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51. What is an important way to help insure that one's experimental sample of participants is adequately representative of the population from which it is drawn? a. pretest all participants b. survey participants about demographic characteristics c. randomly select participants from the population d. use a small sample 52. Although most research is done.
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21. In a scholarly journal article where would you be most likely to find the purpose of the study or the researcher’s hypothesis? a. the first paragraph of the introduction b. toward the end of the introduction c. the methods section d. there is no standard location for this information 22. In addition to PsycINFO,.
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21. The probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis is referred to as a. power. b. potency. c. serendipity. d. sample. 22. Power of a statistical test refers to a. the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis. b. the probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis. c. the probability of not rejecting a true.
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1. In the context of an experiment, a variable is a. any factor that can vary across participants or situations. b. any phenomenon or characteristic that can be measured. c. any phenomenon or characteristic of a participant or situation that has a specific value. d. the unknown quantity that the experiment will determine. 2.                      .
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1. Single-case designs, by definition, do not incorporate control groups. What is the standard for comparison purposes to evaluate the treatment effects? a. there is no comparison standard when using a single-case design b. the researcher “gut” feeling c. observations of a single control participant d. the pre-treatment observations 2. Single-case research is most.
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41. Some fear that the use of deception in psychological experiments leads to distrust of the field of psychology, is an unnecessary invasion of privacy, and is a denial of self-determination. Follow-up studies of research participants have shown a. the above fears are well founded. b. participants do not mind deception and.
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51. Although statistics are calculated to represent parameters, we know that there can be a difference between the calculated statistic and population parameters. This difference is called a. sampling error b. sampling frame c. sampling difference d. parameter difference 52. Dr. Monroe is interested in surveying college students at her university who are first generation.
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21. Dr. Kenji wants to determine whether his new phonics program helps children's reading comprehension. He gives a fifth grade class the program and also studies a second grade class that does not go through the program. He finds that the fifth graders read with better comprehension. Identify the confounding.
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1. Survey research is appropriate for which of the following situations? a. to measure individuals’ attitudes b. to track changes in beliefs over time c. to test theoretical models d. all of the above 2. A cross-sectional study a. is one that tests an entire population. b. involves collecting successive independent samples. c. involves collecting data only.
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1. Often, we do not know at the start of an experiment what extraneous variables could affect our results. The best means of controlling unknown sources of extraneous variables is a. matching. b. counterbalancing. c. randomization. d. analysis of covariance. 2. It is usually impossible to eliminate the effects of extraneous variables. However, it may.
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34) Identify two ethical concerns in this experiment. What should the researcher do to address them? Use the following scenario to answer questions 32 to 46. Many abused stimulant drugs also suppress appetites. A drug company has developed a novel appetite suppressing drug and wants to know if it is also a.
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31. Two colleagues are debating over whether giving extrinsic, arbitrary rewards like candy or giving intrinsic rewards like gaining new skills and passing to new material are better ways of motivating children to study. They agree to the following study, using a 6th grader who, with his parent’s approval, has.
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41. What is the advantage of a double-blind experimental design? a. The effects of extraneous variables are not eliminated but they are spread evenly across groups. b. It makes the demand characteristics the same for participants in all conditions and eliminates the possibility that the experimenter unintentionally signals the expected outcome to.
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21. What is the best technique to use to control for sequencing effects? a. random assignment to groups b. precision control matching c. yoked matching d. counterbalancing 22. How many possible sequences would be needed for complete counterbalancing with three treatment conditions? a. 3 b. 6 c. 9 d. 12 23. In a study designed to examine the effects of.
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41. Postexperimental interviews fulfill many obligations the experimenter has toward his or her participants. Which of the following is NOT among them? a. ethical obligations to inform participants about the experiment b. educating participants about the nature and role of psychological research c. offering the participant  satisfaction with his or her role.
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31. It has been shown that giving participants all information about the experiment before they participate, as opposed to sufficient information to decide about participating, a. makes it necessary to test many more participants than one normally would. b. invalidates most statistical analyses. c. induces participants to ask for a larger reward for.
