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  1.Of the five broad categories of public relations jobs, this category offers the greatest number and variety of jobs. A) corporations B)nonprofit organizations and trade associations C)governments D)public relations agencies E)independent public relations consultancies 2.When public relations practitioners seek to maintain or improve relations with local environmental interest groups, they are engaged in ________. A)employee relations B)media.
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  6.When David Ogilvy said, “Give your product a first?class ticket through life,” he was developing a A.store brand. B.brand image. C.lowest common denominator. D.unique selling proposition. 7.Barrages, bunching and trailing are examples of A.redundancy. B.testimonials. D.branding. 8.Buzz advertising is A.anti big company. B.peer?initiated.C.word of mouth. D.product placement. 9.What do infomercials and ’zines have in common? A.They are produced by companies to sell.
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  3.Deontological ethics includes the theories of A.divine command, libertarianism, and situational. B.categorical imperative, situational, and divine right of kings. C.egalitarianism, secular command, and categorical imperative. D.libertarianism, divine right of kings, and categorical imperative.     1.The American Society of Newspaper Editors adopted the Canons of Journalism in 1990. 2.The audience brings different ethics expectations to different media messages. 3.Aristotle.
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  1.Different media operations that make different promises to readers or viewers are held to the same ethical standards. 2.The Golden Mean advocates moderation. 3.Media deontologists rely on ethics codes written by organizations they trust. 4.Newspapers have traditionally come down hard on reporters who “borrow” from other sources. 5.Egalitarianism gives everyone an equal hearing and.
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  1.After the 1948 presidential election, George Gallup switched his polling technique to A. B.quota sampling. probability sampling.C. D.public opinion sampling. a target sample size. 2.What is the magic sample size for many surveys to have a 95 percent chance of having less than a 5 percent margin of error? A.1,384 B.2,100 C.384 D.7 percent of the.
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      1.Eavesdropping on the bus is one way to do audience research. 2.For any location, a good sample will interview every 1,758th person. 3.The extrapolation of data by the ratings industry is important to advertisers. 4.The Broadcast Ratings Council accredits ratings companies but cannot audit their reports. 5.The flush factor and zipping describe an audience’s.
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    1.Who used the theory of social Darwinism to justify their practices? A.populists B.industry leaders 2.Puffery is equivalent to A. exaggerated claims. B. fine pastries.C. D.whipping up opposition. muckraking. 3.What do George Creel and Elmer Davis have in common? A.They headed government public relations agencies. B.They used public relations on a giant scale. C.They were both journalists. D.All of the.
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  1.It has been stated that in most corporations, public relations jobs focus upon specific publics. Who are these publics, and why are they important to the success of corporations? 2.What are the major benefits and risks in working as an independent public relations consultant?  The major benefit is, of course, the.
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  6.With product placement, a company pays to have its product written into the script of a television show. 7.Ad clutter may be alleviated by demassification.     1.In a(n) ____________________ contract, an agency earns expenses, a negotiated markup, and something extra if the ad campaign succeeds. 2.CPM is short for cost per __________________. 3.Google pays a.
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___  1. When a company practices enlightened self?interest, the public perceives it as an unfriendly, industrial giant. ___  2. The democratic ideal of public relations creates a dialogue on issues. ___  3. A public relations service is to groom industry executives to go on talk shows. ___  4. Wal?Mart has good media relations.
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  3.Movie versions of books are ___________________ adaptations.   1.When you attend a concert you are attending a A.crossover performance. B.mediated performance. 2.Rhythm and blues emerged from A.black music. B.hillbilly music.C.rock ‘n’ roll. D.folk music. 3.The First Amendment protects A.pornography and obscenity. B.pornography. C.obscenity. D.none of the above. 4.The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that during the times when children are likely to.
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      1.Pre?publication censorship is more practical than post?publication censorship. 2.Sheikh Hammad bin Khalifa put up the money to found Al?Jazeera. 3.The news on Al?Jazeera follows a totalitarian tradition. 4.Dubai is transforming itself into a tourist magnet and a movie and television production hot spot. 5.The Beautiful Virgins is derided by militant imams as sacrilege. 6.Al?Qaeda has.
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  10.What is the advantage of game ads? A.Messages can change instantly. B.Women 18 and older play games. C.              Games take months to develop. D.              all of the above 11.A factor used by advertisers to evaluate the effectiveness of an ad is A.ABC. C.PAC. B.CPM. D.all of the above. 12.An internet ad intended for the.
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___  1. The powerful effects theory and the third?person effect theory have been proven to be true in American society. ___  2. When media change their products, lifestyle changes follow. ___  3. Television eased the breakdown of traditional social institutional barriers. ___  4. Television has replaced much of the socializing influence that used.
