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    31) Working for AT&T in 1927, Arthur Page established the role of public relations as a  A) partner of advertising. B)top management tool. C)grassroots program. D)mid level program.   32) Public relations works best when the person in charge of it is a A) person who simply does what he or she is told. B)middle-management employee who.
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    11) The Pew Research Center studies A) television and radio audiences. B)attitudes toward politics and public policy issues. C)print-media audiences. D)local television audiences.   12) Probability sampling requires   A) questioning as many people as possible. B)mostly guesswork. C)a precise cross-section of the population. D)that every member of the population have an equal chance to be interviewed.   13) In polling.
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    21)Sidewalk interviews conducted by newspapers accurately reflect the views of the population.   22)Press runs are part of the data used to determine magazine circulation figures.   23 The Audit Bureau of Circulations pioneered radio audience studies.   24)Radio and television audiences are just as easy to measure as are the readers of print publications.   25)Demographic information.
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    41) Which research method is called the “heartthrob approach”? A)galvanic skin checks B)heart monitors C)heatmapping D)viewer letters and phone calls 42) Galvanic skin checks favor   A) ugly news anchors. B)adrenaline-activating news stories. C)dull news scripting. D)routine video of public meetings.   43) Which of the following is an example of prototype research? A)screening a television pilot B)conducting a focus group on a.
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    21) Ivy Lee, an early public relations practitioner, encouraged his clients to deal with negative publicity by A)spin mastery and releasing counteracting positive stories. B)aggressively denying the problem. C)stonewalling and refusing to talk with reporters. D)telling the truth while putting a human face on their organization and its accomplishments.   22) Ivy Lee’s new ideas.
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    41)The proliferation of advertising and the decreasing length of broadcast ads has created a problem: too many ads.   42)Advertising clutter is of grave concern for advertising.   43)People generally trust advertising more than word-of-mouth recommendations.   44)Buzz advertising is another name for viral advertising.   45)Short action stories created to promote products and placed on the web.
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  1)Characters wearing __________ in movies like Blue Denim and Rebel Without a Cause were so edgy, rebellious, and antisocial that they triggered a real-life backlash against their clothing. 2)To correct the negative image of blue jeans in the 1950s, manufacturers pooled their resources and formed the __________.   3)By applying classic __________ techniques,.
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    41)Nielsen’s new A2/M2 process tracks both local and network television viewership.   42)Heatmapping is a new research tool that uses a video camera to track people’s eye movements as they look at a web page to determine what attracted their attention without asking questions.   43)As a result of heatmapping, graphic designers have learned.
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    11)__________ was a 19th century theory used to justify companies making huge profits on the grounds that because they are the fittest, God has given them their just financial rewards.   12)__________ was a pioneer in the public relations field who believed in institutional openness, finding upbeat angles, and giving organizations.
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    21)The acronym CPM, standing for “customers per medium,” is an index for comparing the effectiveness of ads appearing in different media.   22)The circulation of newspapers is verified by the Audit Bureau of Circulations.   23)Newspapers have high pass-along circulation.   24)How long a periodical remains in use is called publication life.   25)For advertisers, magazines have many.
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    41) During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Paul Garrett led public relations in new directions while working at A)Westinghouse. B)General Motors. C)Ford. D)International Harvester.   42) In a spirit of “enlightened self-interest” the National Association of Manufacturers in 1939 declared that the integral parts of democracy included all of the following EXCEPT A) free enterprise. B)free lunch. C)free religion. D)free.
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  1)Advertising guru Bob Greenberg believes that the 30-second television spot will continue as a viable advertising avenue.   2)Ad guru Bob Greenberg says the entertainment era that assembled mass audiences for advertisers to reach is coming to an end and advertisers need to adopt new approaches.   3)Advertising is essential to a prosperous.
