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21. Coliforms are A. Gram-negative.B. rod-shaped.C. non-spore forming.D. lactose-fermenting with acid and gas formation.E. All of the choices are correct. 22. Other microorganisms besides coliforms that have been used as indicators of fecal contamination may be A. Clostridia.B. Enterococci.C. bacteriophages.D. Bacteroides.E. Clostridia, Enterococci AND bacteriophages. 23. Which of the following statements about landfills is false? A. Degradation of wastes is rapid and inexpensive.B. The excavated site has a plastic liner.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. The scientist responsible for the development of the first anti-plague vaccine in 1866 was A. Alexandre Yersin.B. Robert Koch.C. Louis Pasteur.D. Josef Marburg. 2. The plague bacillus is known as A. Plasmodium vivax.B. Pneumocystis carinii.C. Streptococcus pyogenes.D. Yersinia pestis. 3. The circulation of an agent in the bloodstream is given a name ending in A. -ase.B. -ing.C. -emia.D. -ation. 4. The sac which surrounds the heart is called the A. endocardium.B. pericardium.C. atrium.D. myocardium. 5. The.
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51. HIV adversely affects A. red blood cells.B. nerve cells.C. macrophagesD. T helper cells.E. macrophages AND T helper cells. 52. Treatment of HIV attempts to A. block reverse transcriptase activity.B. block attachment to host cells.C. block viral integrase.D. block viral protease activity.E. All of the above 53. HIV may be present in A. blood.B. semen.C. tears.D. vaginal secretions.E. blood, semen AND vaginal secretions. 54. Trichomoniasis is caused by a A. fungus.B. virus.C. bacteria.D. protozoan. 55. Trichomonas vaginalis is an unusual eukaryote in.
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  Essay Questions 62. Why would the absence of living bacteria in something you were about to eat not necessarily be so indicative of how safe it was to eat? Possible problems that may arise from food are the result of foodborne intoxication or foodborne infection. In either case the organism may not necessarily.
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41. Characteristic inclusion bodies formed in rabies are called A. Negri bodies.B. metachromatic bodies.C. polyphasic bodies.D. Koplik spots. 42. Stained smears of the surface of the eye might be useful in diagnosing A. influenza.B. herpes.C. polio.D. rabies. 43. CNS diseases caused by fungus may occur in A. cancer patients.B. diabetics.C. AIDS patients.D. immunosuppressed people.E. All of the choices are correct. 44. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis differs from the general pattern of fungal CNS disease by.
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  True / False Questions 31. The term "potable water" refers to water that is not necessarily pure, but is safe to drink. 32. Zero coliforms per 100 ml of water is considered safe for treated potable water. 33. High BOD values reflect small amounts of degradable organic matter in a sample of wastewater or other material. 34. The.
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31. The "Black Death" may also be known as A. tularemia.B. brucellosis.C. endocarditis.D. plague. 32. The disease responsible for the death of approximately ¼ the population of Europe from 1346 to 1350 was A. typhus.B. pneumonia.C. influenza.D. plague. 33. Symptoms of the plague appear in A. two to three months.B. one to two years.C. three to six hours.D. one to six days. 34. The causative agent of plague is A. Vibrio cholerae.B. Staphylococcus aureus.C. Brucella abortus.D. Yersinia.
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41. Carcinoma of the uterine cervix and anus is strongly associated with A. varicella virus.B. Epstein-Barr virus.C. herpes virus.D. human papilloma virus. 42. Pneumocystis is caused by a A. bacteria.B. fungus.C. virus.D. protozoan. 43. Which of the following is typically used to treat pneumocystis? A. AZTB. pentamidineC. penicillinD. trimethoprim-sulfmethoxazole 44. During which trimester is toxoplasmosis most severe to the fetus? A. firstB. secondC. thirdD. all the same 45. Toxoplasmosis is caused by a A. bacteria.B. fungus.C. virus.D. protozoan. 46. The definitive host for Toxoplasma gondii is A. humans.B. cats.C. goats.D. cows. 47. Cytomegalovirus.
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31. The poliomyelitis virus appears to selectively destroy A. sensory nerve cells.B. mixed nerve cells.C. autonomic nerve cells.D. motor nerve cells. 32. Which is true of the poliomyelitis virus? A. nonenvelopedB. single-stranded DNAC. double-stranded RNAD. single-stranded RNAE. nonenveloped AND single-stranded RNA 33. The polio viruses usually enter the body through A. the oral route.B. contaminated blood.C. cuts in the skin.D. the respiratory route. 34. The poliomyelitis virus is in the picornavirus family in.
