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  16. Sparing of language, spatial awareness, and declarative memory is typical of which of the following? A. Adult hydrocephalus B. Meningitis C. TIA D. Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery 17. An embolus in which of the following arteries will usually produce cerebellar ischemia? A. Vertebrobasilar B. Basilar C. Intracranial vertebral D. Cerebral 18. Which of the following generally carries.

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  6. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors: A. Are involved in long-term potentiation. B. Bind glutamate. C. Have been implicated in pathologic changes in the nervous system. D. A, B, and C E. None of the above 7. Myasthenia gravis: A. Is caused by the destruction of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of muscles. B. Results in the.

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  6. What type of sensation can be described as an unpleasant abnormal sensation, whether evoked or spontaneous? A. Dysesthesia B. Allodynia C. Paresthesia D. Secondary hyperalgesia 7. What type of sensation can be described as pain evoked by a stimulus that would not normally cause pain? A. Dysesthesia B. Allodynia C. Paresthesia D. Secondary hyperalgesia 8. What type of sensation.

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  11. Long-term depression (LTD) is due to which of the following? A. Conversion of silent synapses to active synapses B. Removal of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors from the postsynaptic membrane C. Addition of dopamine receptors to the presynaptic membrane D. Pairing of presynaptic and postsynaptic firing 12. Which one of the following externally applied devices.

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  16. Activity of the medial pain system elicits which of the following types of responses? A. Affective B. Arousal C. Autonomic D. All of the above 17. Which one of the following are ascending tracts by which neurons reach the midbrain, reticular formation, and limbic areas? A. Spinoreticular B. Spinomesencephalic C. Spinothalamic D. All of the above 18. Which one.

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Test Bank 1. During acute appendicitis, the contribution of the somatosensory nociceptive afferents is which of the following? A. Regulation of visceral function B. Production of skeletal muscle guarding to protect the appendix C. Modulation of respiratory function D. Signaling visceral distress to the brain E. Signaling conscious awareness of pain in the umbilical region 2. Areas.

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  6. Partial occlusion of the basilar artery may cause: A. Tetraplegia. B. Loss of sensation. C. Coma. D. Cranial nerve signs. E. All of the above 7. Acute cerebellar infarction typically produces which of the following? A. Dizziness and/or vertigo with a lack of balance B. Nausea and vomiting, dysarthria, and headache C. Receptive aphasia D. A and B E. A,.

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  11. For which condition might a callosotomy be beneficial? A. Epilepsy B. Parkinson’s disease C. Arthritis D. Dementia 12. Which kind of disorder may be caused by a lesion or dysfunction of the caudate head? A. Movement disorders B. Apathy C. A and B D. None of the above 13. Where is pain processed? A. Secondary sensory cortex B. Primary somatosensory cortex C..

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Test Bank 1. Which of the following are projection fibers? A. Corticospinal B. Corticobrainstem C. Thalamocortical D. A and B E. A, B, and C 2. The primary somatosensory cortex: A. Receives information directly from the basal ganglia. B. Processes unconscious somatosensory information. C. Receives information via the dorsal column/medial lemniscus, and trigeminothalamocortical systems. D. Processes auditory and vestibular information. E. Performs.

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  16. Which one of the following is not one of the primary components of a neuron? A. Axon B. Soma C. Postsynaptic membrane D. Dendrite 17. The strength of local electrical potentials is modulated and integrated via: A. Spatial summation, the combined effect of potentials generated in other parts of the neuron. B. Temporal summation, the combined.

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Test Bank 1. Which of the following characterize the late stage of complex regional pain syndrome? A. Trauma B. Red skin, excessive sweating, edema, skin atrophy C. Lack of any sympathetic activity D. Muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, arthritic changes E. Excessive acetylcholine release by postganglionic neurons 2. Tinel’s sign is associated with which of the following? A. Avulsion of.

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  16. Which of the following are not endorphins? A. Dynorphins B. ?-Endorphins C. Enkephalins D. All of the above are types of endorphins. 17. Which of the following is a site in the nervous system where the transmission of nociceptive information can be altered? A. Hormonal system B. Dorsal horn C. Cortical level D. All of the above 18. Which.

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  6. Constraint-induced movement after a stroke requires which one of the following? A. Immobilization of the affected upper extremity (UE) to control spasticity B. Repetitive closed-chain resistance training C. Aggressive range of motion and exercise within 12 hours after a stroke D. Repetitive, task-specific functional movements of only the affected UE E. Weight bearing and.

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  6. Trunk and girdle muscles are controlled by descending signals from neurons in which of the following? A. Supplementary motor area B. Premotor area C. Broca’s area D. Area analogous to Broca’s area in the nondominant hemisphere E. Primary motor cortex 7. The functions of the dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex include which of the following? A. Deciding.

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  16. The ___________ vestibulospinal tract is the primary tract for vestibular influence on lower motor neurons to postural muscles in the limbs and trunk. A. Lateral B. Medial C. Anterior D. Posterior 17. How do the vestibular connections with the reticular formation affect the autonomic nervous system? A. Vestibular connections with the reticular formation do not.

