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1. The most significant aspect of the U.S. mass audience is   A) diversity. B)media accessibility. C)opinion leaders. D)market size.   2. Which is NOT indicative of the Hispanic audience? A)Movies such as "Nacho Libre" are made with them in mind. B)They listen to radio more than other audiences. C)They are more likely to read American press than Hispanic-based.
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1. Once self-interest is involved, opinion is   A) adaptable. B)not easily changed. C)based on current events/issues. D)usually made public.   2. Which best describes an opinion leader? A)good listeners and team players B)measured and calculated in adopting new ideas C)skeptical of the mass media D)highly interested in subject matter   3. An elected official is an example of a(n)   A) agenda.
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  15.Elements in dance that tell a story are which of the following? a.Narrative b.Abstract c.Ethnic d.Mimetic 16.Which of the following means dance works that are designed to be diversions? a.Mimetic b.Abstract c.Divertissements d.Ethnic 17.Color in the mise-en-scène for dance can be stronger than that used in theatre. a.True b.False 18.In many respects, dance can rely on a set of universally recognized and symbolic.
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    11. To public relations practitioners, human resources, advertising, and marketing are often seen as sources of A) inspiration. B)storylines or media hooks. C)income. D)friction.   12. According to your text, public relations and __________ departments often collide because they compete for funds to communication with external audiences. A)marketing B)advertising C)legal D)human resources   13. The practice of "purchasing" expert communication services.
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1. In general, public relations spend about what percentage of their budget on research? A)3–5 percent B)5–10 percent C)12–15 percent D)20–25 percent   2. The use of existing information in books, articles, and electronic databases is known as   A) secondary research. B)primary research. C)summative research. D)qualitative research.   3. Which of the following is NOT an example of qualitative research? A)a Likert-type.
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    1.Environmental scanning is the first phase of proactive conflict management.   2.Wal-Mart recently experienced conflict with regard to sustainability policies with shrimp farms in Thailand.   3.The basic idea behind issues management is reactive analysis.   4.Image restoration specifically can alleviate problems within reputation management.   5.The more complex a situation, the higher the perception of risk.   6.Perception of.
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    11. What figures are necessary to calculate "cost-per-thousand"? A)media impressions and potential readership B)census data and event costs C)media outlets and advertising equivalency D)media impressions and cost of program publicity   12. Day-after recall measures A)audience awareness and comprehension. B)web site copy and graphics. C)purchasing intent by consumers. D)semantic issues and cognitive barriers.   13. The evaluation of the communication activity of.
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    1.A traditional media kit folder is 9 by12 inches with inside pockets.   2.The news release should usually begin in an anecdotal form, and work its way to an eventual climax later in the story.   3.Words such as "revolutionary" and "total solution" are embraced by gatekeepers because it presumes an exciting element to.
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1. The business leader reported to have created the first corporate public relations department is A)Henry Ford. B)John Rockefeller Sr. C)Amos Kendall. D)George Westinghouse.   2. Grunig's IABC Foundation research study on "Excellence" notes all of the following about public relations EXCEPT A)it helps the organization make money by cultivating relationships. B)it repairs problems and regains lost revenue.
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    11. This is a term associated with a personal online journal. A)podcast B)blog C)wiki D)Webcast     1.The use of technology is the leading trend in public relations.   2.Media outlets are a primary audience for someone promoting research software such as SPSS.   3.Over time, interactivity and video clips will distinguish brochureware from its print predecessor.   4.A satellite media tour involves.
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5.Dance appears to have sprung from what human need? a.Religious b.Psychological c.Aesthetic d.None of the above 6.Which of the following is a body of group dances performed to traditional music? a.Modern dance b.Ballet c.Folk dance d.Line dance 7.Which of the following is the most obvious repository of formalized movement in dance? a.Modern dance b.Folk dance c.Line dance d.Ballet 8.Dance is a part of human communication.
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  1.Public relations has a generally lukewarm return on investment (ROI) of about 120 percent, but the rate is considered acceptable because PR is not considered a "bottom line" function.   2.The "dominant coalition" refers to a situation where public relations practitioners are subservient to marketing and related functions.   3.Public relations by most.
