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21. What is the best technique to use to control for sequencing effects? a. random assignment to groups b. precision control matching c. yoked matching d. counterbalancing 22. How many possible sequences would be needed for complete counterbalancing with three treatment conditions? a. 3 b. 6 c. 9 d. 12 23. In a study designed to examine the effects of.
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41. What is the advantage of a double-blind experimental design? a. The effects of extraneous variables are not eliminated but they are spread evenly across groups. b. It makes the demand characteristics the same for participants in all conditions and eliminates the possibility that the experimenter unintentionally signals the expected outcome to.
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1. Often, we do not know at the start of an experiment what extraneous variables could affect our results. The best means of controlling unknown sources of extraneous variables is a. matching. b. counterbalancing. c. randomization. d. analysis of covariance. 2. It is usually impossible to eliminate the effects of extraneous variables. However, it may.
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1. Which of the following may compromise the statistical conclusion validity of an experiment? a. if the researcher does not have a Ph.D. in statistics b. if the experiment has too few participants, thus reducing power c. if the experimental findings are limited to a particular group of participants d. if the.
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41. Judging others on the basis of your own cultural standards is referred to as a. being racist. b. ethnocentrism. c. holism. d. going native. 42. The narrative report for an ethnography should a. focus on hypothesis testing. b. attempt to generalize the findings to a larger population. c. focus on a single theme. d. be a.
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21. The nonequivalent comparison group design can yield several possible outcomes. A possible outcome of the non-equivalent comparison group design is that the groups differ on the pretest and both groups improve on the posttest, but to different degrees. This could reflect the fact that the independent variable had an effect.
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41. Postexperimental interviews fulfill many obligations the experimenter has toward his or her participants. Which of the following is NOT among them? a. ethical obligations to inform participants about the experiment b. educating participants about the nature and role of psychological research c. offering the participant  satisfaction with his or her role.
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24) At the end of the experiment, Dr. Benning is obliged to a) debrief her participants. b) share her data with the prison warden and officials of the state. c) refrain from publishing the data until all participants are released from prison. d) provide nicotine-withdrawal therapy to all participants. 25) How was the independent.
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21. The probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis is referred to as a. power. b. potency. c. serendipity. d. sample. 22. Power of a statistical test refers to a. the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis. b. the probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis. c. the probability of not rejecting a true.
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41. Sometimes in single-case research there are cyclical variations in response rates or frequencies. What is a good way to address this problem? a. implement treatment at the peak of the cycle b. use a bicyclic or tricyclic treatment c. extend the length of each phase of the study to include all.
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51. What is an important way to help insure that one's experimental sample of participants is adequately representative of the population from which it is drawn? a. pretest all participants b. survey participants about demographic characteristics c. randomly select participants from the population d. use a small sample 52. Although most research is done.
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21. External validity in qualitative research a. is less important than in quantitative research because researchers generally are not interested in generalizing their findings. b. is more important than in quantitative research because without generalization the qualitative approach is pointless. c. is defined completely differently than in quantitative research. d. is determined by strength.
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11. Which of the following are types of experimenter attributes that may bias a research study? a. psychosocial attributes b. situational factors c. biosocial attributes d. all of the above 12. Which of the following is NOT an example of psychosocial experimenter attributes? a. hostility toward the participant b. the experimenter’s gender c. the need.
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1. When conducting research with human and non-human participants, the experimenter must obtain approval of the research plan from                       and                           , respectively. a. department chair; IACUC b. IACUC; IRB c. IRB; department chair d. IRB; IACUC 2. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) judges which of the following? a. whether.
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31. Which of the following is NOT an advantage that comes from automating one's experimental apparatus? a. increased power of statistical tests b. decreased probability of recording errors c. increased uniformity of stimulus presentation d. facilitation of presentation of the independent variable. 32. Perhaps the greatest technological advance in experimental apparatus has been a..
