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  11. The focal point of Donatello’s Equestrian Monument to Gattamelata is the __________. A) military implements B)horse C)attendants D)rider E)relief sculpture 12. The subject of Ghiberti’s relief sculpture for the Florence Cathedral’s Baptistery is the __________. A)birth of Venus B)crucifixion C)deposition D)lamentation E)sacrifice of Isaac 13. Alberti believed the best example of the new Renaissance architecture was the __________ of.
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  21. In the sixteenth century __________ music began to develop independence from vocal music. A) choral B)dance C)instrumental D)sacred E)secular 22. The poetic form of the __________ became particularly important during the High Renaissance, as evidenced in the work of Michelangelo. A)canto B)epic C)lyric D)sonnet E)couplet 23. __________ was the center of patronage during the High Renaissance. A)Padua B)Genoa C)Venice D)Florence E) Rome 24.. Sophonisba Anguissola.
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1. __________ is the adherence to the accepted, traditional, and established religious faith. A) Christianity B)Hieratic C)Monasticism D)Humanism E)Orthodoxy 2. __________ is a philosophy concerned with human beings, their achievements, and interests. A)Humanism B)Christianity C)Orthodoxy D)Classicism E)Byzantium 3. __________ is a decorative work for walls, vaults, floors, or ceilings, composed of pieces of colored material set in plaster or.
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  21. __________ is the description of the lives of saints. A)Eschatology B)Hermeneutics C)Hagiography D)Ecclesiast E)Transubstantiation 22. After the sack of Constantinople, many Greek scholars brought humanism to __________. A) Spain B)France C)Low Countries D)Italy E)none of these 23. Unlike painting in the West, icons did not __________ biblical events. A)ignore B)simplify C)illustrate D)alter E)define 24. The Church-controlled format of icons encouraged __________. A)creativity B)regularity C)individuality D)invention E)narrative 25. Stylistically, Byzantine icons derive from.
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  21. The Holy Office of the __________ was charged with maintaining the purity of Christian thought—by any means necessary. A)Church B)Pope C)King D)Inquisition E)Monastery 22. The medieval Church recognized seven deadly __________. A)saints B)kings C)sins D)days E)books 23. The Council of Constance reunited the Church after the __________ of 1378. A)Great Divide B)Inquisition C)Great Schism D)Crusades E)Black Death 24. One practical effect of the Crusades was.
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  11. The name ‚Muhammad? means __________. A)Messiah B)Angel C)Praised One D)Son of God E)Savior 12. In the East, nearly all subject matter was __________. A)abstract B)secular C)entertaining D)religious E)mythological 13. Byzantium was a sacked by the __________ in 1204. A)Ottoman Empire B)Visigoths C)Petchenegs D)Crusaders E)Scots 14. Art taken by Venetians during the sack of Constantinople became the inspiration for the __________. A)Gothic B)Early Gothic C)Romanesque D)Renaissance E)Reformation 15. The Caliph Abu Bakr.
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  11. The medieval city offered hope of escape and protection to runaway __________, among others. A) serfs B)lords C)knights D)women E)criminals 12. The medieval ‚middle class? largely supported __________ over the feudal system. A) military states B)aristocracies C)monarchies D)theocracies E) oligarchies 13. Many important __________ gained their charters in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. A) monasteries B)universities C)towns D)guilds E)kingdoms 14. The texts.
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  11. The __________ Empire allowed its subjects to practice their own religions. A)Holy Roman B)Spanish C)British D)French E)Ottoman 12.  The highly influential Four Books on Architecture were written by __________. A)Michelangelo B)Bramante C)Palladio D)Maderno E)Lescot 13. A ‚picture-frame stage? is referred to as a __________. A)proscenium B)zanni C)gracioso D)homophony E)madrigal 14. The __________ is a polyphonic choral work. A)cantus B)motet C)homophony D)madrigal E)sonata 15. A setting of lyric poetry for several voices is called.
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  21. __________ was the first philosopher to treat art in a comprehensive manner. A)Marcus Aurelius B)Diogenes C)Epictetus D)Seneca E)Plotinus 22. Roman religion stressed community __________, not individual religious experience. A) ritual B)wealth C)equality D)peace E)none of these 23. The most formidable religious cult in the Roman Empire was the Persian mystery-cult of __________. A)Minerva B)Vesta C)Janus D)Mithra E)none of these 24. Roman architecture self-consciously borrowed from.