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24) At the end of the experiment, Dr. Benning is obliged to a) debrief her participants. b) share her data with the prison warden and officials of the state. c) refrain from publishing the data until all participants are released from prison. d) provide nicotine-withdrawal therapy to all participants. 25) How was the independent.
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1. Which of the following may compromise the statistical conclusion validity of an experiment? a. if the researcher does not have a Ph.D. in statistics b. if the experiment has too few participants, thus reducing power c. if the experimental findings are limited to a particular group of participants d. if the.
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31. Convergent validity refers to a. the degree to which the measure does not correlate with measures of different constructs. b. the degree to which the measure does correlate with measures of similar constructs. c. the degree to which the test measures multiple constructs. d. the degree to which the test measures a single.
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21. If the A-B-A design cannot be used because of problems such as the behavior not returning to baseline upon withdrawal of treatment, you can probably use the                           design. a. A-B-A-B b. A-B-A-B-BC-B-BC c. multiple-baseline d. changing-baseline 22. A major advantage of the multiple-baseline design over the A-B-A design is that a..
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61. IRB reviews research with human participants while             reviews research with animal participants. a. IACUC b. ACUC c. UACUC d. DACUC 62. Both the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 and the APA Ethics Code Standard 8.09 deal with animal                   . a. rights b. welfare c. ethics d. consent 63. Which of the following is true about.
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41. A(n)                   is a list of all members of a population. a. parameter b. norming group c. sampling frame d. equal probability selection method 42. A                         is the full set of all individuals of interest and is typically hard to assess fully. a. sample b. population c. sampling error d. statistic 43. Dr. Saucer is.
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21. The nonequivalent comparison group design can yield several possible outcomes. A possible outcome of the non-equivalent comparison group design is that the groups differ on the pretest and both groups improve on the posttest, but to different degrees. This could reflect the fact that the independent variable had an effect.
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11. All institutions (e.g., universities) that receive federal funds for research must have an Institutional Review Board (IRB). The job of this group is to a. allocate funding equitably to all researchers at that institution. b. mediate conflicts between researchers and the participants in their research. c. recruit research participants d. make judgments regarding the.
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21. Which of the following is a disadvantage of the group administered questionnaire? a. low return rate b. cannot be used if individual participants are spread out across locations c. expensive and time consuming d. time consuming 22. The major problem with a phone survey is a. unlisted numbers b. expense c. social desirability bias d. response.
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31. Which of the following extraneous variables can NOT be corrected using random assignment? a. participant but not experimenter effects b. experimenter but not participant effects c. participant and experimenter effects d. none of the above 32. One way to be sure that all “groups” in an experiment are equivalent except for their experience with.
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51. Which of the following is the best way to keep hackers from obtaining personal information on participants when research is conducted over the internet? a. encryption b. informed consent c. active consent d. anonymous participation 52. One of the difficult ethical issues to contend with when doing Internet research is the issue of obtaining.
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41. In using an interrupted time-series design, how does one determine whether the independent variable had an effect? a. by looking for changes in the response pattern from pre- to post-treatment b. by using the chi-square statistic c. by comparing pre-treatment mean performance to post-treatment mean performance d. by comparing the treatment group's.
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11.  The internal validity threat known as “history” is a problem for which of the following designs? a. Nonequivalent comparison group design b. Interrupted time-series design c. Regression-discontinuity design d.  None of the above 12.  The nonequivalent comparison-group design does NOT have which of the following? a.  Manipulation of the independent variable b. Random assignment of.
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1. In which of the following circumstances would a researcher be most likely to choose a quasi- experimental research design? a. when there are more than three important confounding variables to control b. when doing research in an applied or natural setting where control is difficult to impose c. when controlling experimenter and.
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41. Sometimes in single-case research there are cyclical variations in response rates or frequencies. What is a good way to address this problem? a. implement treatment at the peak of the cycle b. use a bicyclic or tricyclic treatment c. extend the length of each phase of the study to include all.
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41. Why is it important for experiments to be externally valid? a. so that we know that the results of our studies have significance beyond the situation in which they were conducted. b. so that we know which variables influence which other variables. c. so that others do not have to duplicate.
