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  39. What is “Fortress Europe”? A.late twentieth-century restrictions on emigration from Europe B.Europe’s military-industrial complex C.the derogatory nickname for Europe’s post-1990 restrictions on immigration D.the post-Cold War combination of NATO and the Warsaw Pact 40. Worldwide, at any given time: A.approximately 80% of refugees are women and children B.there are between 5 and 10 million refugees C.most refugees.
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  21) Guglielmo Marconi is well known for transmitting the first A) photographic image. B) wireless message. C)television signal. D) text message.   22) Hertzian waves, named for Heinrich Hertz who proved their existence in 1877 are now more commonly called A) dopler waves. B)electronic waves. C)radio waves. D)television waves.   23) Idaho farm boy Philo Farnsworth developed the first practical A) talking pictures. B)television.
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    Please match the terms with their definitions. 1) Marketplace of IdeasA) Seeking narrower audiences 2) Media literacyB) Knowledge about mass media 3) Cultural identityC) Sending of messages to many people 4) Mass communicationD) Free expression of competing ideas 5) DemassificationE) Shared experiences   Match each term in the left column with the most appropriate explanation in.
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  21)Media literacy is only concerned with how messages are received and perceived; media production is concerned with how they are prepared and sent.   22)Realizing that a letter personally addressed to you with several references to your hometown and school is part of a mass mailing and not a personal message demonstrates.
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  11)Most of the 12,000 magazines in the United States are published by organizations that produce and distribute them to select audiences.   12)The Christian Science Monitor is an example of a publication that is not sponsored by an institution.   13)One of the alternative financial models for media companies that was carefully examined before.
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  Match the theory/school of thought with its defining principles A) Political economy B) Commodification of culture C) Frankfurt School D) Birmingham School (British cultural studies) E) Symbolic interactionism/social construction of reality F) Postmodernism ____ Mass culture created by powerful elite individuals and organizations is imposed on the mass of society as a means of exerting social control. ____.
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    41)For the first time in media history, a new technology and medium – the Internet – may actually be threatening previously developed media.   42)The size of your computer’s internal hard drive  is less important than it used to be due to the growth of cloud computing.   43)Harold Lasswell devised the narrative communication.
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1) Billionaire computer programming whiz Mark Zuckerberg created all of the following EXCEPT A) AOL. B)Facebook. C)Facemash. D)ZuckNet.   2) Since it became established nationwide, Facebook sustains itself financially by A) advertising revenues. B)cash from venture capitalists. C)investments in its IPO. D)sales of Facebook-trademarked merchandise.   3) An economic system in which private owners operate businesses  for profit is called A) socialism. B)capitalism. C)fascism. D)new-world economics.   4).
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  41) Steve Jobs co-founded A) Google. B)Apple Computer. C)Microsoft. D)News Corp.   42) An industry dominated by a few companies is called A) a monopoly. B)conglomerated. C)an oligopoly. D)saturated.   43) The continuing trend in mass media ownership is the A) consolidation into fewer but bigger companies dominating each industry. B)resurgence of family-owned companies. C)break-up of large companies into smaller spin-off ones. D)increasing regulation of media.
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  11) In the years following Gutenberg’s invention of movable metal type, society was transformed in all of the following ways EXCEPT A)the oral tradition of story-telling was displaced by people reading stories for themselves. B)national languages emerged and gradually replaced local dialects. C)books and literacy became subject to tighter control and scrutiny by.
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  31) The National Association of Broadcasters was initially formed to A)ensure that broadcasters received the same preferred tax treatment as newspapers. B)prevent television stations from gaining an advantage over radio stations. C)give advertisers one source where they can buy time on any radio or television station. D)reduce the chaos of over-crowded airwaves by regulating.
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  21)The death tax is another name for taxes on inheritances. 22)Government has favored mass media over other businesses through such policies as low postal rates.   23)The sinking of the Titanic was the impetus for the U.S. government to begin regulating the transmission of radio signals .   24)Early attempts at government regulation of radio.
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  11) Media tycoon Rupert Murdoch controls a diverse media empire that includes the A) Wall Street Journal. B)New York Times. C)Washington Post. D Chicago Tribune.   12) Rupert Murdoch, who controls News Corp. and other media ventures, is well known for his A) disdain for opportunism. B)lackadaisical approach in setting goals. C)profit-driven motivation. D)unwillingness to correct impetuous decisions.   13) If Company.
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  1)  One of the traditions of U.S. journalism implied in the Constitution is that the mass media should report news and A)be inexpensive enough for consumers to afford.. B)offer space so advertisers can reach their potential customers. C)provide politicians with a venue to speak uncensored to the citizenry. D)serve as a watchdog of government.
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  1)The technology-assisted transmission of messages to mass audiences is known as __________.   2)Simultaneous exposure to messages from different media is called __________.   3)_______________ requires an audience of more than one, all within earshot.   4)__________ is communication between two individuals.   5)In mass communication,  __________ are massive, eclectic, and heterogeneous.   6)A synonym sometimes used for __________ is.
