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  11-1  In preparing to advocate your policy proposition, you have discovered that there is almost universal agreement that a reason for policy change exists. The controversy is over what the best course of action should be. You will structure your case as a “comparative advantages” development of arguments. What should.
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  1)The San Andreas Fault emerges full blown beneath Bombay Beach, a fault?laced town of trailers and retirees. A)full blown B) fault laced C) no change 2)Some sections of this fault, such as the sixty?mile segment that runs bet? ween Palm Springs and the San Bernardino mountains, seem primed for a quake. A)60 mile B).
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4-1Analyzing the immediate cause of interest in a topic can be accomplished by examining the mass media. 4-2Analyzing the immediate cause of interest in a topic can be accomplished by examining social media, blogs, and electronic discussion sites. 4-3In a factual proposition, the immediate cause of a controversy is usually some event.
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  5-11"The State Employment Security Commission has said that the local unemployment rate is 11.5%" functions as   (a) grounds.  (b) warrant. (c)backing. (d)claim. 5-12"The U.S. Department of Labor announced an 8.5% national rate of unemployment" functions as   (a) grounds.  (b) warrant. (c)backing. (d)claim. 5-13"This is an unsatisfactory place to live" functions as   (a) grounds.  (b) warrant. (c)backing. (d)claim. Read the.
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1) Charleston, South Carolina, is unique among american cities for its rich history, its plethora of churches, and its beautiful homes. A)south carolina B)American C)plethora D)no change 2) The site of the city is the peninsula formed by the cooper and ashley rivers, which flow together into the Atlantic. A)Peninsula B)Cooper and Ashley C)atlantic D)no change 3) At the beginning.
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  1-11  A series of formal rules for distinguishing sound arguments from unsound ones is found in (a)rhetorical theory. (b)the dialectical perspective. (c)the logical perspective. (d)persuasion. 1-12  The arguer concerned with assuring the welfare of the greatest number of people rather than being bound by an absolute standard of right and wrong is practicing   (a) deontological.
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  9-11The opponent in factual argumentation may not dispute the topicality of the advocate's primary inference. 9-12The clarity of the opponent’s position is enhanced if it begins with a statement of his philosophy of opposition which previews his strategy and tells the audience in general terms how he will respond to the.
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  1-1  Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of argumentation? (a)It is a form of expressive communication. (b)It is a form of instrumental communication. (c)It relies on reasoning and proof to influence belief or behavior. (d)It uses written and spoken media. 1-2  The goal of argumentation is to   (a) study rhetorical theory. (b)sell goods and.
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  6-11Statistical evidence need not meet the test of having come from a reliable source.  6-12Artifacts are an exhibit of objects, photographs, diagrams, or recordings. 6-13Premises are factual claims that are so widely accepted they have the status of "fact". 6-14Laboratory experiments differ from field experiments in that they afford the experimenter less.
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  5-11Claims may be stated as compound sentences in order to make argumentation more economical 5-12"The United States should not sell grain to China," is a factual claim. 5-13The grounds are that portion of the argument which requires further proof before the listener is willing to accept it as verified. 5-14The information used to.
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  8-1  In this category of fallacy in argumentation, the problem is often the result of a flaw in the warrant that justifies the mental leap between grounds and claim. Errors of this kind fall into the category of fallacies (a) in reasoning. (b)of appeal. (c)in language use. (d)of evaluation. 8-2  Arguments that offer conclusion.
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  7-11  Which of the following is NOT a test of argument from generalization? (a)Have a sufficient number of cases or instances been cited? (b)Are the instances cited representative of all members of the group? (c)Are the cases similar in important, non-trivial factors? (d)Are the cases or instances taken from a random sample of the.
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  7-11A generalization is a form of deductive reasoning. 7-12When you make a generalization, you look at the details of examples, specific cases, and occurrences and infer that what is true of them is true of the entire class they represent. 7-13Generalizations reason that, on the basis of two or more similar events.
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  8-11  One type of fallacy is to claim “that because we cannot prove something has not happened or does not exist, it therefore must have happened or must exist.” We call this (a) a fallacy in reasoning. (b)a fallacy of appeal. (c)a fallacy in language use. (d)a fallacy of evaluation. 8-12  When a claim.
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  9-11  In opposing the proposition "equipping cars with anti-lock brakes does not reduce accidents," an argument stating "teaching drivers to use anti-lock brakes properly, by applying them forcefully won't prevent them from overdriving the conditions" would be   (a) an effect argument. (b)an inherency argument. (c)a significance argument. (d)a pre-emptive argument. 9-12  The opponents first.
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  9-1  What can factual argumentation be used to accomplish? (a)Interpret existing knowledge. (b)Advance value and policy arguments. (c)Inquire as to what is rational to believe about a topic. (d)All of the above 9-2  In factual argumentation, we can seek knowledge by treating the proposition as a hypothesis to be tested. Which of the following steps.
