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    11. The most precise random sampling is usually done from   A) lists that give the name of everyone in the targeted audience. B)federal government agencies. C)specialized public relations firms. D)impetus from exploratory focus groups.   12. Content analysis essentially revolves around  A) database management. B)copy testing. C)piggybacking. D)counting and categorizing.   13. Biased wording on questionnaires is often a by-product.
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1. The cultural dimension that measures how well a society tolerates ambiguity is  A) collectivism. B)uncertainty avoidance. C)power distance. D)long-term orientation.   2. The effort of American government to be the major disseminator of information around the globe is called  A) cultural imperialism. B)intervention tactic. C)propaganda. D)public diplomacy.   3. Established in 1953 by President Eisenhower, this was the primary.
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1. The Internet exploded as a communicative force in the   A) 1970s. B)1960s. C)1980s. D)1990s.   2. Which is NOT a correct statement with regard to the creation of the Internet?   A) Researchers could immediately link computers in separate cities. B)It began in the 1960s. C)It worked originally as an academic-government tool. D)It partnered with Microsoft and America.
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    11. Convincing popular TV programs to write a cause into their plotlines is called   A) planting. B)simulation. C)issues placement. D)plugging.   12. What is NOT a major difference between an audio news release and print version? A)writing style B)ANR is less expensive to compile C)audio release is written for the ear D)ANR is more concise   13. Which is NOT a.
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  1.Individuals attending a meeting or event are more emotionally involved in the process since they use all five of their senses—hearing, sight, touch, smell, taste.   2.The size and purpose of the meeting dictate the plan.   3.The word “program” has two meanings: 1) what goes on at the meeting and 2) the printed.
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  1.PR personnel must be aware that they can be held legally liable if they provide advice or tacitly support an illegal activity of a client or employer. This area of liability is called "fair comment."   2.An organization is (legally) limited in publicizing the activities of its employees.   3.Government documents are in the public.
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    1.Edward Bernays was known as the first influential person to coin or utilize the term "public relations counsel."   2.In 1900, Henry Ford obtained coverage of the Model T automobile by demonstrating it to a reporter from the Detroit Tribune newspaper.   3.Samuel Insull started the "bill stuffer" concept of communication.   4.Relationship management builds specifically on.
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    11. Unauthorized use of well-known entertainers, athletes, or other public figures in an organization's publicity and advertising materials is known as   A) copyright infringement. B)fair use. C)celebrity poaching. D)misappropriation of personality.   12. Which is a concept inherent with "green" marketing? A)bottom-line objectives B)philanthropy C)"low-carb" promotion D)lowering gas prices   13. The Federal Trade Commission oversees  A) international trade agreements. B)truth in advertising. C)stockholder.
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1. The most widely used document issued by practitioners to news media is the   A) pitch letter. B)media advisory. C)news release. D)fact sheet.   2. This type of "memo", often bulleted, alerts media about upcoming interview opportunities among other uses. A)boilerplate B)pitch letter C)video news release D)media advisory   3. Which is NOT a traditional news value? A)reader interest B)timeliness  C) networking. D).
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1. The best approach to planning in public relations is  A) monitoring and mirroring the competition. B)strategic and systematic. C)cost-effective and participatory. D)symmetrical and feedback-based.   2. Reinforcement refers to the notion of A)ongoing effort to preserve reputation. B)reminding media of organizational prowess/honors. C)fulfilling needs of company executives, expectations and ideals. D)attacking problems adversely affecting the organization.   3. The first.
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    1.The largest percentage of cruise passengers, especially longer voyages, are families.   2.A practitioner should probe a client during the interview process, not only for newsworthy facts, but also for interesting anecdotes that might help in publicity initiatives.   3.The primary goal for any campaign regarding an entertainment event is to gain positive media.
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1. Which value is considered of "least" importance to public relations practitioners, according to Grunig and Hunt?   A) salary level. B)job security. C)prestige in the organization. D)the public interest.   2. Most professional membership groups believe that the primary purpose of establishing codes of ethics is   A) enforcement. B)education and information. C)as a "warning signal."   D) boosting.