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11. The genital tract infection characterized by an unpleasant odor and an increase in clue cells is A. trichomoniasis.B. candidiasis.C. amoebiasis.D. bacterial vaginosis. 12. Among the major causes of vulvovaginal candidiasis is/are A. sexual promiscuity.B. intense antibacterial treatment.C. disruption of normal flora.D. the use of oral contraceptives.E. intense antibacterial treatment, disruption of normal flora AND the use of oral contraceptives. 13. Staphylococcus aureus is the causative.
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  True / False Questions 51. Muscles aid the flow of venous blood. 52. Septicemia is only caused by Gram-negative bacteria. 53. Both Francisella tularensis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis are able to survive phagocytosis. 54. Gram-positive organisms are more likely to cause fatal septicemias than other infectious agents. 55. The media used to successfully grow Francisella tularensis must contain cysteine. 56. The major virulence.
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31. In a cow's udder, milk A. contains Lactococcus.B. contains Lactobacillus.C. is acidic.D. is sterile. 32. The unique flavor of yogurt is due to the production of A. lactic acid and acetaldehyde.B. casein and alcohol.C. rennin and coagulated protein.D. curd and whey. 33. Sugar is used in the making of fermented sausages to A. help preserve the sausage.B. provide raw material for the fermentation process.C. sweeten the taste.D. counteract the.
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41. Which of the following refers to a symbiotic association between plant roots and fungi? A. lichensB. geosminsC. extremophileD. mycorrhizae 42. Mycorrhizae are a symbiotic association of A. bacteria and algae.B. bacteria and virus.C. fungi and virus.D. plant roots and fungi. 43. Truffles A. are a mycorrhizae.B. are a mushroom.C. are a lichen.D. form a sheath around a root of an appropriate tree.E. are a mycorrhizae AND form a sheath around.
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11. The leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults is A. Escherichia coli.B. Haemophilus influenzae.C. Streptococcus pneumoniae.D. Neisseria meningitidis. 12. Identification of the various strains of N. meningitidis is through A. Gram staining.B. serogrouping.C. fluorescent antibodies.D. titering. 13. Meningococcal meningitis is typically acquired through the A. genitourinary tract.B. respiratory tract.C. gastrointestinal tract.D. skin. 14. The menigococcus attach to the mucus membrane via A. flagella.B. pili.C. cilia.D. a capsule. 15. Epidemics of meningitis appear to involve A. Streptococcus pneumoniae.B. Haemophilus influenzae.C. Neisseria menigitidis.D. Streptococcus pyogenes. 16. Which.
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31. During which stage of syphilis is the patient non-infectious? A. firstB. secondC. thirdD. fifth 32. In which disease is a gumma formed? A. primary syphilisB. secondary gonorrheaC. tertiary syphilisD. diphtheria 33. During which stage of pregnancy can T. pallidum cross the placenta and possibly infect the fetus? A. first trimester.B. second trimester.C. third trimester.D. any stage. 34. The reservoir of T. pallidum is the A. guinea pig.B. fox.C. bat.D. human. 35. The T. pallidum of syphilis can be.
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21. The incubation period of leprosy is A. 1 week.B. 3 weeks.C. 3 months.D. 3 or more years. 22. M. leprae may infect A. mangabey monkeesB. skunks.C. iguanas.D. armadillos.E. mangabey monkees AND armadillos. 23. The transmission of leprosy is by A. direct human-to-human contact.B. the fecal-oral route.C. contact with infected blood products.D. contact with infected nasal secretions.E. direct human-to-human contact AND contact with infected nasal secretions. 24. Which is true about C. botulinum? A. It is.
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11. The oxygen consuming property of a wastewater sample is designated by the term A. lagooning.B. stabilization.C. activation.D. biochemical oxygen demand. 12. The approximate BOD value for raw sewage is A. 2000-7000 milligrams per milliliter.B. 500-800 grams per milliliter.C. 0-50 kilograms per milliliter.D. 300-400 milligrams per liter. 13. In which phase of sewage treatment are trickling filters sometimes used? A. primary treatment.B. secondary treatment.C. tertiary treatment.D. quaternary treatment. 14. Which of the.
