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16) Which of the following is not a suspected reason for the inefficiency/poor outcomes of reproductive cloning? A. inefficient reprogramming B. premature terminal differentiation in the developing embryo C. telomere length D. chromosome missegregation during early embryonic divisions 17) “Pharming” is A. the growth of transgenic plants as food crops B. the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

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  • Which of the following is not a suspected reason for the
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21) Which technique has almost eliminated the need to chemically sequence a polypeptide? A. peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF B. functional protein array C. DNA microarray D. whole-genome shotgun sequencing 22) You want to analyze the entire proteome of a particular organelle. Which technique would you use? A. DNA microarray B. tandem mass spectrometry C. Western blot D. analytical.

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  • 21) Which technique has almost eliminated the need to chemically
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21) Which step of translation requires mRNA decoding by a protein? A. Initiation B. Elongation C. Termination D. A and C 22) The signal recognition particle (SRP) is a ribonucleoprotein complex that binds to ribosomes translating polypeptides that bear a signal sequence for targeting to A. the endoplasmic reticulum. B. the nucleus. C. the mitochondria. D. the cytoplasm. 23) What.

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36) The targets of a microRNA are usually A. viral mRNAs B. bacterial dsRNAs C. tissue-specific genes D. “housekeeping” genes 37) The nuclear exosome A. degrades aberrant mRNAs B. cleaves dsRNA into siRNAs C. promotes nuclear export of mature mRNA complexes D. facilitates spliceosome assembly 38) Which aspect of an mRNA’s life cycle serves as a key mRNA quality.

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  • The targets of a microRNA are usually
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1) Which statement is not true about cancer? A. Cancer results from the accumulation of many genetic changes. B. Gene mutations that increase the risk for developing cancer are always inherited. C. Cancer cells grow in an uncontrolled and invasive way. D. Cancer cells are immortal. 2) The process by which cancer cells travel from.

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  • 1) Which statement is not true about cancer
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38) Consider the following hypothetical scenario: A young scientific genius, Dolly, is terminally ill with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC). When she dies, her parents feel that one of the most remarkable minds in science will die with her, and they feel they owe it to the world to not let.

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26) For some pre-mRNAs, splicing is regulated by A. RNA polymerase stalling B. splicing enhancer sequences C. localization of the pre-mRNA to subnuclear “speckles” D. transcription termination 27) When an exon from one pre-mRNA joins to an exon from another pre-mRNA the process is called A. trans-splicing B. cis-splicing C. alternative splicing D. RNA editing 28) RNA editing is a.

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  • For some pre-mRNAs, splicing is regulated by
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16) RNA polymerase is thought to be disengaged from the DNA template by A. the Xrn2 exonuclease B. cleavage and polyadenylation specific-factor (CPSF) C. poly(A) polymerase D. the spliceosome 17) Nuclear pre-mRNA introns are A. self-splicing B. removed by an endoribonuclease C. removed by the spliceosome D. require an external guanosine nucleotide as a cofactor. 18) RNA splicing of nuclear.

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11) The 7-methylguanosine cap structure, the ribose of guanosine is connected to the 5’ end of the mRNA by A. phosphates B. sulfates C. glycerol D. ethylene 12) Which is not a function of the 7-methylguanosine cap? A. protection from exonucleases B. promoting mRNA nuclear export C. stimulation of RNA polymerase elongation D. stimulation of translation 13) The process of.

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  • The 7-methylguanosine cap structure, the ribose of guanosine
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1) The majority of the human genome is A. protein-coding gene exons B. intergenic DNA C. genes and gene-related sequences D. interspersed elements 2) What are minisatellites and microsatellites? A. Small, extrachromosomal loops of DNA that are similar to plasmids. B. Parts of viruses that have become integrated into the genome of an organism. C. Incomplete or inactive.

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  • 1) The majority of the human genome is 2) What are minisatellites and microsatellites
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31) MicroRNAs are processed by the enzymes _______ and ______. One strand of the microRNA is loaded into a silencing complex named _________. The microRNAs target mRNA for ___________ or ___________. A. RISC, Dicer, Drosha, mRNA degradation, translational repression B. Drosha, Dicer, RISC, mRNA degradation, translational repression C. Drosha, Dicer, RISC, alternative splicing,.

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  • MicroRNAs are processed by the enzymes
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6) What is an anticodon? A. The base sequence of an mRNA that signals the termination of translation. B. The base sequence of an mRNA that binds to a complementary codon in tRNA. C. The base sequence of a tRNA that binds to a complementary codon in mRNA. D. The base sequence of a.

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  • What is an anticodon
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28) Why do you suppose eukaryotes evolved a specialized subnuclear structure for ribosome biogenesis? 29) Eukaryotic ribosomes misincorporate one amino acid for every 1,000-10,000, whereas the eukaryotic replication machinery misincorporates one nucleotide for every ~1x107, a number which goes down to ~1x109 following activity of the mismatch repair machinery. (a) Why.

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  • Why do you suppose eukaryotes evolved a specialized
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11) Hydrolysis of ATP indirectly fuels protein synthesis by A. generating a high energy bond between the amino acid and tRNA. B. loading the ternary complex onto the 40S subunit. C. triggering translocation of the mRNA within the ribosome during elongation. D. triggering dissociation of the large and small ribosomal subunits at termination so.

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  • Hydrolysis of ATP indirectly fuels protein synthesis by
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