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    21) Who selects the participants in a straw poll? A)pollster B)respondents themselves C)pollster’s client D)interviewer   22) 900-number phone surveys are an example of   A) straw polling. B)low-budget polling. C)electronic sampling. D)random sampling.   23) Newspapers conduct people-on-the-street interviews because  A) they are efficient and accurate. B)studies have shown them to be accurate. C)they represent the average person in their communities. D)they are circulation.
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    31)Sweeps weeks are conducted during eight months of the year.   32)The flush factor was first noticed during halftime of televised football games. 33)Engagement ratings measure how attentive people are to programs and ads.   34)Page views and counts of click-ons have been replaced by time-on-site as a better way to determine something like engagement.
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    41) Targeting ads for specific consumer groups is called  A) positioning. B)lowest common denominator. C)unique selling proposition. D)viral advertising.   42) Which of the following is NOT a redundancy technique in advertising? A)barrages B)bunching C)positioning D)multimedia trailing   43) Bunching is A)running multiple condensed versions of an ad after the original has been introduced. B)using less-expensive media to promote a campaign that’s already.
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    21)Media relations which obtains publicity through the mass media is part of the broader tactical function of __________.   22)__________ is based on the belief that appearances make a difference, so it’s important to create, nurture, publicize, and sometimes repair how an organization looks to the public.   23)In the wake of its Gulf.
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    51) The advent of TiVo has prompted new advertiser interest in  A) product placement. B)brand names. C)30-second spots. D)infomercials.   52) The practice of product placement first began and became popular in A) motion pictures, especially in the 1980s. B)radio during the early years of rock `n’ roll. C)television when advertisers sponsored entire programs. D)women’s magazines with small packets.
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    51) Public relations people engaged in performing government relations are called A) propagandists. B)Ivy Leaguers. C)PR agents. D)lobbyists.   52) Lobbyists are expediters because they know A)about “the skeletons in the closet” and how to use such information. B)local traditions and customs. C)how government works and have personal contacts in powerful places. D)how to protect their clients from harsh.
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  Match each concept in the left column with the best example from the right column. 1)Storytelling genre A) Pornography 2)Authentic performance  B) Rhythm and blues 3)Mediated performance  C) Run-DMC 4)Hillbilly music D) Harlequin romances 5)Highbrow E) Wide World of Sports 6)Rap music  F) Rocket 88 7)Lowbrow G) Baseball 8)Mediated sports H) Devoid of serious literary, artistic, political, or.
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  21)Because public relations messages are usually incorporated into the media’s news reports at no cost to the organizations that submitted them, their form and content is controlled by the media.   22)If the PR person who submitted a news release doesn’t like the way the media edit it, he or she can.
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  1)Nate Silver correctly predicted the outcomes of the Presidential election and U.S. Senate elections in 49 out of 50 states during the 2008 elections.     2)Newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer is believed to have done some of the first audience research by looking over people’s shoulders to see what they were reading.   3)George Gallup.
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  1)The 2011 blockbuster movie __________was inspired by Nate Silver’s amazing ability to predict and forecast the future performance of athletes as well as the outcome of elections.   2)As a result of his success in predicting the outcome of the 2008 elections, Nate Silver was hired by __________ as a columnist and.
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    31) Which of the following is NOT an advantage of Internet advertising? A) People can print the ads. B)There is less “waste” from reaching disinterested consumers than in other media. C)Advertisers can easily reach niche audiences. D)Advertisers have less competition.   32) Based on 2010 data, the most money was spent placing ads in what medium? .
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    41)Image management is NOT a service routinely provided by public relations.   42)BP launched one of the biggest and most expensive image management campaigns in history, but it failed miserably because the public saw a huge gap between the image and reality. 43)After a devastating product tampering case, Tylenol never again regained its.
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    31)Many brand name companies are continually increasing their ad budgets to combat the emergence of store brands.   32)Brand-name advertising has threatened store brands.   33)Enhancing a product image by linking it to a celebrity or an already established brand name, regardless of the intrinsic connection between the product and the image, is called.