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  11. Projections from the vestibular nuclei contribute to which of the following? A. Postural adjustments B. Autonomic function and consciousness C. Gaze stabilization D. All of the above 12. Which of the following is a role of the vestibular system? A. Postural adjustments B. Provides sensory information C. Gaze stabilization D. All of the above 13. To detect a movement.

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Test Bank 1. Which one of the following neuron structures is specialized for receiving synaptic input from other neurons? A. Cell body B. Dendrite C. Axon D. Axon hillock E. Presynaptic terminal 2. Which of the following is the structural part of a neuron that releases a neurotransmitter? A. Dendrite B. Axon hillock C. Soma D. Presynaptic terminal E. Postsynaptic terminal 3. Pseudounipolar.

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  11. The binding of ACh at the neuromuscular junction results in: A. An inhibitory postsynaptic potential. B. Presynaptic facilitation. C. Presynaptic inhibition. D. An excitatory postsynaptic potential. 12. Neurotransmitters that act ________ are classified as ________, whereas neurotransmitters that act ________are classified as ________. A. Directly; slow-acting; indirectly; fast-acting B. Directly; inhibitory; indirectly; excitatory C. Directly; fast-acting; indirectly;.

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  6. Which of the following may occur with damage to the area corresponding to Wernicke’s area? A. Inability to understand nonverbal communication B. Personal neglect C. Spatial neglect D. A and B E. A, B, and C 7. Which of the following characterize spatial neglect? A. Navigation apraxia B. Dressing apraxia C. Visual agnosia D. A and B E. A, B,.

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  6. Drugs that block beta-1 (?1) receptors are used to treat which one of the following? A. Asthma B. Excess sweating C. Metabolic disorders D. Tachycardia E. Vagus nerve disorders 7. Where are the cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons located? A. Autonomic nuclei of the brainstem B. Lateral horn of spinal cord T1-L2 levels C. Lateral horn.

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  16. Which of the following correctly pairs a cerebral structure with its function? A. Corpus striatum; memory formation B. Internal capsule; cortical and subcortical communication C. Amygdala; somatosensory integration and processing D. Epithalamus; regulation of metabolic rate 17. The cerebral hemispheres are: A. Divided by the central sulcus. B. Subdivided into four lobes per hemisphere. C. Composed primarily.

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Test Bank 1. Spinal axons conveying a signal for conscious somatosensation from the upper limb ascend in which of the following? A. Ventral horn B. Fasciculus gracilis C. Fasciculus cuneatus D. Internal arcuate fibers E. Medial lemniscus 2. Cell bodies of second-order neurons conveying a signal for conscious proprioceptive information from the lower limb are located in.

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Test Bank 1. The inability to understand written or spoken language, including inability to read and write and produce meaningful language, despite the ability to produce fluent speech sounds: A. Broca’s aphasia B. Conduction aphasia C. Global aphasia D. Wernicke’s aphasia E. Dysarthria 2. Dysarthria is caused by a lesion of which of the following? A. Broca’s area,.

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  16. Factors associated with autistic disorders include: A. Abnormality of the caudate and putamen. B. Temporal cortical damage. C. Cerebellar atrophy. D. Prenatal hypoxia. 17. During critical periods of neurologic development: A. Neuronal projections compete for synaptic sites. B. Conditions for learning a new task are optimal. C. Permanent structural changes occur in the nervous system. D. Both A.

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  16. What type of headache is characterized by pain after head injury and abrupt onset? A. Headache caused by excessive pressure B. Headache caused by hemorrhage C. Headache caused by serious intracranial disease D. ETTH 17. Which of the following are characteristic of CRPS? A. Effects on the somatosensory, autonomic, and motor systems B. Muscle guarding, disuse,.

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  11. Which one of the following is the difference between discriminative touch and conscious proprioception? A. Discriminative touch allows for the localization of touch; conscious proprioception involves the awareness of movement of body parts. B. Conscious proprioception allows for localization of touch; discriminative touch involves the awareness of movement of body parts. C..

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  16. Which of the following neurotransmitters and modulators are implicated in pain perception? A. Opioid peptides B. Substance P C. Dopamine D. Both A and B E. All of the above 17. Receptor tyrosine kinases: A. Act through second messenger systems. B. Are usually activated by neuropeptides or hormones. C. Function through phosphorylation of tyrosine. D. Both A and C E..

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  11. Venous blood that accumulates in the dural sinus will drain into which of the following? A. Watershed area B. Internal carotid vein C. Jugular vein D. Fourth ventricle E. None of the above 12. Which of the following correctly describes the circulation of CSF? A. Choroid plexus, subarachnoid space, lateral ventricles, arachnoid villi B. Arachnoid villi, subarachnoid.

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  6. Damage to the right frontal eye fields may result in which deviation in visual control? A. Tropia B. Abnormal vestibulo-ocular reflexes C. Rotary nystagmus D. Ptosis E. Persistent ipsilateral gaze 7. Vertigo accompanied by sensory and/or motor loss, diplopia, and dysarthria is indicative of a lesion of which of the following? A. Cerebellum B. Vestibulothalamocortical pathway C. Brainstem D..

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