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  25.Which of the following means the technique of fading out one scene and fading in the next? a.Wipe b.Lap dissolve c.Iris-out d.Iris-in 26.Which of the following is the technique of keeping images in the background and foreground in equal focus? a.Depth of focus b.Rack focus c.Differential focus d.Omnifocus 27.Which of the following is a shot taken with the camera moving.
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    1.Edward Bernays coined the word "spin" in public relations.   2.Public information is the most widely used term by social service agencies to describe public relations.   3.Planning is the bridge between research and communication in public relations.   4.A flack is an endearing term for a public relations practitioner that describes a hardworking, entrepreneurial.
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6.In theatre, types of plays such as tragedies and comedies are called which of the following? a.Conventions b.Genres c.Dynamics d.None of the above 7.The characteristics of tragedy have not changed from the 5th century B.C.E to modern times. a.True b.False 8.In his Poetics, Aristotle described in great detail the characteristics of which of the following? a.Melodrama b.Comedy c.Farce d.Tragedy 9.What is the most.
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  1.Systematic planning cannot prevent haphazard, ineffective communication.   2.Planning should be the first step in any public relations process.   3.In a reinforcement type of situation, program plans are initiated to preserve and develop customer or public support.   4.Objectives aren't the end result of a campaign, but the means to achieve a result.   5.Informational objectives are.
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  11. Critics often complain that public relations codes of ethics  A) do not apply to PRSSA members. B)are too stringent and prescriptive. C)have no "teeth". D)don't include marketing or advertising practices.   12. Which one of the following is NOT a hallmark of public relations professional? A)a sense of independence B)a concern for integrity of the profession C)a.
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    1.Public relations practitioners are faced with a monolithic audience.   2.At $900 billion, the discretionary income of Hispanics is the highest among minority groups.   3.Traditional and online media need only to provide news releases and features translated into Spanish in order to reach Hispanic/Latino audiences.   4.The Seniors (age 65 or older) are infrequent watchers.
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    1.According to Kant’s absolutist philosophy, that something is either completely “right” or “wrong.”   2.Society expects public relations practitioners to take on a role differentiation, as an advocate (as journalists would be considered objective).   3.Independence is a core value stipulated by PRSA.   4.Magazines, in particular, are increasingly blurring the line between news features and.
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1. Essentially a publicity release touting the Pharaoh's accomplishments, this provided the key to modern understanding about ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. A)Stories of the Acropolis B)the Crusades C)stone tablets D)the Rosetta Stone   2. The word "propaganda" dates back to   A) the Crusades. B)the Republic of Venice. C)the American Revolution. D)Pope Gregory XV in the seventeenth century.   3. Which is NOT.
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    11. Unauthorized use of well-known entertainers, athletes, or other public figures in an organization's publicity and advertising materials is known as   A) copyright infringement. B)fair use. C)celebrity poaching. D)misappropriation of personality.   12. Which is a concept inherent with "green" marketing? A)bottom-line objectives B)philanthropy C)"low-carb" promotion D)lowering gas prices   13. The Federal Trade Commission oversees  A) international trade agreements. B)truth in advertising. C)stockholder.
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  1.In basic terms, research is a form of speaking to audiences.   2.Most organizational crises come from unexpected natural or uncontrollable disasters.   3.Qualitative data is often called "soft" data.   4.Secondary research refers to data or information that originally comes from another source.   5.Copy testing, at its most basic level, refers to the assembling of news.
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1. Motivational objectives are more difficult to accomplish because   A) they lack the clarity of informational objectives. B)of the trouble discerning that public relations accounted for the desired results rather than advertising and marketing. C)there is high competition for available dollars. D)of difficulty in counting attendance figures.   2. In a 2010 study, experts optimistically.
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- 1. In economic terms, the public relations field is most extensively developed in A) Europe. B)United States. C)South Africa. D)China.   2. Which of the following terms is NOT generally associated within the accepted definitions of public relations? A)profitability B)mutual lines of communication/feedback C)publics D)management function   3. Which of the following is the first element of the public relations.
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  16.What is the term for a play structured in a way such that it rises to a peak and falls to a conclusion? a.Foreshadowed b.Pyramidal c.Episodic d.Causal 17.The dynamics of a play rise in a straight line to the conclusion. a.True b.False 18.The central personage of a play is called the protagonist. a.True b.False 19.The single basic motivation for an actor’s.