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  21. In general, Renaissance art can be best described as finding delight in __________ things. A) otherworldly B)future C)earthly D)cerebral E)emotional 22. The Brancacci Chapel of the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Florence contains highly influential __________ by Masaccio. A)relief sculptures B)altarpieces C)stained glass windows D)frescoes E)mosaics 23. Masaccio’s fresco The Tribute Money depicts a scene from the __________. A)Old.
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  46. In Rome, the average citizen lived a relatively prosperous economic life. 47. Rome had very little commerce or industry, making it reliant on military conquest. 48. Octavian became, effectively, the first ‚emperor? of Rome. 49. The death of Marcus Aurelius was the ‚beginning of the end? for the Roman Empire. 50. The average.
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  46. The Crusades nearly reunited the eastern and western Church. 47. Unofficial crusades continued long after the official campaigns. 48. Chivalry preached religious tolerance. 49. The Crusades helped reopen a number of Mediterranean ports, and trade flourished. 50. Truly chivalrous love required the man love the woman from afar. 51. Secularism was in place by.
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  31.  In the early years of Islam, music was considered a ‚__________ pleasure.? 32. Modern readers are often struck at the Byzantine distaste for __________ and their preference for elaboration on tradition. 33. Anna Comnena was perhaps the most important writer of __________ in the Byzantine era. 34. The bulk of Byzantine.
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  11. The name ‚Muhammad? means __________. A)Messiah B)Angel C)Praised One D)Son of God E)Savior 12. In the East, nearly all subject matter was __________. A)abstract B)secular C)entertaining D)religious E)mythological 13. Byzantium was a sacked by the __________ in 1204. A)Ottoman Empire B)Visigoths C)Petchenegs D)Crusaders E)Scots 14. Art taken by Venetians during the sack of Constantinople became the inspiration for the __________. A)Gothic B)Early Gothic C)Romanesque D)Renaissance E)Reformation 15. The Caliph Abu Bakr.
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  41. The figure of the Cnidian Aphrodite sways to the left in the famous Praxitelean __________. 42. The Dying Gaul exemplifies __________ style. 43. Greek temples had little open __________ space. 44. The paired spiral shaped forms on the capital of an Ionic column are called __________. 45. After the sack of Athens.
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  31. Leonardo’s well-known drawing __________, influenced by the anatomical writing of Vitruvius, shows the Renaissance fascination with the human body. 32. The Italians refer to the fifteenth century as the __________. 33. With 50,000 citizens __________ was the largest city in Europe during the 1400s. 34. __________ has been called the ‚Father of.
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  21. Aristotle believed that the art could produce a ‚purging? of emotions, an effect he called __________. A) techne B) poiesis C)catharsis D)idealization E)poetics 22. An artwork’s color scheme is referred to as its __________. A)harmony B)tone C)design D)composition E)palette 23. Among the four characteristics of Greek __________ painting is the portrayal of figures in simple line drawings. A)mural B)sculpture C)devotional D)vase E)none of these 24. The.
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  56. What are two concepts that reject abstract speculation in favor of experience and practicality? 57. Which class of Romans desired trompe l’oeil wall paintings? 58. Which Roman emperors apparently loved lewd pantomime? 59. Which language did the early Romans consider a peasant language? 60. Which two epic poems did Vergil’s Aeneid largely parallel?   .
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  56. What does the Florence Cathedral’s dome resemble more than a classical dome? 57. What led the city of Florence to sponsor artistic competitions? 58. What Renaissance system of thought influences Donatello’s depiction of St. George as a ‚hero of everyday proportions?? 59. What did the Greeks of Periclean Athens provide Renaissance artists? 60..
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  41. Hell, or __________, was the most popular part of medieval theatre. 42. Ballades and __________ were popular types of secular songs. 43. Ars Nova was facilitated by a new system of musical __________ that allowed nearly any rhythmic pattern to be written down. 44. Chaucer’s stories in his work __________ are notable.
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  41. The two sacred cities of Islam are Mecca and __________. 42. The Muslim calendar begins on the date in 622 C.E. in which __________ fled to Medina. 43. The ‚holy struggle? encouraged by Caliph Abu Bakr is referred to as __________. 44. ‚Orthodoxy? means __________ and rests on the concept of unerring.