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1. Providing advice or tacitly supporting an illegal activity of a client or an employer is known as A)sabotage. B)defamation. C)misappropriation of personality. D)conspiracy.   2. Which person/entity (in general) would have the most protection from, or likelihood of winning, a defamation suit?   A) private citizen B)CEO/corporate leader C)prominent politician D)entertainment personality   3. Photo releases, employee communication, and media.
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    11. The notion of conflict management depends on many factors (requiring adaptation or change) when assessing a threat is known as  A) mainstreaming.  B) self-perception. C)contingency theory. D)situational theory.   12. Oftentimes, apologizing after a crisis isn't effective because of the  A) unforgiving nature of the audience. B)damage already incurred. C)media firestorm that ensues. D)hypocrisy factor.   13. Muscular.
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1. Motivational objectives are more difficult to accomplish because   A) they lack the clarity of informational objectives. B)of the trouble discerning that public relations accounted for the desired results rather than advertising and marketing. C)there is high competition for available dollars. D)of difficulty in counting attendance figures.   2. In a 2010 study, experts optimistically.
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    11. The condition wherein there is decreased tendency over time to reject material presented by an untrustworthy source is known as   A) message entropy. B)cognitive dissonance. C)spiral of silence. D)sleeper effect.   12. An inoffensive word or phrase that is less direct or distasteful than the one that represents reality is a(n)   A) acronym. B)euphemism. C)hype word. D)cliche.   13. The.
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1. In general, public relations spend about what percentage of their budget on research? A)3–5 percent B)5–10 percent C)12–15 percent D)20–25 percent   2. The use of existing information in books, articles, and electronic databases is known as   A) secondary research. B)primary research. C)summative research. D)qualitative research.   3. Which of the following is NOT an example of qualitative research? A)a Likert-type.
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    11. This is a term associated with a personal online journal. A)podcast B)blog C)wiki D)Webcast     1.The use of technology is the leading trend in public relations.   2.Media outlets are a primary audience for someone promoting research software such as SPSS.   3.Over time, interactivity and video clips will distinguish brochureware from its print predecessor.   4.A satellite media tour involves.
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    1.The mass media are most influential in forming a person's opinion when the information provided has high emotional appeal.   2.Usually, only a small number of people at any given time take part in public opinion formation on a specific issue.   3.An opinion leader will deliberate and undergo significant research before adopting a.
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1. According to Professor Martha Lauzen, effective issues management requires each of the following EXCEPT  A) damage control. B)active sense-making strategies. C)environmental scanning. D)two-way communications.   2. Perception of risk increases when the messages of experts  A) are published. B)concur. C)differ from those of competitors. D)conflict.   3. Which is NOT a broad step in the strategic phase of.
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1. Procter & Gamble conducted which of the following promotional events for its Charmin brand? A)created 20 luxury restrooms in New York’s Times Square B)rolled toilet paper from New York’s tallest skyscraper C)created a “bounce house” in Central Park using only toilet paper D)all of the above   2. The going rate for a typical “bread.
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    11. What is NOT a problem with regard to e-mailed news releases? A)attachments B)anti-spam software C)credibility associated with online technologies D)excessive copy or text   12. PR Newswire and Business Wire are  A) electronic news services. B)broadcast outlets. C)media databases. D)media watchdogs.   13. The key to a successful news release when sent by e-mail:  A) using Word attachments. B)including more details.
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    1.B-roll footage is often associated with and accompanies video news releases.   2.In radio news releases, a soundbite is usually better than a straight announcement.   3.Radio public service announcements should be written in upper-case form.   4.A typical video news release lasts about 30 seconds.   5.By 2050, the Hispanic audience in the U.S. will comprise about.
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    1.The evaluation stage best matches up with the planning stage in terms of measuring objectives of the campaign.   2.Message comprehension is NOT an advanced form of measurement (according to the "Ketchum Yardstick").   3.The most widely practiced form of evaluating public relations programs is the compilation of print and broadcast mentions.   4.In systematic tracking,.
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1. Which is NOT a function of government relations specialists? A)disseminate management's views B)cooperate with government on projects of mutual benefit C)act in a compulsory-advisory function for future legislation D)motivate employees to participate in the political process   2. Advocacy ads and bulk faxing are most prevalent in  A) 527s. B)stealth lobbying. C)grassroots lobbying. D)influence peddling.   3. A lobbyist, in.