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11. Jenna would like to establish the reliability of a new measure of self-esteem but she doesn’t have enough time to administer her test more than once. Which of the following methods of establishing reliability would you suggest to Jenna? a. Equivalent forms b. Internal consistency c. Multidimensional d. Concurrent 12. If we include items.
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31. When evaluating the validity of information on the internet “coverage” refers to a. the length of the webpage b. viewing information without pay fees c. having a .edu, .gov, or .org domain extension d. none of the above 32. When looking at information on the web for your literature review, which of the following.
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31. Which of the following threats to internal validity is most likely to be a problem in the nonequivalent comparison group design? a. history b. maturation c. selection bias d. all of the above are potential problems 32. Imagine a hypothetical study using a nonequivalent comparison group designed to assess the effectiveness of an anti-drug,.
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1. When conducting research with human and non-human participants, the experimenter must obtain approval of the research plan from                       and                           , respectively. a. department chair; IACUC b. IACUC; IRB c. IRB; department chair d. IRB; IACUC 2. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) judges which of the following? a. whether.
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51. A scientific hypothesis is a. a predicted relation that exists among the variables. b. a statement of what the researcher expects to find. c. sometimes derived from theories. d. all of the above. 52. The null hypothesis is a. a tentative solution to the research problem. b. the hypothesis that is actually statistically tested. c. the prediction.
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21. Jacqueline wanted to assess the reliability of ratings made of children’s aggressive behavior so she had two students rate the degree of aggression displayed by each of 50 children while engaged in play.  She then compared the ratings made by these two students and computed the degree of agreement.
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21. Which of the following studies would NOT fall under the “exempt” category of the IRB? a. a study comparing face-to-face and on-line teaching methods on undergraduate teacher training students b. a study investigating the effects of age at entrance to college on college completion using anonymous data provided by the school. c..
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1. For psychologists especially, ethical concerns can be divided into three areas. Which of the following is not one of those? a. the ultimate importance of gaining knowledge b. the relationship of science and society c. the treatment of research participants d. professional issues 2. The influence of congress on which studies are funded is.
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11. Which of the following are types of experimenter attributes that may bias a research study? a. psychosocial attributes b. situational factors c. biosocial attributes d. all of the above 12. Which of the following is NOT an example of psychosocial experimenter attributes? a. hostility toward the participant b. the experimenter’s gender c. the need.
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11. What is the primary benefit of matching? a. it eliminates the influence of virtually all known extraneous variables b. it eliminates experimenter expectancy and participant effects c. it overrides the need for random assignment d. the influence of the variables on which participants are matched is spread evenly across groups 12. When would an.
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31. Which of the following is NOT an advantage that comes from automating one's experimental apparatus? a. increased power of statistical tests b. decreased probability of recording errors c. increased uniformity of stimulus presentation d. facilitation of presentation of the independent variable. 32. Perhaps the greatest technological advance in experimental apparatus has been a..
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11. Group-administered questionnaires a. are commonly used as part of focus groups. b. are of questionable value due to ethical concerns. c. typically have a low response rate. d. are commonly used in workplace setting. 12. Volunteer sampling which may produce non-representative samples is a particular problem with a. face to face interviews. b. mail.
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11. The first "A" in "A-B-A design" represents the      phase while the second "A" represents the phase. a. baseline; withdrawal b. baseline; treatment c. antecedent; aftereffect d. treatment; baseline 12. What important assumption is required of the A-B-A withdrawal design in order to rule out rival hypotheses? a. that single participants will cooperate.
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11. Psychology participant pools provide a                 sample.     a. convenient b. simple random c. stratified d. cluster 12. The most common criticism regarding the use of college student participant pools is that a. students are coerced into participating in research. b. it may compromise internal validity. c. it may compromise external validity. d. it.
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11) What aspect of the study represents a major methodological flaw? a) lack of randomization b) not enough conditions c) poor operational definition of the IV d) lack of counterbalancing for order effects 12) What are the possible confounding variables in this study? a) order effects b) history effects c) reactivity effects d) participant error effects 13) How could.
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