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  21. The Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are called the __________ Gospels. A) First B)Grand C)Gnostic D)Synoptic E)Apocryphal 22. In the time following the Resurrection, the followers of Christ called themselves the __________. A)Apostles B)Divine C)Saved D)Way E)none of these 23. In the time following the Resurrection, Romans made no distinction between Christians and __________. A)themselves B)criminals C)Jews D)philosophers E)slaves 24. Many Christians __________ service.
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  46. Some Buddhist sculpture in India shows Hellenistic influence. 47. Hubris refers to excessive pride or ambition. 48. Greek astronomers were aware the earth is a sphere. 49. Although talented in many things, the Greeks produced no major mathematicians. 50. The histories of Thucydides are polemical and biased. 51. The Sophists preached faith to reason. 52..
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  46. The fifth century barbarians quickly invaded the Eastern Empire. 47. Byzantine art was a short-lived phenomenon. 48. Byzantine art is easily dated and stylistic developments are mostly understood. 49. The content of Byzantine art focuses on human figures. 50. Byzantine emperors were seen as divinely sanctioned by God. 51. The goal of hieratic style.
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  46. The Renaissance was the first time Europeans regained an interest in Antiquity. 47. Renaissance science was in harmony with traditional values. 48. The printing press primarily affected the life of the political elite. 49. Classical scholarship was the forte of Pope Pius II. 50. By and large, the Renaissance popes were indifferent to.
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  41. The ideas of Massacio were probably most influential on his contemporary, the painter  __________. 42. __________ refers to the use of light and shadow to create dimensionality. 43. __________ sculpture, which had been out of favor since Classical times, was revived in the early Renaissance. 44. Part of the development of Renaissance.
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  21. __________ is the description of the lives of saints. A)Eschatology B)Hermeneutics C)Hagiography D)Ecclesiast E)Transubstantiation 22. After the sack of Constantinople, many Greek scholars brought humanism to __________. A) Spain B)France C)Low Countries D)Italy E)none of these 23. Unlike painting in the West, icons did not __________ biblical events. A)ignore B)simplify C)illustrate D)alter E)define 24. The Church-controlled format of icons encouraged __________. A)creativity B)regularity C)individuality D)invention E)narrative 25. Stylistically, Byzantine icons derive from.
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1. __________ constituted a more feminine point of view of ethics and personal conduct than the rigid and oppressive feudalism. A)Chivalry B)Capitalism C)Romanticism D)Secularism E)Socialism 2. __________ is expression by means of symbols  to make a broad commentary on human existence. A) Farce B)Allegory C)Sottie D)Ars nova E) Gothic 3. __________ style is a synthesis of medieval intellect, spirituality,.
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1. __________ refers to the ‚Senatus Populusque Romanus,? or the Senate and the Roman people. A)Pax Romana B)Trompe l’oeil C)Cella D) S.P.Q.R. E) Sarcophagi 2. The __________ was a 200-year span of stability during the Roman Empire, beginning with Emperor Augustus. A)Great Peace B)Pax Romana C)Cella D)Empire E)Augustean 3. __________ are columns, often decorative, that are part of, and.
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  56. In Chrétien’s story of Arthur and Camelot, which character’s sufferings and trials parallel those of Christ? 57. What was the purpose of Jean Froissart’s Chronicles of England, France, and Spain? 58. Which theologian was likely the most important influence on Christianity in this period? 59. Why were tales of chivalry and.
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  41. The two sacred cities of Islam are Mecca and __________. 42. The Muslim calendar begins on the date in 622 C.E. in which __________ fled to Medina. 43. The ‚holy struggle? encouraged by Caliph Abu Bakr is referred to as __________. 44. ‚Orthodoxy? means __________ and rests on the concept of unerring.
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  11. __________ installed a Tetrarchy to rule the Roman Empire. A)Constantine B)Caesar C)Diocletian D)Augustus E)Maccabeus 12. __________ split the Roman empire, creating two capital cities. A)Diocletian B)Caesar C)Augustus D)Constantine E)Midian 13. All Roman emperors after Constantine were __________. A)assassinated B)overthrown C)Muslim D)Christian E)Germanic 14. __________ asserts the existence of one god. A)Polytheism B)Animism C)Monotheism D)Religion E)Ideology 15. Rabbinical interpretations and commentaries on the Mishnah are called __________. A)Talmud B)Oral Law C)Gemara D)Torah E)Petateuch 16. The first five books of the.