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    1.A traditional media kit folder is 9 by12 inches with inside pockets.   2.The news release should usually begin in an anecdotal form, and work its way to an eventual climax later in the story.   3.Words such as "revolutionary" and "total solution" are embraced by gatekeepers because it presumes an exciting element to.
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    11. A budget usually is divided into two categories, which are   A) staff time and out-of-pocket expenses. B)staff time and legislative windfalls. C)internal and external. D)debits and expenses.   12. A strategy statement refers to   A) measuring of objectives. B)how objectives are met/achieved. C)a situation analysis. D)tactical response.   13. Objectives are usually stated in terms of  A) tactics. B)strategies. C)inputs. D)program outcomes.   14..
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1. The most elaborate and expensive form of news delivery to television stations is the   A) press kit. B)soundbite. C)remote-location piece. D)video news release.   2. "B-roll" refers to A)anchor's use of sound bites. B)sound to accompany suggested footage. C)footage that doesn't make the final newscast. D)unedited video pictures submitted by practitioner.   3. Which is NOT typical for an audio.
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1. A steady output of information about a movie or television production is called  A) press agentry. B)viral marketing. C)mainstreaming. D)the drip-drip-drip technique.   2. The concept for people being "famous for being infamous" (e.g., committing major crimes or involved unfavorably in spectacular trials), refers to    A) self-glorification. B)self-indulgence. C)vicariousness. D)notoriety.   3. In pretelevision days, publicity departments for motion.
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  1.In basic terms, research is a form of speaking to audiences.   2.Most organizational crises come from unexpected natural or uncontrollable disasters.   3.Qualitative data is often called "soft" data.   4.Secondary research refers to data or information that originally comes from another source.   5.Copy testing, at its most basic level, refers to the assembling of news.
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    1.Public relations practitioners are faced with a monolithic audience.   2.At $900 billion, the discretionary income of Hispanics is the highest among minority groups.   3.Traditional and online media need only to provide news releases and features translated into Spanish in order to reach Hispanic/Latino audiences.   4.The Seniors (age 65 or older) are infrequent watchers.
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    11. The most difficult persuasive task is to   A) change or neutralize hostile opinions. B)conserve favorable opinions. C)crystallize latent opinions. D)maintain goodwill among supporters.   12. The most effective medium for delivering messages that require absorption of details and contemplation by the receiver is   A) television. B)radio. C)online. D)print.   13. The attempt to classify people by lifestyle, attitudes, and.
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    1.The goals of communication are to persuade passive publics, with "mutual understanding" being a lesser emphasis for the practitioner.   2.Attitude change and change in overt behavior are difficult objectives for the communicator because of outside factors/variables.   3.Wilbur Schramm's communication model was later adapted to include the concept of "shared experience."   4.The "media uses and.
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1. About one-quarter of Americans believe that U.S. corporations are  A) partnering with philanthropic organizations. B)trustworthy. C)neglecting the public interest. D)losing money.   2. Nike began to work in earnest (during the "sweatshop" crisis) after the involvement of  A) striking garment workers. B)activist groups. C)government lawyers. D)industry partners.   3. Corporate sponsorship is primarily a form of  A) cause-related marketing. B)investor.
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1. Once self-interest is involved, opinion is   A) adaptable. B)not easily changed. C)based on current events/issues. D)usually made public.   2. Which best describes an opinion leader? A)good listeners and team players B)measured and calculated in adopting new ideas C)skeptical of the mass media D)highly interested in subject matter   3. An elected official is an example of a(n)   A) agenda.
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1. The business leader reported to have created the first corporate public relations department is A)Henry Ford. B)John Rockefeller Sr. C)Amos Kendall. D)George Westinghouse.   2. Grunig's IABC Foundation research study on "Excellence" notes all of the following about public relations EXCEPT A)it helps the organization make money by cultivating relationships. B)it repairs problems and regains lost revenue.
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  11. Critics often complain that public relations codes of ethics  A) do not apply to PRSSA members. B)are too stringent and prescriptive. C)have no "teeth". D)don't include marketing or advertising practices.   12. Which one of the following is NOT a hallmark of public relations professional? A)a sense of independence B)a concern for integrity of the profession C)a.