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  3-1The use of a proposition identifies the alteration of belief or behavior the advocate desires, the burden of proof, and presumption. This is the __________ objective of propositions. (a)definition of terms (b)direction of change (c)issue identification (d)extent of response 3-2These are the central questions suggested by the wording of a proposition and how the advocate.
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  8-11When you offer arguments applying the tests of proof, source credibility, and sound reasoning to demonstrate the deficiencies in another person’s arguments, you are committing the fallacy of employing ad hominem arguments. 8-12When an arguer abandons his original position on an issue and adopts a new one, a shift of ground.
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  1) The process of acting upon information is the definition of ________. A) intrapersonal communication B) communication C) interpersonal communication D) human communication 2) In the textbook, the primary distinction between the definition of communication and human communication involves ________. A) acting upon informationB) managing relationships C) interacting simultaneouslyD) making sense out of the world 3).
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  10-11  In value argumentation, the use of multiple value criteria by the advocate automatically means that while each is a necessary condition for judging the value object in a particular way, none of them is sufficient by itself to warrant such a judgment. 10-12  In value argumentation, arguments about effect.
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11-1Outside of academic debate competitions, the only place we find argumentation taking place is in state and federal legislative bodies. 11-2In the traditional pattern of organization, the advocate argues the three stock issues for policy argumentation in the order in which they are numbered in the text.  11-3In policy argumentation,.
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  7-1  In reasoning from __________, phenomena are connected along a time line, the one which occurs first acts as the generative agent which brings the second into being.  (a) definition (b)dilemma (c)cause (d)sign 7-2  What type of reasoning is used in the following argument? There is every reason to believe that the concussion crisis in.
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3-1The proposition is a statement, the acceptance of which would result in an alteration of belief or behavior. 3-2The advocate has the first opportunity to define the terms of a proposition. 3-3The wording of a proposition points to the kind of change the advocate must support. 3-4In a factual proposition, the argumentative ground.
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6-1Evidence is information taken from fact or opinion material used to establish the probable truth of a claim. 6-2The value of the five-volume set of the Library of Congress Subject Headings is that they contain the precise terms to look under when searching for books and indexes to most periodicals. 6-3The difference.
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  2-1  Argumentation can be characterized as being  (a)  a social activity. (b)  an intellectual activity. (c)  a verbal activity. (d)  All of the above 2-2  Argumentation can be characterized as involving (a)  opinion stating. (b)  opinion justifying. (c)  opinion refuting. (d)  All of the above 2-3  Argumentation can be characterized as being (a)  directed toward an.
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  11-11A counterproposal must be non-topical and preclude the adoption of the advocate's proposal as well. 11-12A comparative advantage case is a strategy used by the opponent to offer a counterproposal or minor repair to the advocate's reason for change arguments.  11-13One option for case development for advocating a policy proposition is.
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  2-11  When we use argumentation to test a hypothesis, presumption is (a)artificial. (b)natural. (c)not employed. (d)assigned to the advocate. 2-12  The benefit of presumption is granted to   (a) the advocate. (b)the opponent. (c)the proposition for argumentation. (d)the focus of the locus. 2-13  Which of the following is NOT a description of presumption? (a)It identifies the shortcomings in existing beliefs and.
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  1-11The rules of engagement for argumentation specify what delivery techniques the arguer is expected to use. 1-12A key factor in being successful as an arguer is discovering what an audience expects and how knowledgeable they are on a topic. 1-13Argumentation was first developed as a formal study by the ancient Greeks. 1-14The three.
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7-1The reasoning process in argumentation is most commonly found in the warrant step in the Toulmin model. 7-2When we reason, we make inferences about the relationship between the grounds and the claim these grounds support. 7-3Argument from cause suggests a temporal connection between events in which one comes before the other. 7-4"Since the.
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  10-11  As an advocate, you may attempt to resolve a value conflict by creating a decision rule. Which of the following would NOT be one of these decision rules? (a)Prove that your value maximizes another agreed upon value. (b)Prove that your value has the more desirable consequences. (c)Prove that your value overcomes an.
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  6-11  Scientific evidence must meet the test of (a) source reliability. (b)statistical accuracy in data collection. (c)comparing things that are really comparable. (d)All of the above 6-12  What test of evidence must scientific evidence must meet? (a)The generalizability of settings. (b)The generalizability of subjects. (c)The consistency with other findings. (d)All of the above 6-13  An audience will accept the.
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  5-1"A nuclear waste dump would benefit the local economy," is a   (a) factual claim. (b)definitional claim. (c)value claim. (d)policy claim. 5-2What can a factual claim make and assertion about? (a) That which has existed in the past.  (b) That which exists at present. (c)That which will exist in the future. (d)All of the above 5-3"Unemployment is harmful" is  .