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  11. Roman expansion was built on __________. A)trade B)intermarriage C)conquest D)opportunism E)none of these 12. The Roman Republic collapsed during a period of __________. A)peace B)international trade C)democracy D)civil war E)foreign invasion 13. One of Julius Caesar’s most lasting contributions is the invention of the __________. A) catapult B)cross-bow C)coliseum D)May Day holiday E)Julian Calendar 14. __________ sought the reestablishment of the Roman Republic after.
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1. The early Spanish colonizers of the New World are called __________. A)cartographers B)conquistadors C)chroniclers D)culture brokers E)travelers 2. The word used to describe the ‚smoky? gradations of light and shade in paintings such as those of Leonardo is __________. A)scumbling B)sfumato C)chiaroscuro D)tenebrism E)obscurantism 3. __________ is a movement in art characterized by an affected appearance of subjects. A)Baroque B)High Renaissance C)Northern Renaissance D)Neoclassicism E)Mannerism 4..
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  41. After the Roman civil war, the reign of __________ resulted in the rebuilding of a number of important temples, roads, bridges, and aqueducts. 42. The opinions of specialized legal scholars called __________ limited the power of judges. 43. __________ believed that one should neither fear nor desire death, but merely.
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1. __________ is the adherence to the accepted, traditional, and established religious faith. A) Christianity B)Hieratic C)Monasticism D)Humanism E)Orthodoxy 2. __________ is a philosophy concerned with human beings, their achievements, and interests. A)Humanism B)Christianity C)Orthodoxy D)Classicism E)Byzantium 3. __________ is a decorative work for walls, vaults, floors, or ceilings, composed of pieces of colored material set in plaster or.
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  31. At the end of the Peloponnesian Wars, __________ had gained political dominance. 32. The __________ in Alexandria became the focal point of the Hellenistic intellectual world.  33. ‚Man is the measure of all things,? according to __________. 34. Diogenes was leader of the philosophers called __________. 35. __________ would sit in the.
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  31. The phrase __________ refers to the Roman attempt to control the dissatisfied urban masses. 32. Aristotle did not believe music should be a __________ endeavor, but a pastime of intelligent amateurs. 33. The Romans invented the __________ trumpet. 34. In Roman dance, pantomime was a serious form, while __________ was more.
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  31.  In the early years of Islam, music was considered a ‚__________ pleasure.? 32. Modern readers are often struck at the Byzantine distaste for __________ and their preference for elaboration on tradition. 33. Anna Comnena was perhaps the most important writer of __________ in the Byzantine era. 34. The bulk of Byzantine.
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  46. The fifth century barbarians quickly invaded the Eastern Empire. 47. Byzantine art was a short-lived phenomenon. 48. Byzantine art is easily dated and stylistic developments are mostly understood. 49. The content of Byzantine art focuses on human figures. 50. Byzantine emperors were seen as divinely sanctioned by God. 51. The goal of hieratic style.
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  31. Gothic cathedrals frequently contain __________ symbolism, sometimes even mathematical formulae. 32. In their human qualities and personalized faces, the jamb statues on Chartres Cathedral illustrate the High Gothic style, or Gothic __________. 33. Objects designed to visualize Christian themes and enhance private worship are called __________. 34. The area around Paris, called.
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1. __________ means the ‚The Teaching? and refers to the Old Testament books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. A)Talmud B)Rebus C)Torah D)Yahweh E)Orthodox 2. A __________ is a row of windows in the upper part of a wall. A)basilica B)rebus C)Talmud D)clerestory E)monastery 3. __________ is the religious tradition and ethical system of the Jewish people. A)Rebus B)Torah C)Talmud D)Yahweh E)Judaism 4. A(n) __________.
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  46. The Western Empire greatly outlasted the Eastern Empire. 47. Judaism has no official hierarchy or clergy. 48. The Diaspora led to two distinct Jewish communities in Europe. 49. Jews do not believe Jesus fulfilled the prophecy of Messiah. 50. Constantine was the first to legalize the Christian Church in Rome. 51. Judaism does not.
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1. An economic system pursuing market freedom and profit is called __________. A)tribute system B)capitalism C)socialism D)marketism E)socialism 2. A term for lifelikeness or nearness to truth is __________. A)farce B)proscenium C)sottie D)verisimilitude E)obsequious 3. __________ is the rational portrayal of spatial depth through linear or atmospheric means. A) Verisimilitude B)Realism C)Perspective D)Classicism E)Symbolism 4. __________ is a type of low comedy characterized by slapstick. A)Commedia dell’arte B)Sottie C)Proscenium D)Farce E)Autos sacramentales 5..
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