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  Match the theory with its definition A) Uses and Gratifications B) Elaboration Likelihood Model C) Social Learning D) Schema E) Media Dependency ____ Audiences are active and motivated to make deliberate choices in media consumption ____ People can learn by observing behavior of others, including observations made through media ____ When individuals rely on a medium extensively to.
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  Match the term with its definition A) Defamation B) Actual malice C) Intrusion D) Appropriation ____ Invasion of someone's privacy through gathering information about them in an offensive way ____ Publication of a defamatory statement when the person publishing it knows it is false or shows reckless disregard toward whether it is true or false ____.
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  11)Group communication involves an audience of more than one, all within earshot.   12)Mass communication would NOT have been possible WITHOUT  the invention of technologies such as the printing press, broadcast transmitters, and Internet servers.   13)Their ability to exchange user-generated content is one of the main reasons “social media”  became the common name.
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  52. At least portions of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing: A.were broadcast in every language currently spoken B.were broadcast everywhere around the globe, in real time C.were viewed by almost three-quarters of the world’s population D.were broadcast to more than half the land-area of the Earth 53. Nanotechnology is: A.banned because of the danger it.
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    What is the key characteristic of empirical quantitative research? A) It always leads to validation of a hypothesis B) It is the easiest type of research to complete C) Results are expressed numerically D) Results are expressed with text interpretations     What is the key characteristic of qualitative research? A) It always leads to validation of a.
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  27. Micro-credit loans from the Grameen Bank A.are rarely re-paid B.carry high interest rates C.go overwhelmingly to women D.are good only in Bangladesh 28. Nations opposed to South Africa’s racist policies engaged in all of the following activities EXCEPT: A. providing troops to participate in a coup B.restricting trade C.ending cultural and sports exchanges D.withdrawing economic investments 29. After.
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    1)Media mogul Rupert Murdoch is the financial brains behind Facebook.   2)Capitalism is a profit-driven system.   3)The primary revenue streams for mass media industries are user fees and sales.   4) Advertisers try to buy access to the mass media’s audiences. 5)Advertising generates most of the revenue for newspapers, magazines, radio and television.   6)Newspapers earn less.
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  Which of the following are key characteristics of how theories work: A) They make predictions B) They offer explanations C) They answer questions D) All of the above The description of how general or widely a theory may be applied is called: A) Appropriateness B) Parsimony C) Scope D) Openness A theory’s ability to generate new research ideas about its.
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1) A defining characteristic of mass communication is that it A) can easily survive without technological assistance. B)relies on technology. C)preceded technology. D)continues to exist despite technological advances.   2) When people communicate face-to-face, we call it A) individual communication. B)non-applied media. C)interpersonal communication. D)basic pedagogy.   3) Traditional media products and new products are emerging from A) analog technology. B)landlines. C)digital technology. D)broadcasting.   4) Photography and.
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  11)Advocates of __________ such as Jeffrey Katzenberg of DreamWorks believe it will further enhance movies, television, and other visual media by giving viewers “the feeling of being immersed in the stories and characters.”   12)Sound recording and playback were made possible by a machine called the __________.    13)The inventor of the telegraph.
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  1)__________ most often involves two people communicating face-to-face.   2)Even old and traditional mass media have been adapting to __________ technology since the dawning of the 21st century.   3)__________ technology made the birth of the book, newspaper and magazine industries possible.   4)Photography and movies have relied on __________ technology through most of their history. .
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  41) Hiebert, Ungurait and Bohn developed an excellent model that visually presents the process of mass communication as A)boxes with directional arrows between them leading from the sender to the audience. B)a staircase of operational steps that go upward from idea to understanding. C)concentric circles representing the factors that affect the outcome of.
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  31)Information comes in many forms besides news; even advertising offers information that helps consumers make intelligent buying decisions.   32)The outcome of Cairo, Egypt’s Arab Spring in 2011 was heavily influenced by key protesters’ ability to apply their media literacy skills to a serious political problem.   33)Cell phone communication was one of the.
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  Match the letter of the term with the statement that defines it best : A) “Bullet” or “Hypodermic Needle” Theory B) Propaganda C) Functional analysis D) Limited Effects Paradigm ____ Media fulfill certain functions in society such as surveillance of the environment, interpretation of the environment and transmission of cultural heritage ____ Audiences are relatively.
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  11)_________ literacy does not just refer to motion pictures; it also applies to television, video, and other motion media.   12)People who are __________ literate are aware of their media environment.   13)Media literate Americans recognize the traditional view thatthe news media should serve as a ___________  for the people to point out government.
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  Which of the following is not one of the characteristics of a content analysis, according the classic definition by Bernard Berelson? A) Objective B) Systematic C) Quantitative D) Inductive     True/false: Content analysis always requires analyzing an entire population of the subject to be analyzed and cannot be done with samples.     True/False: Content analysis categories should always.
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1) Media researchers at Ball State University found that people are intentionally involved in a media activity for __________ percent of their waking hours. A)1 B)10 C)30 D)60   2) Traditionally, mass communication is defined as the technology-assisted transmission of messages to A)print journalists. B)interpersonal audiences. C)mass audiences. D)only niche audiences.   3) According to the research firm Nielsen, the medium that.