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  6-1  Why is the library potentially a better source of information than the Internet? (a)Because it is better organized. (b)Because it probably contains more accurate information. (c)Because it has historical as well as current information.  (d) All of the above 6-2  Tracings, which appear toward the bottom of a card in the library’s physical.
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  2-11To determine who has the burden of proof, you first have to determine who occupies the contested ground. 2-12The burden of proof always falls upon the arguer who has the benefit of presumption. 2-13Presumption describes what exists; it does not pass judgment on what exists. 2-14The burden of proof always falls upon the.
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    11) The model of communication referred to as ?communication as action? may be summarized with the phrase ________. A) communication takes place when messages are sent and received B) communication takes place when messages are exchanged C) communication takes place when meanings are created and maintained D) communication takes place when human beings.
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    21) The aspect of communication that focuses on HOW something is communicated, and refers to emotions, attitudes, and power, is describing the ________. A) content of the message B) context of the message C) interaction dimension D) relationship dimension 22) All communication involves rules that define appropriate behavior. What factors influence these rules? A).
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8-1Fallacies only occur when arguers intentionally attempt to deceive their listeners or readers. 8-2Hasty generalizations occur when there are insufficient cases presented to warrant the claim. 8-3A hasty generalization will occur if your reasoning is based upon an atypical example. 8-4When you assert that what is true of the whole will be true.
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  11-11  Which claim in the example suggests significance? (a)I (b)II (c)III (d)IV 11-12  Which claim in the example suggests effect? (a)I (b)II (c)III (d)IV Assume that the advocate’s proposal for a policy in response to the problem of the high costs of college text books offers the following proposal for a textbook rental system. I.Students will be charged a rental fee.
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  4-11An inference is an earlier attempt to institute a policy such as the one you are proposing. 4-12The reason to define key terms in a proposition is to clarify what we mean and how we want the audience to understand the proposition. 4-13The purpose of value argumentation is to decide how to.
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1-1Arguments exist all around us in everyday communication. 1-2Argumentation is a form of instrumental communication. 1-3Argumentation relies on reasoning and proof to influence behavior. 1-4The Elaboration Likelihood Model suggests we process all persuasive messages that we receive in the same way. 1-5Argumentation and persuasion are two unrelated forms of communication. 1-6Argumentation follows the peripheral route.
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10-1  Value argumentation is almost exclusively concerned with making aesthetic judgments about artistic works using sets of critical standards from fields such a theatre, music, painting, and dance. 10-2  Values predispose us to think of something or someone in positive or negative terms. 10-3  How we value something or someone is fixed,.
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9-1Factual argumentation is used in a number of fields to pursue new knowledge and interpret existing knowledge. 9-2Although argumentation as inquiry, or knowledge seeking, can be used in value and policy argumentation, it is most commonly used in arguments about facts. 9-3As you investigate the historical background of a factual proposition,.
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2-1The basic mental structure of the reasoning process is one of the elements in argumentation that is field invariant. 2-2If something in argumentation is field dependent, this means it’s a concept such as the nature of cause-effect reasoning that does not change from one field to another. 2-3If something in argumentation.
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  4-11  You should always define __________, such as “desirable,” “beneficial,” or “disadvantageous” in value argumentation, because these terms are the source of criteria you will use in making the value judgment. (a)value-laden terms (b)value-generating terms (c)value-neutral terms (d)value-development terms 4-12  When a proposition of value is phrased in comparative terms, the opponent (a)  is obligated.
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  3-11What must the advocate do in defining the value judgment term? (a)Define the thing that is being evaluated. (b)Define the figurative ground over which evaluation is being made. (c)Clarify whether this is a singular or a comparative value judgment. (d)Provide a source of criteria to use in evaluating the value object. 3-12"The Federal Government should.
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  3-11However you choose to define a term, the definition should include all items which properly fall under the term being defined, and exclude all items which do not.  3-12Definitions should be phrased so that their meaning is adapted to the needs of the audience. 3-13Definitions should be descriptive of your feelings.
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1) The Endangered Species Act was signed by Pres. Nixon in 1973. A)President B)nineteen seventy?three C)no change 2) In that year, there were 109 names on the list of endangered species. A) yr. B)one hundred and nine C)no change 3) Now the total is over 900.  A) tot. B) nine hundred C) no change 4) 3,700 of the nation?s 150,000.
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5-1Claims begin the process of argument by identifying the stand being taken. 5-2Claims end the process of argument by stating what the listener or reader is expected to accept as true or probable. 5-3A claim may offer a conclusion about a fact, definition, value, or policy.  5-4"It is morally wrong to sell.
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  4-1  Ultimately, the arguer's goal in analyzing the proposition is to   (a) determine how many arguments can be advanced. (b)raise questions about the field in which arguments exist. (c)suggest strategies for advocating or opposing the proposition. (d)determine the actual issues to be argued. 4-2  In analyzing a proposition, you should always begin by  (a) .
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