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1. The Internet exploded as a communicative force in the   A) 1970s. B)1960s. C)1980s. D)1990s.   2. Which is NOT a correct statement with regard to the creation of the Internet?   A) Researchers could immediately link computers in separate cities. B)It began in the 1960s. C)It worked originally as an academic-government tool. D)It partnered with Microsoft and America.
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    1.The evaluation stage best matches up with the planning stage in terms of measuring objectives of the campaign.   2.Message comprehension is NOT an advanced form of measurement (according to the "Ketchum Yardstick").   3.The most widely practiced form of evaluating public relations programs is the compilation of print and broadcast mentions.   4.In systematic tracking,.
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  26.Which of the following terms means mental and physical involvement in situations not directly participated in? a.Sympathy b.Sensibility c.Empathy d.Aesthetic distance 27.The plot of a play is like its skeleton. a.True b.False 28.This device helps to prepare the audience for action and events that are to follow in a play. a.Discovery b.Foreshadowing c.Exposition d.Crisis 29.What is the essence of dramatic communication? a.Discovery b.Foreshadowing c.Diction d.Character 30.Which of the.
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    11. What is NOT a problem with regard to e-mailed news releases? A)attachments B)anti-spam software C)credibility associated with online technologies D)excessive copy or text   12. PR Newswire and Business Wire are  A) electronic news services. B)broadcast outlets. C)media databases. D)media watchdogs.   13. The key to a successful news release when sent by e-mail:  A) using Word attachments. B)including more details.
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  15.Which of the following is the term meaning the joining together of shots during the editing process? a.Montage b.Cutting c.Persistence of vision d.Camera viewpoint 16.Which of the following is the technique and effect resulting from the use of natural or outdoor lighting and a hand-held camera? a.Chiaroscuro b.Cinema verité c.Cinema concrete d.Journalism 17.Which of the following is a technique that.
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    1.Edward Bernays was known as the first influential person to coin or utilize the term "public relations counsel."   2.In 1900, Henry Ford obtained coverage of the Model T automobile by demonstrating it to a reporter from the Detroit Tribune newspaper.   3.Samuel Insull started the "bill stuffer" concept of communication.   4.Relationship management builds specifically on.
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1. Which would NOT likely be considered as a "triggering" event? A)launching of a new product B)new house purchase C)natural disaster D)announcement of a book by a popular author   2. Which is NOT one of Grunig's five objectives for a communicator? A)accurate message dissemination B)message exposure C)change in overt behavior D)semantic and cognitive competence   3. The most effective two-way communication.
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    11. The most precise random sampling is usually done from   A) lists that give the name of everyone in the targeted audience. B)federal government agencies. C)specialized public relations firms. D)impetus from exploratory focus groups.   12. Content analysis essentially revolves around  A) database management. B)copy testing. C)piggybacking. D)counting and categorizing.   13. Biased wording on questionnaires is often a by-product.
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    11. The most difficult persuasive task is to   A) change or neutralize hostile opinions. B)conserve favorable opinions. C)crystallize latent opinions. D)maintain goodwill among supporters.   12. The most effective medium for delivering messages that require absorption of details and contemplation by the receiver is   A) television. B)radio. C)online. D)print.   13. The attempt to classify people by lifestyle, attitudes, and.
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    11. The notion of conflict management depends on many factors (requiring adaptation or change) when assessing a threat is known as  A) mainstreaming.  B) self-perception. C)contingency theory. D)situational theory.   12. Oftentimes, apologizing after a crisis isn't effective because of the  A) unforgiving nature of the audience. B)damage already incurred. C)media firestorm that ensues. D)hypocrisy factor.   13. Muscular.
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    1.The mass media are most influential in forming a person's opinion when the information provided has high emotional appeal.   2.Usually, only a small number of people at any given time take part in public opinion formation on a specific issue.   3.An opinion leader will deliberate and undergo significant research before adopting a.
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1. Providing advice or tacitly supporting an illegal activity of a client or an employer is known as A)sabotage. B)defamation. C)misappropriation of personality. D)conspiracy.   2. Which person/entity (in general) would have the most protection from, or likelihood of winning, a defamation suit?   A) private citizen B)CEO/corporate leader C)prominent politician D)entertainment personality   3. Photo releases, employee communication, and media.