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    21)The first sound recording and playback machine was called the phonograph.   22)The telegraph allowed for long-distance communication between point A and point B.    23)Samuel Morse invented the telephone in 1844.   24)Granville Woods pioneered a wireless way to communicate with moving trains.    25)In 1895, Guglielmo Marconi used Morse code, a telegraph key, and.
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  31) Network television broadcasts became a nationwide societal unifier because A) they attracted huge audiences who all watched the same cultural fare. B) prime time viewing hours encouraged people to stay at home with their families. C)TV sets were manufactured in the United States and their sale created an economic boom. D) people.
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  Match the theory with its definition A) Agenda setting B) Spiral of silence C) Knowledge gap D) Framing E) Cultivation ____ Cues in the media about popular/standard viewpoints help to suppress expression of ideas that vary with those views because of fears that such viewpoints are unpopular and out of the mainstream. ____ Media provide perspectives or.
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    Please match each inventor/innovator in the left column with his invention/innovation in the right column. 1) Johannes GutenbergA) Telegraph 2) Frederick IvesB) Thermoplastic disks (records) for playing recorded sound 3)Philo Farnsworth C) Wireless messages 4)Samuel Morse   D) Movie projector and movie house 5)Guglielmo Marconi   E)  Television 6)Emile Berliner  F) Linotype typesetting machine 7)Lumiere Brothers   G) Movable  metal.
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  41)As they did on 9/11, the mass media can help connect and bind people together during  a crisis.   42 Media coverage of events like Arab Spring, the Asian tsunamis, Hurricane Katrina or even the Super Bowl provide a shared cultural experience.   43)Regrettably, the mass media’s ability to unify and bind society only.
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  31) The early version of what became the Internet linked government contractors and universities so researchers could exchange information and was known as A) Comp-U-Link. B)Compuserve . C)U.S.A. Net. D)ARPAnet.   32) The type of technology through which media messages are coded into 1s and 0s for transmission and delivery then decoded into their original appearance.
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    31)Copper wires are replacing fiber-optic cables as a more efficient way of carrying telephone messages.   32)The first cable television systems were created to provide television to apartment complexes in metropolitan areas.   33)Satellite technology dramatically reshaped the fundamental structures and operating practices of  the telephone, television, and radio industries but had little impact.
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  Match the term with its definition A) Positivism B) Hegemony C) Ideology D) Critical studies ____ A dominant way of thinking about the way society should be organized. (Answer: B) ____ Use of the quantitative tools observational and measurement tools of the natural sciences to investigate social phenomena. ____ Mass consent to a dominant way of thinking.
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  Which of the following is NOT a limitation imposed on copyright holders’ exclusive uses of a work? A) First sale of a physical unit B) Time limits C) Fair use D) Modification of a work Why does the law place limits on the exclusive uses granted to copyright holders? A) To balance public and private benefits.
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    11)Pulp fiction is a derisive term for cheap novels.   12)Photography began to increase the communicative power of the written word in the mid1900s.   13)Halftones allow us to see shapes and images produced by variously sized dots of ink.    14)With the launch of Sports Illustrated in 1934, photography moved the magazine industry into.
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  11) One characteristic that distinguishes mass communication from interpersonal and group communication is the A)content of the message. B)lack of immediate feedback. C)ability of the receiver of the message to understand it. D)length of the message.   12) Which of the following social media traits is NOT shared with earlier, traditional mass media? A) They reach.
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  1)The Internet and other computerized communication systems are so important that computer sabotage committed by another country is considered an act of war that warrants a military response from U.S. armed forces.   2)Mass communication is any technology-enabled process that permits long-distance messaging.   3)The media landscape evolves with the rise of new technology.   4)Mass.
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  21) One of the main financial concerns about nonprofit organizations purchasing newspapers is that A)subscription sales would decrease. B)advertisers would be resistant. C)the cost of replacing aging printing presses would be more than nonprofits could bear. D)employees would expect and demand improved and more expensive benefits.   22) Because of its inherent high costs, many newspapers.
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  Which philosopher is associated with a research style known as “positivism?” A) Rene Descartes B) August Comte C) Immanuel Kant D) Max Weber True/False: The main characteristic that makes a statement into a hypothesis is that it can be tested by observing and analyzing evidence. True/false: Research questions are most useful when they are specific.
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    1)Media literacy enables us to more effectively use the mass media for our own advantage and avoid being conned by them.   2)Although we don’t always pay attention to them, we are exposed to media messages more than two-thirds of our waking hours.   3)A study at Ball State University found that people intentionally.
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  14. In late 2008, the immense insurance company that appeared on the verge of failure was: A.propped up by foreign investors B.brought to bankruptcy court by shareholders C.the American International Group (AIG) D.bought out by a larger rival 15. Between 1991 and 1993, UN membership: A.jumped from 166 to 184 B.was stagnant C.declined slightly D.dropped from 176 to 152 16..
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