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41. The cause of infectious mononucleosis is A. varicella virus.B. Staphylococcus aureus.C. Epstein-Barr virus.D. Francisella tularensis. 42. Epstein-Barr virus may become latent in A. red blood cells.B. T cells.C. nerve cells.D. B cells. 43. The production of heterophile antibody is associated with A. tularemia.B. brucellosis.C. plague.D. infectious mononucleosis. 44. Which of the following may be transmitted by saliva? A. infectious mononucleosisB. rabiesC. plagueD. yellow feverE. infectious mononucleosis AND rabies 45. Yellow fever is transmitted by A. ticks.B. fleas.C. Anopheles mosquitoes.D. Aedes mosquitoes. 46. The disease caused by.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. The central nervous system is made up of the A. brain and spinal cord.B. spinal cord and spinal nerves.C. sympathetic and parasympathetic system.D. brain and endocrine organs. 2. The nerves that carry information to the CNS are termed A. motor nerves.B. endocrine nerves.C. sensory nerves.D. cerebrospinal nerves. 3. The cavities inside the brain are termed A. sinuses.B. ventricles.C. cavities.D. sulci. 4. The membranes that cover the surface of the.
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21. The cytokine released from macrophages that seems to play a major role in endotoxic shock is A. macrophage factor.B. tumor necrosis factor.C. protein A.D. interferon. 22. Cytokine(s) released from macrophages in response to exposure to endotoxin is/are A. tumor necrosis factor.B. interleukin-1.C. protein A.D. alpha-toxin.E. tumor necrosis factor AND interleukin-1. 23. Although endotoxemia affects many organs, the organ most seriously and irreversibly affected is the A. heart.B. lung.C. kidney.D. spleen. 24. Enlargement.
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11. How many subtypes of the M group of HIV-1 exist at present? A. 2B. 5C. 10D. 15 12. HIV is a A. single-stranded RNA virus.B. double-stranded RNA virus.C. single-stranded DNA virus.D. double-stranded DNA virus. 13. Which of the following is/are target(s) of medicines for treating AIDS? A. polymeraseB. reverse transcriptaseC. proteaseD. matrix proteinE. reverse transcriptase AND protease 14. Which of the following is true of gp120? A. It is a glycoprotein.B. It forms knobs projecting.
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21. Clostridium botulinum typically does not produce its toxin under conditions that are A. anaerobic.B. alkaline.C. neutral.D. acid. 22. Lactic acid bacteria A. consume lactic acid, allowing them to grow on foods such as yogurt.B. produce lactic acid, allowing them to produce foods such as yogurt.C. are important spoilage organisms.D. can grow on lemons.E. produce lactic acid, allowing them to produce foods such as.
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21. The zone of soil that surrounds the roots and contains a variety of organic exudates is called the A. mycorrhizae.B. rootsphere.C. rhizosphere.D. geosmin. 22. The organisms that obtain energy by oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and use carbon dioxide as a carbon source are called A. heterotrophs.B. chemoheterotrophs.C. autotrophs.D. chemolithoautotrophs. 23. Which of the following may be used by prokaryotes, under anaerobic conditions, as terminal.
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41. Most human pathogens grow best at temperatures near A. 20ºC.B. 25ºC.C. 37ºC.D. 45ºC. 42. S. aureus toxin is A. heat-stable.B. an exotoxin.C. an endotoxin.D. heat-sensitive.E. heat-stable AND an exotoxin. 43. As an added safety precaution, low-acid, home canned foods should be A. eaten with spoons.B. boiled at least15 minutes before consumption.C. frozen for 1 hour before consumption.D. dried prior to eating. 44. C. botulinum toxin is A. heat-stable.B. an exotoxin.C. endotoxin.D. heat-sensitive.E. an exotoxin AND heat-sensitive. 45. The toxin of.
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  True / False Questions 46. Bacteria are the most numerous soil inhabitants, but the biomass of fungi is greater. 47. A mycorrhizae is a symbiotic association between roots and fungi. 48. Streptomyces produces geosmins which give soil a characteristic musty odor. 49. Protozoa, algae, and fungus are typically found near the surface of soil. 50. Fungi are able to handle.