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11. The first "A" in "A-B-A design" represents the      phase while the second "A" represents the phase. a. baseline; withdrawal b. baseline; treatment c. antecedent; aftereffect d. treatment; baseline 12. What important assumption is required of the A-B-A withdrawal design in order to rule out rival hypotheses? a. that single participants will cooperate.
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1. Single-case designs, by definition, do not incorporate control groups. What is the standard for comparison purposes to evaluate the treatment effects? a. there is no comparison standard when using a single-case design b. the researcher “gut” feeling c. observations of a single control participant d. the pre-treatment observations 2. Single-case research is most.
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1. Survey research is appropriate for which of the following situations? a. to measure individuals’ attitudes b. to track changes in beliefs over time c. to test theoretical models d. all of the above 2. A cross-sectional study a. is one that tests an entire population. b. involves collecting successive independent samples. c. involves collecting data only.
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21. Dr. Kenji wants to determine whether his new phonics program helps children's reading comprehension. He gives a fifth grade class the program and also studies a second grade class that does not go through the program. He finds that the fifth graders read with better comprehension. Identify the confounding.
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11. The ability of researchers to “get into the heads” of their participants and accurately portray their viewpoints is called                         . a. descriptive validity b. theoretical validity c. interpretive validity d. mental modeling 12. When trying to increase interpretive validity in qualitative research, it is important to have which is checking with participants.
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1. In which of the following circumstances would a researcher be most likely to choose a quasi- experimental research design? a. when there are more than three important confounding variables to control b. when doing research in an applied or natural setting where control is difficult to impose c. when controlling experimenter and.
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1. Inferential statistics involve the use of          to draw conclusions about            . a. populations; samples b. samples; populations c. data sets; descriptive statistics d. z scores; normal distributions 2. A correlation coefficient is used to:  a. examine the relationship between two quantitative variables b. examine the relationship between three categorical variables c. make a.
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11. Which of the following graphs is most appropriate when displaying categorical data? a. scatterplot  b. bar graph c. histogram d. any of the above 12. Dr. Gomez would like to graph the scores from a recent exam (a quantitative variable), what type of graph should she use and what should be on the.
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31. Convergent validity refers to a. the degree to which the measure does not correlate with measures of different constructs. b. the degree to which the measure does correlate with measures of similar constructs. c. the degree to which the test measures multiple constructs. d. the degree to which the test measures a single.
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11) What aspect of the study represents a major methodological flaw? a) lack of randomization b) not enough conditions c) poor operational definition of the IV d) lack of counterbalancing for order effects 12) What are the possible confounding variables in this study? a) order effects b) history effects c) reactivity effects d) participant error effects 13) How could.
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11. Psychology participant pools provide a                 sample.     a. convenient b. simple random c. stratified d. cluster 12. The most common criticism regarding the use of college student participant pools is that a. students are coerced into participating in research. b. it may compromise internal validity. c. it may compromise external validity. d. it.
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51. Although statistics are calculated to represent parameters, we know that there can be a difference between the calculated statistic and population parameters. This difference is called a. sampling error b. sampling frame c. sampling difference d. parameter difference 52. Dr. Monroe is interested in surveying college students at her university who are first generation.
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31. Which of the following extraneous variables can NOT be corrected using random assignment? a. participant but not experimenter effects b. experimenter but not participant effects c. participant and experimenter effects d. none of the above 32. One way to be sure that all “groups” in an experiment are equivalent except for their experience with.
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41. Why is it important for experiments to be externally valid? a. so that we know that the results of our studies have significance beyond the situation in which they were conducted. b. so that we know which variables influence which other variables. c. so that others do not have to duplicate.
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41. A(n)                   is a list of all members of a population. a. parameter b. norming group c. sampling frame d. equal probability selection method 42. A                         is the full set of all individuals of interest and is typically hard to assess fully. a. sample b. population c. sampling error d. statistic 43. Dr. Saucer is.
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11. What is the primary benefit of matching? a. it eliminates the influence of virtually all known extraneous variables b. it eliminates experimenter expectancy and participant effects c. it overrides the need for random assignment d. the influence of the variables on which participants are matched is spread evenly across groups 12. When would an.