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  1)During the 1950s wearing jeans was condemned by right-wingers as part of the communist plot to corrupt American youth.   2)The Denim Council’s campaign relied heavily on the mass media to achieve its strategic goal of making jeans socially acceptable  and it was very successful in turning around the image of jeans.   3)Jeans.
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    51)Fund-raising has growing importance in political communication, especially since the Internet has made it possible to solicit a much broader base of support.   52)False congressional testimony arranged by the public relations firm of Hill & Knowlton helped spark the U.S. to lead a war against Iraq to make it end its.
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    21)Having someone describe what a product did for them or how satisfied they are with it, this ad technique is called a(n) ___________.   22)A celebrity __________ is a special type of testimonial involving a well-known celebrity rather than an average person-on-the-street or nameless spokesperson.   23)When there are so many competing television commercials.
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  21)The __________ case, which dealt with a radio station playing a comedy routine that contained vulgarities, resulted in stations restricting indecent material to late at night.   22)Film directors with distinctive and artistically significant visions, messages, and techniques are sometime referred to as __________.    23)The __________ turned Hollywood moviemaking into a kind.
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    11)Statisticians consider 834 to be the minimum number of people needed to guarantee a margin of error lower than 5 percent.   12)If you want to increase the confidence level in a poll and, at the same time, reduce the margin of error, you need to use a larger sample.   13)Quota sampling seeks.
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1) Which of the following items of clothing, now accepted as appropriate attire for people of all ages and socioeconomic backgrounds, was once shunned, even banned, because of its unsavory image? A) Denim jeans B)Hooded sweatshirts C)Peg-leg pants D)T-shirts   2) The undesirable image of denim jeans was fueled by all of the following movies EXCEPT A).
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    11) The first advertising agency was founded by A) Wayland Ayer. B)Benjamin Day. C)William Caxton. D)John Campbell.   12) Which of these service was among those provided by the firm of N.W. Ayer & Son? A)product research B)psycho-demographics research C)expertise in placing advertisements in advantageous media D)in-house newsletters for companies   13) Most ad agencies will offer advertisers all of the.
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  1)According to ad guru Bob Greenberg, “the third screen” that advertisers should be paying more attention to is __________.   2)Rather than having ads “sandwiched into entertainment products,” ad guru Bob Greenberg says the says  the ads themselves need to become __________.   3)The country in which advertising first took off as a modern.
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  11)The number of copies a newspaper or magazine prints is part of the formula for determining its official __________.   12)The characteristics of a population being sampled, such as age, gender, education, income, and affiliations, are called their __________.   13)No broadcast ratings are measured during __________ weeks.   14)When viewers use the VCR to record.
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    51)Among the techniques used for audience analysis are demographics, geodemographics and psychographics.   52)Cohort analysis identifies audience motivations.   53)Habits of youth stick with a generation as it gets older.   54)PRIZM is a system that has classified and grouped every ZIP code according to the demographic characteristics of the people who live within those areas.   55)PRIZM.
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    11)Railroads helped create national advertising because they could transport goods over long distances.   12)Benjamin Day created the first advertising agency.   13)Average advertising agency commissions have dropped below the old standard of 15 percent.    14)The advertising commission system broke down in the 1990s.   15)A fairly recent advertising agency compensation arrangement is the equity contract. .
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    21) Most media plans begin with an examination of  A) potential product placements. B)the exact audience or circulation of the prospective media. C)the creative concept of the ad. D)cost per thousand (CPM) of possible media.   22) Which professional determines the most effective media placements for an ad? A)creative director B)account executive C)media buyer D)placement manager   23) Media buyers verify.
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    31) When polled with handwritten diaries, many people overstate the time they spend watching   A) steamy programs. B)sophisticated programs. C)prime time cartoons. D)sitcoms.   32) The flush factor is a term to describe A)the elimination of television shows with low ratings. B)firing a television personality after sweeps week. C)viewers leaving their television sets during commercials to go the.