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  2.In 1598 King James VII of Scotland argued for A.executions of press people. B.the use of propaganda. C.the divine right of kings. D.all of the above 3.John Milton argued for free expression of ideas, called A.the marketplace of ideas. B.authoritarianism. C.natural rights. D.none of the above. 4.The Chinese government censors Internet use with a A.law.C.proclamation. B.firewall.D. all of the above. 5.The.
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  1. Public relations ________.  A) is a form of propaganda B) is also known as "free advertising"  C) involves two-way communication D)All of the above. E)None of the above.   2.Which of the following is/are essential to any comprehensive definition of public relations?  A) Public relations is a management function. B)Public relations is a planned activity. C)Public.
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  1.The largest number of public relations jobs is found in public relations agencies. 2.On average, the highest-paying jobs in public relations are in corporation relations. 289 3.On average, the lowest-paying jobs in public relations are in government relations. 4.A public relations practitioner can be both a technician and a manager. 5.Practitioners fulfill a boundary-spanning role.
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  1.The linking of the Columbine High School massacre to a movie is called A.stereotyping. C.socialization. B.role modeling. D.cognitive dissonance. 2.Ernest Dichter created ads for cars based on A.Sigmund Freud’s research. B.his own motivational research. C.subconscious appeals. D.all of the above. 3.The 1960 Bobo doll studies done by Albert Bandura seemed to substantiate the A.cathartic effect theory. B.subliminal message theory. C.aggressive stimulation.
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  1.Moving a foreign issue onto the national agenda by covering it on television is called the ____________________ Effect. 2.A ___________________ is a disclosure of confidential or classified information by a person who doesn’t want to be identified as the source.   1.The fourth estate in medieval power structure was the A.noble. C.press. B.clerical. D.common. 2.In the.
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  1.What are the five employment settings in which public relations exists? 2.What are the differences between a public relations manager and a public relations technician?  Public relations managers solve problems, advise other managers, and take responsibility for the success of failure of public relations programs. They are often found in organizations.
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  8.The statement, “For most children, under most conditions, most television is probably neither particularly harmful nor particularly beneficial,” exemplifies the catalytic theory. 9.The Violence Assessment Monitoring Project found that distressing human violence was less prevalent than previous studies had shown.     1.The hypodermic needles model is also called the _________________ model. 2.Elisabeth Noelle?Neumann’s theory.
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    11.The execution phase of the public relations process is known as ________. A)communication B)propaganda C)evaluation D)research E)planning   12.Decision-making based on research is known as a ________ approach. A)theoretical B)heuristic C)experiential D)cognitive E)foolhardy   13.________ is one of the four steps in the public relations process. A)Publicity B)Planning C)Promotion D)Programming E)Propaganda 14.Among the flaws in the traditional four-step model of public relations is/are that it ________. A)implies a process where one.
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      1.The FCC requires radio and television stations to carry a response from the opposition party immediately after political broadcasts. 2.Studies support the argument that the media are politically biased. 3.Helen Thomas has criticized the Washington press corps for being too tough on the president. 4.Providing too much information during the Persian Gulf buildup.
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  4.The Hutchins Commission advocated for __________________ responsibility. 5.Passing off someone else’s creative work as your own is _________________. 6.Experiments in media portrayals of people and issues that used approaches like fiction?writing techniques is called ________________ journalism.   6.The ethical choice made by people who believe all the answers are in the rules is A.canonical. B.utilitarian.C.prescriptive. D.pragmatic. 7.Modern journalistic.
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    21.The use of public relations strategies and tactics to foster and enhance the shared interests and values of an organization and the publics important to its success is known as ________. A)marketing B)relationship management C)advertising D)human relations E)integrated marketing communications 22.Honeywell International’s decision to create a child-abduction prevention program  _____. A) was out of a desire.
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  1.What are the major social trends that have influenced the development of public relations? 2.What is the most important event in the development of public relations in the United States? 3.How did the Committee for Public Information influence the growth of public relations? 4.Why is Edward L. Bernays most often credited as.
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1.A songwriter can sell, lease, or give away his intellectual property. 2.Eugene Debs was jailed for making an antiwar speech during WWI. 3.The Brandenburg decision expanded First Amendment protection of free expression by defining the Incitement Standard. 4.The right of fair comment and criticism does not include a performer’s private life.     1.The theft of.