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  1.Public relations has a generally lukewarm return on investment (ROI) of about 120 percent, but the rate is considered acceptable because PR is not considered a "bottom line" function.   2.The "dominant coalition" refers to a situation where public relations practitioners are subservient to marketing and related functions.   3.Public relations by most.
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  1.Systematic planning cannot prevent haphazard, ineffective communication.   2.Planning should be the first step in any public relations process.   3.In a reinforcement type of situation, program plans are initiated to preserve and develop customer or public support.   4.Objectives aren't the end result of a campaign, but the means to achieve a result.   5.Informational objectives are.
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    11. This audience makes more than 80 percent of the household purchase decisions. A)Generation X B)men C)middle-class D)women   12. Which is NOT typical of the GLBT community? A)They are offended by ads that specifically target a gay/lesbian audience. B)Their per capita buying power is estimated at $45,300 per year. C)They exhibit high brand loyalty. D)They are typically well educated.   13..
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1. Which would NOT likely be considered as a "triggering" event? A)launching of a new product B)new house purchase C)natural disaster D)announcement of a book by a popular author   2. Which is NOT one of Grunig's five objectives for a communicator? A)accurate message dissemination B)message exposure C)change in overt behavior D)semantic and cognitive competence   3. The most effective two-way communication.
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    11. To public relations practitioners, human resources, advertising, and marketing are often seen as sources of A) inspiration. B)storylines or media hooks. C)income. D)friction.   12. According to your text, public relations and __________ departments often collide because they compete for funds to communication with external audiences. A)marketing B)advertising C)legal D)human resources   13. The practice of "purchasing" expert communication services.
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    11. Greenwashing is considered an unsubstantiated claim to  A) profit sharing with employees. B)environmentally conscious behavior. C)cause-related marketing. D)corporate responsibility.   12. According to PRWeek, being proactive is important for all of the following EXCEPT   A) offer transparency. B)work with groups to achieve solutions, not publicity. C)turn suggestions into action. D)use emotion when dealing with advocacy groups.   13. Outsourcing.
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    1.The media is probably the most effective way for a corporation to get its message across and to achieve business goals.   2.Boycotts against a single product name are most vulnerable to the boycotted organization.   3.Investor relations is the highest paid specialty area in public relations.   4.Employers should delay a bit in informing laid-off.
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1. The most significant aspect of the U.S. mass audience is   A) diversity. B)media accessibility. C)opinion leaders. D)market size.   2. Which is NOT indicative of the Hispanic audience? A)Movies such as "Nacho Libre" are made with them in mind. B)They listen to radio more than other audiences. C)They are more likely to read American press than Hispanic-based.
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    11. Armstrong Williams is associated with which of the following? A)527s B)McCain-Feingold Act C)stealth lobbying D)No Child Left Behind Act   12. The person (in the White House) who handles the everyday task of briefing reporters is the A)media affairs manager. B)director of communications. C)press secretary. D)chief of staff.   13. This 2002 measure provided the most sweeping educational reform since 1965. A)Partnership.
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    11. What figures are necessary to calculate "cost-per-thousand"? A)media impressions and potential readership B)census data and event costs C)media outlets and advertising equivalency D)media impressions and cost of program publicity   12. Day-after recall measures A)audience awareness and comprehension. B)web site copy and graphics. C)purchasing intent by consumers. D)semantic issues and cognitive barriers.   13. The evaluation of the communication activity of.
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    1.Environmental scanning is the first phase of proactive conflict management.   2.Wal-Mart recently experienced conflict with regard to sustainability policies with shrimp farms in Thailand.   3.The basic idea behind issues management is reactive analysis.   4.Image restoration specifically can alleviate problems within reputation management.   5.The more complex a situation, the higher the perception of risk.   6.Perception of.
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    1.According to Kant’s absolutist philosophy, that something is either completely “right” or “wrong.”   2.Society expects public relations practitioners to take on a role differentiation, as an advocate (as journalists would be considered objective).   3.Independence is a core value stipulated by PRSA.   4.Magazines, in particular, are increasingly blurring the line between news features and.
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