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41. Herpes simplex, like other ulcerating genital diseases, A. promotes the spread of AIDS.B. inhibits the spread of AIDS.C. inhibits the growth of other viral disease.D. is easily cured with antibiotics. 42. The drug(s) used to treat genital herpes is/are A. penicillin.B. erythromycin.C. acyclovir.D. famciclovir.E. acyclovir AND famciclovir. 43. The most common of the sexually transmitted viral diseases agents is A. human papilloma virus.B. herpes virus.C. human immunodeficiency virus.D. leptospirosis. 44. Human papilloma.
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21. After integration into the host chromosome, HIV is referred to as a A. previrus.B. provirus.C. viroid.D. proteosome. 22. Macrophages A. are not infected by HIV.B. often lyse and release HIV.C. survive and release virus over long periods of time.D. contain dormant HIV. 23. HIV is genetically very variable due to the A. reverse transcriptase being "error" prone.B. incompatibility with the host chromosome.C. incorporation of plasmid DNA.D. variability of the.
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  True / False Questions 54. HIV disease implies that the virus is multiplying and is interfering with the normal state of health. 55. Almost everyone infected with HIV develops HIV disease, eventually ending in AIDS. 56. gag and pol are translated as a unit and split into four segments. 57. Infected macrophages and other antigen-presenting cells are a.
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  Essay Questions 56. Discuss the phrase, "viable, but non-culturable". 57. Discuss the microenvironment vs. the macroenvironment. 58. Discuss how a microorganism community may serve as a defense mechanism against pathogens. .
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  Matching Questions 52. Which of the following best matches the description: 1. Associated with replication of infectious virions 2. Increased virion production 3. Moves viral RNA into the nucleus 4. Helps in attachment to the host cell 53. Which of the following best matches the description: 1. AZT 2. D4T 3. 3TC   .
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11. The spleen, in part, functions to cleanse the A. lymph.B. interstitial fluid.C. cytoplasm.D. blood. 12. The condition that develops on a previously damaged heart valve is called A. an aneurysm.B. acute bacterial endocarditis.C. myocarditis.D. subacute bacterial endocarditis. 13. The most common agent(s) causing subacute bacterial endocarditis is/are A. Streptococcus pyogenes.B. Pseudomonas aeruginosa.C. normal skin or mouth flora.D. Escherichia coli. 14. Which of the following can only be identified using PCR after.
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  True / False Questions 52. The water activity in foods with high levels of salt or sugar is high.  53. Lactobacillus acidophilus can potentially colonize the intestinal tract.  54. Yeast cannot convert grain to alcohol.  55. Aflatoxin is a potent carcinogen produced by certain bacteria.  56. Foodborne intoxication requires the ingestion of living organisms.  57. The toxin produced by S. aureus is.
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  True / False Questions 50. Inflammation of the membranes covering the CNS is called meningitis. 51. The initial systems of bacterial menigitidis are the same regardless of the causative agent. 52. Mycobacterium leprae is only grown in living cells. 53. Armadillos are an important source of human leprosy. 54. Death from botulism is usually due to respiratory paralysis. 55. Viral meningitis is.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. Most large cities have required the pasteurization of milk and milk products since A. 1800.B. 1850.C. 1900.D. 1920. 2. Human disease(s) from milk may include A. brucellosis.B. anthrax.C. amoebiasis.D. tuberculosis.E. brucellosis AND tuberculosis. 3. The connection between unpasteurized milk and brucellosis in humans was made by A. Evans.B. Pasteur.C. Koch.D. Fleming. 4. Dairy herds were inspected and vaccinated against tuberculosis in the A. 1800s.B. 1850s.C. 1900s.D. 1920s. 5. Herds vaccinated against tuberculosis were called A. safe herds.B. anti-tuberculin herds.C. disease free.
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31. Medications that interfere with reverse transcriptase work by A. binding to the host ribosomes.B. binding to the reverse transcriptase.C. mimicking nucleosides.D. mimicking amino acids.E. binding to the reverse transcriptase AND mimicking nucleosides. 32. The first approved protease inhibitor was A. saquinovir.B. zalcitabine.C. lamivudine.D. didanosine. 33. The protease inhibitors A. act late in the virus life cycle.B. act early in the virus life cycle.C. act on viral RNA production.D. prevent the.