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1.Advertising has a role in both rich and poor societies. 2.Advertising is one?sided communication. 3.Jeep is a brand name for four?wheel?drive vehicles. 4.Ads that are creative outsell hardsell ads.   1.Wayland Ayer founded the first ad ________________. 2.Kraft Foods’ online game is an example of a(n) _____________________. 3.__________________ is used to distinguish products from the LCD clamor. 4.Viral.
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  11.The First Amendment is important to public relations because it ________. A)guarantees the right to vote B)created the concept of disclosure laws C)limits the amount of federal money that can be used to pay a publicity expert D)included the "Declaration of Principles" E)established the right to free expression 12.Thomas Paine ________. A)was the first licensed public relations.
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  1.What are the five elements that are essential to any definition of public relations?   2.How do heuristic and theoretical problem solving differ?   3.What are the four qualities that distinguish a profession from a trade?   4.What is the reflective paradigm, and how does it differ from other models of public relations? 5.What are the four.
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1.The media’s role in an authoritarian society is subservience to government. 2.Libertarians believe that if people continually reassess their values in the marketplace of ideas, they can then choose the best ones. 3.Iran blocks signals from media sources and hires bloggers to spread the government’s message. 4.Restrictions on Chinese media include censoring political.
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  1.Which of these individuals is generally credited with being "the father of public relations"? A)George Creel B)Edward L. Bernays C)Ivy Ledbetter Lee D)George V.S. Michaelis E)Ron Zeigler 2.Edward Bernays gets more credit for being the "father of public relations" than Ivy Ledbetter Lee because ________. A)Lee worked for the Nazi sympathizers; Bernays did not B)Bernays introduced the concepts.
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1.Harris and Pew focus on researching television audiences. 2.A poll that shows two candidates running 62 to 38 percent with a 5 percent margin of error has a high probability of being inaccurate. 3.Diaries and People Meters are used to track television viewership. 4.Nielsen only measures broadcast audiences.   1.The Audit Bureau of Circulation checks.
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      1.A writer can never assign his intellectual property to someone else. 2.In both the Schenck and Pentagon Papers cases, the Supreme Court ruled that national security was more important than the people’s right to know. 3.The Fighting Words Doctrine says that preventing a riot is justification for halting someone’s freedom of speech. 4.Judge.
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1.The First Amendment led to the press being called the third branch of government. 2.The FCC no longer requires that stations adhere to the fairness doctrine. 3.Congress passed a law that regulates Internet indecency. 4.The ability of the press to tell people what to think is called agenda?setting. 5.Watergate coverage is an example of.
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      ___  1. Entertainment includes literature, sports, sex and music. ___  2. Media does not transform a performance. ___  3. Poetry and fascist are both genres of literature. ___  4. Politicians often use music to inspire voters. ___  5. Movies based on games don’t make much money. ___  6. It’s been proven that games like Grand.
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  11.According to Professor David Dozier, persons who make policy decision and take responsibility for the success or failure of public relations programs are known as public relations ________.  A) professionals B)technicians C)specialists D)managers E)practitioners 12.According to Professor David Dozier, persons whose primary role is to prepare communications that help execute public relations policies created by.
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1.An on?site audience is needed for an authentic performance. 2.Elvis Presley put a white face on the previously all?black rock ‘n’ roll. 3.Elitists favor low?brow art. 4.Susan Sontag posited that popular entertainment and art could raise serious issues.     1.Literature is adapted to new media with movies, radio and _________________. 2.Storytelling, sports and music are entertainment.
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  6.What step in the diffusion of innovations involves the mass media? A.interest C.evaluation B.awareness D.all of the above   7.The theory that media?depicted violence contributes to, but doesn’t trigger, real?life violence is the A.catalytic theory. B.Bobo doll theory. C.aggressive stimulation theory. D.motivational message theory.   1.Explain how media violence can be seen as positive or negative. Showing violence in the media.
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      1.Institutions may interact with many different publics. 2.Ivy Lee proved to the railroads that secrecy about policies and business practices was best. 3.Giving decision?making responsibility to the public relations job at a company is wise. 4.Public relations companies that conduct their own polls are considered disreputable. 5.The Tylenol crisis is a bad example of.
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  1.What are the arguments for and against the licensing of public relations practitioners?   2.Why does public relations play an important role in democratic societies?   3.What benefits, if any, does Honeywell receive from the Got 2B Safe! program?   4.Is there any merit to AIG’s claim that some of the apparently lavish activities in which.
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  11.Section 215 of the Patriot Act enables federal agents to go to bookstores or libraries and find out what people have been reading. 12.A presidential candidate who sues a columnist for libel will probably win his case.   1.A person’s creative work is considered his ____________________ property. 2.In the Near v. Minnesota case, the.
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