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    Match each concept in the left column with its best description in the right column. 1)Public relationsA) Addressed anti-business sentiment in the 1930s 2)Enlightened self-interestB) A weak substitute buzzword for public relations 3)Social DarwinismC) Often prompted the sneering criticism “It’s just PR.” 4)Institutional opennessD) Proclaiming eco-friendliness to cover up shortcomings 5)PufferyE) Societal “survival of the.
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  Match each person on the left with the appropriate accomplishment in the right column. 1)William CaxtonA) Coined the term and promoted “unique selling proposition” 2)Wayland AyerB) Championed brand imaging 3)Dave BalterC) His Pepsi endorsement led other celebrities to endorse products 4)Rosser ReavesD) Printed first advertisement 5)Josiah WedgwoodE) Celebrity endorser for erectile dysfunction medications 6)Bob DoleF) Developed.
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    Match each concept on the left with the best definition or explanation in the right column. 1)CirculationA) Length of time an ad remains available to reader 2)EndorsementB) Intensively scheduled barrage of ads for a product 3)CPMC) Subtle ads in unexpected places 4)Shelf lifeD) Number of copies of a periodical sold 5)Pass-along circulationE) Payment by advertiser.
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  11)Perhaps the most important figure in establishing rock `n’ roll as a genre was __________, a Memphis disc jockey, promoter, and record producer.   12)The biggest star discovered by Sam Phillips was _________.   13)Music sales for the __________ fell after a group member criticized President George Bush in front of a London audience.   14)Joseph .
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1) Bob Greenberg, who might be called an advertising guru, operates on a philosophy that A) ads are best used sandwiched into entertainment products. B)ads should be entertainment themselves. C)traditional advertising will rise again. D)new ad strategies are fads that will fade quickly.   2) When ad guru Bob Greenberg talks about advertising on “the third.
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  31) Arthur Page asserted the importance of public relations by insisting that he have a voice in AT&T policy-making before accepting the title of vice president for public relations.   32)A public relations vice president has an inherent conflict of interest between developing strategy and implementing it.   33)The three functional areas of responsibility.
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    11)The dialogic theory of public relations is based on being able to persuade other people and organizations to see things your way.   12)The dialogic theory of mass communication centers on two-way communication, attempting to communicate with others instead of just speaking to or at them.   13)The advantages of the dialogic theory of.
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1) Using his new approach to analyzing and predicting results Nate Silver accomplished all of the following EXCEPT A)accurately forecasting which stock prices would drop the most during the recession. B)correctly predicting the outcomes of U.S. Senate elections in 49 of the 50 states in 2008. C)developing an amazing system for tracking and.
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  21)__________ are small groups interviewed in loosely structured ways for opinion and reactions.   22)In galvanic skin checks, wires are attached to individuals to measure changes in their pulse and __________ reactions such as perspiration.   23)When Gannett decided to establish USA Today, it first created __________, each designed differently, to test readers’ reactions.   24)In.
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    Match each person on the left with his corresponding accomplishment in the right column. 1)William Henry VanderbiltA) Brought enlightened self-interest to GM 2)Paul GarrettB) Promoted PR as a top management function 3)Howard DeanC) Used puffery as a promotion tool 4)Ivy LeeD) Made smoking acceptable for women 5)P.T. BarnumE) Democratized political fund-raising via the Internet 6)George CreelF).
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    11)Because fewer young adults in the post-Baby-Boomer generations are reading them, __________ have become less valuable to advertisers.    12)Compared to television, one disadvantage to radio advertising is that it cannot offer ___________ to its listeners.   13)One advantage advertisers see in magazines is that they offer a longer __________ than newspapers.   14)Google and.
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    11) The dialogic theory of public relations stresses all of the following EXCEPT A) awareness that the audience is a means to a desired end. B)honesty and trust in communication. C)openness as an ideal of the democratic tradition. D)positive regard for other people and groups.   12) Public relations practitioners doing their best work contribute to.
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