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31. Consider the following survey question: “Most Americans consider a cell phone to be a necessity. Do you agree?” This is an example of a                   question. a. leading b. loaded c. double-barreled d. Likert 32. On a form for student evaluation of faculty teaching, students were asked to agree or disagree.
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21. Which of the following is a disadvantage of the group administered questionnaire? a. low return rate b. cannot be used if individual participants are spread out across locations c. expensive and time consuming d. time consuming 22. The major problem with a phone survey is a. unlisted numbers b. expense c. social desirability bias d. response.
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21. Jacqueline wanted to assess the reliability of ratings made of children’s aggressive behavior so she had two students rate the degree of aggression displayed by each of 50 children while engaged in play.  She then compared the ratings made by these two students and computed the degree of agreement.
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31. Which of the following threats to internal validity is most likely to be a problem in the nonequivalent comparison group design? a. history b. maturation c. selection bias d. all of the above are potential problems 32. Imagine a hypothetical study using a nonequivalent comparison group designed to assess the effectiveness of an anti-drug,.
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41. In using an interrupted time-series design, how does one determine whether the independent variable had an effect? a. by looking for changes in the response pattern from pre- to post-treatment b. by using the chi-square statistic c. by comparing pre-treatment mean performance to post-treatment mean performance d. by comparing the treatment group's.
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34) Identify two ethical concerns in this experiment. What should the researcher do to address them? Use the following scenario to answer questions 32 to 46. Many abused stimulant drugs also suppress appetites. A drug company has developed a novel appetite suppressing drug and wants to know if it is also a.
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51. A key characteristic of grounded theory is a. intense study of a single individual. b. development of a theory based on empirical data. c. using existing theory to explain empirical data. d. using hypothesis testing to establish the validity of a theory. 52. Which of the following is NOT one of the four.
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21. If the A-B-A design cannot be used because of problems such as the behavior not returning to baseline upon withdrawal of treatment, you can probably use the                           design. a. A-B-A-B b. A-B-A-B-BC-B-BC c. multiple-baseline d. changing-baseline 22. A major advantage of the multiple-baseline design over the A-B-A design is that a..
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11.  The internal validity threat known as “history” is a problem for which of the following designs? a. Nonequivalent comparison group design b. Interrupted time-series design c. Regression-discontinuity design d.  None of the above 12.  The nonequivalent comparison-group design does NOT have which of the following? a.  Manipulation of the independent variable b. Random assignment of.
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11. Group-administered questionnaires a. are commonly used as part of focus groups. b. are of questionable value due to ethical concerns. c. typically have a low response rate. d. are commonly used in workplace setting. 12. Volunteer sampling which may produce non-representative samples is a particular problem with a. face to face interviews. b. mail.
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21. To display the relationship between two quantitative variables, one should use a. a bar graph. b. a histogram.  c. a scatterplot. d. z scores. 22. If the pattern of dots on a scatterplot runs from upper left to lower right what does this indicate? a. that the relationship is strong b. that the.
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51. Which of the following is an example of an open-ended question? a. Captain Crunch is my favorite cereal (yes/no) b. I love Captain Crunch cereal (1 = agree; 2 = undecided; 3 = disagree) c. Please list your favorite cereals d. all of the above are open-ended 52. The principle advantage of open-ended questions.
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1. Qualitative research is interpretive, which involves a. extracting information from non-numerical data. b. using objective measurements. c. quantifying non-numerical data. d. observing in the laboratory environment. 2. A focus on testing groups of individuals with a primary goal of generalizing findings characterizes                 research, while intensive study of individuals with less concern.
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31. Two colleagues are debating over whether giving extrinsic, arbitrary rewards like candy or giving intrinsic rewards like gaining new skills and passing to new material are better ways of motivating children to study. They agree to the following study, using a 6th grader who, with his parent’s approval, has.
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