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21. The treatment of neonates with an erythromycin ointment placed directly into the eyes is to prevent A. viral conjunctivitis.B. cataracts.C. herpes.D. ophthalmia neonatorum. 22. Which of the following mimics the infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhea? A. C. trachomatisB. M. pneumoniaC. T. pallidumD. E. coli 23. The most common reportable STD in the U.S. is A. gonorrhea.B. chlamydial infections.C. syphilis.D. AIDS. 24. The disease that results from Chlamydia trachomatis possibly attaching to.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. An effective means used early in the 19th century to clear water of the majority of bacteria was the use of A. chlorine.B. iodine.C. alcohol.D. sand filters. 2. Vibrio cholera is most often associated with A. breathing air.B. eating food.C. drinking water.D. touching animals. 3. The term "potable water" refers to water that is A. safe to swim in but not drink.B. safe to drink.C. only.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. An early contributor to the understanding of nitrogen fixation was A. Hooke.B. Pasteur.C. Winogradsky.D. Beijerinck. 2. The term used to describe the interrelationship between the living and non-living environments in an area is called a(n) A. group.B. community.C. ecosystem.D. ecological niche. 3. The role that an organism plays in its environment is called its A. role.B. position.C. ecosystem.D. niche. 4. The region of the earth inhabited by living organisms.
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11. The amount of moisture available in foods is designated by the term A. fluid availability.B. water activity.C. dampness quotient.D. aqueous usability. 12. Pure water has a water activity value of A. 1.00.B. 0.80.C. 0.70.D. 0.90. 13. Which of the following foods has the greatest amount of available water? A. cakeB. steakC. jamD. syrup 14. For growth, most bacteria require water activity levels above A. 1.00.B. 0.80.C. 0.70.D. 0.90. 15. Which of the following organisms can grow at a.
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61. There is no long-lasting immunity to gonorrhea and one may contract gonorrhea repeatedly. 62. The patient is non-infectious in the third stage of syphilis. 63. Genital herpes may be cured with the use of acyclovir or famciclovir. 64. Protease inhibitors are useful in curing AIDS. 65. Trichomonasvaginalis lacks mitochondria. 66. Herpes simplex enhances the spread of AIDS. 67. Typically C. albicans causes.
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11. Nutrient poor waters are described as being A. hypoxic.B. oligotrophic.C. autotrophic.D. eutrophic. 12. Eutrophic waters A. are nutrient rich.B. may become hypoxic.C. lack phosphate, nitrate and iron.D. contain 3.5% salt.E. are nutrient rich AND may become hypoxic. 13. It is estimated that the mass of bacteria and fungi in the top six inches of an acre of soil is A. 2 tons.B. 100 lb.C. 10 tons.D. 500 lb. 14. The bacteria cultured.
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31. Nitrogen is A. an important constituent of carbohydrates.B. primarily fixed by fungi.C. turned into ammonia by microorganisms.D. ultimately used in making amino acids and nucleotides.E. turned into ammonia by microorganisms AND ultimately used in making amino acids and nucleotides. 32. The nitrogen in our atmosphere is only usable to us after it is converted to A. ammonia.B. amino acids.C. fertilizer.D. nitrous oxide. 33. Azotobacter A. are the.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. Trepenema pallidum A. is the organism that causes syphilis.B. is a spirochete.C. can be more easily viewed with dark-field illumination.D. has become less virulent over time.E. All of the above are correct. 2. Urinary tract infections A. are relatively rare.B. are the most common nosocomial infections.C. include puerperal fever.D. are not considered STDsE. are the most common nosocomial infections AND include puerperal.
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Multiple Choice Questions 1. AIDS was first described as a new disease in A. 1970.B. 1976.C. 1981.D. 1989. 2. Which group had by 1982 gathered enough epidemiological evidence to suggest that AIDS was caused by a new infectious agent? A. Pasteur InstituteB. Lister InstituteC. Centers for Disease ControlD. World Health Organization 3. Who were the scientists that received the Nobel Prize for their work with reverse.
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  Matching Questions 56. Which of the following best matches the description: 1. Neisseria gonorrheae 2. Candida albicans 3. Treponema pallidum 4. Haemophilus ducreyi True / False Questions 57. Women are more likely than men to get urinary tract infections due to anatomy. 58. Urine contains antimicrobial substances. 59. Toxic shock syndrome toxins are superantigens. 60. Most strains of gonococcus do not survive long outside the body.  .
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