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    11. A budget usually is divided into two categories, which are   A) staff time and out-of-pocket expenses. B)staff time and legislative windfalls. C)internal and external. D)debits and expenses.   12. A strategy statement refers to   A) measuring of objectives. B)how objectives are met/achieved. C)a situation analysis. D)tactical response.   13. Objectives are usually stated in terms of  A) tactics. B)strategies. C)inputs. D)program outcomes.   14..
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1. According to Professor Martha Lauzen, effective issues management requires each of the following EXCEPT  A) damage control. B)active sense-making strategies. C)environmental scanning. D)two-way communications.   2. Perception of risk increases when the messages of experts  A) are published. B)concur. C)differ from those of competitors. D)conflict.   3. Which is NOT a broad step in the strategic phase of.
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1. Which value is considered of "least" importance to public relations practitioners, according to Grunig and Hunt?   A) salary level. B)job security. C)prestige in the organization. D)the public interest.   2. Most professional membership groups believe that the primary purpose of establishing codes of ethics is   A) enforcement. B)education and information. C)as a "warning signal."   D) boosting.
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5.Which of the following is the basic picture unit of a film? a.Reel b.Shot c.Frame d.Cut 6.Which type of film attempts to record actuality using primarily a sociological or journalistic approach? a.Absolute film b.Narrative film c.Documentary film d.Silent film 7.In many ways, this type of film uses the techniques of theatre. a.Narrative film b.Documentary film c.Absolute film d.None of the above 8.The motion picture was.
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1. The best approach to planning in public relations is  A) monitoring and mirroring the competition. B)strategic and systematic. C)cost-effective and participatory. D)symmetrical and feedback-based.   2. Reinforcement refers to the notion of A)ongoing effort to preserve reputation. B)reminding media of organizational prowess/honors. C)fulfilling needs of company executives, expectations and ideals. D)attacking problems adversely affecting the organization.   3. The first.
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    11. The condition wherein there is decreased tendency over time to reject material presented by an untrustworthy source is known as   A) message entropy. B)cognitive dissonance. C)spiral of silence. D)sleeper effect.   12. An inoffensive word or phrase that is less direct or distasteful than the one that represents reality is a(n)   A) acronym. B)euphemism. C)hype word. D)cliche.   13. The.
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    11. A publicist would most likely be considered an "honorable" term in  A) corporate America. B)nonprofit organizations. C)agency business. D)entertainment/celebrity business.   12. According to a 2009 report, the median annual salary for recent graduates in public relations was  A) $22,000. B)$25,000. C)$31,000. D)$35,000.   13. The RACE acronym was articulated by   A) Edward Bernays. B)Walter Lindenmann. C)Ivy Lee. D)John Marston.   14. The notion.
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1. The most widely used document issued by practitioners to news media is the   A) pitch letter. B)media advisory. C)news release. D)fact sheet.   2. This type of "memo", often bulleted, alerts media about upcoming interview opportunities among other uses. A)boilerplate B)pitch letter C)video news release D)media advisory   3. Which is NOT a traditional news value? A)reader interest B)timeliness  C) networking. D).
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    1.The goals of communication are to persuade passive publics, with "mutual understanding" being a lesser emphasis for the practitioner.   2.Attitude change and change in overt behavior are difficult objectives for the communicator because of outside factors/variables.   3.Wilbur Schramm's communication model was later adapted to include the concept of "shared experience."   4.The "media uses and.
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    11. This audience makes more than 80 percent of the household purchase decisions. A)Generation X B)men C)middle-class D)women   12. Which is NOT typical of the GLBT community? A)They are offended by ads that specifically target a gay/lesbian audience. B)Their per capita buying power is estimated at $45,300 per year. C)They exhibit high brand loyalty. D)They are typically well educated.   13..
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  1.PR personnel must be aware that they can be held legally liable if they provide advice or tacitly support an illegal activity of a client or employer. This area of liability is called "fair comment."   2.An organization is (legally) limited in publicizing the activities of its employees.   3.Government documents are in the public.
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