cells e) viruses 33) What is the.
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  45) The cytokine _________________ functions as a growth factor for T cells by promoting cell division. 46) CD8+ T cells are activated by specifically binding to an antigen displayed on the surface of an antigen presenting cell in the major histocompatibility (MHC) marker type _______. 47) Salts or oils commonly added to.
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  21) Term for a clustering of virulence genes on the chromosome of a pathogenic microbe. a) transposon b) pathogenicity island c) operon d) promoter e) enhancer region 22) Which one of the following statements is NOT one of Koch’s postulates? a) Identify the suspected microbe in every person with the disease. b) Isolate the suspected microbe in pure.
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