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    21) Who was the German scholar whose media studies resulted in the cumulative effects theory that says the media  may not have immediate effects, but their effects over time are profound? A) Herbert Schiller B)Don Shaw C)Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann  D) Max Ernst   22) The redundancy of advertising takes advantage of Noelle-Neumann’s  A) information overload.
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  Match each concept on the left with the best explanation from the right column. 1)Political Action Committee A) Former broadcast requirement to air all sides of public issues 2)Fourth branchB) Focusing on polls and who’s leading in election campaigns 3)Fairness doctrineC) Refusing to answer questions 4)Swiftboating D) Short snippets of someone’s speech or comments 5)Horse.
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  1)Both the news and entertainment offered by the Tolo TV network based in __________ reflect the new press freedom offered by the country’s new constitution which was written in 2003.   2)At one point in Afghan’s media history, the Taliban had required that __________ content consist of nothing but calls to prayer.
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    21) What is the CNN Effect? A)news organizations going to 24 hour formats B)more brief headline stories C)the power of television to interest people in faraway issues D)Atlanta replacing Washington as the nation’s news capital   22) What is the term for the ability of television, through emotion-raising video, to elevate distant issues on the domestic.
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    21)Political content on the web is almost entirely unregulated.   22)The mass media have a minor role in shaping the public’s issues agenda.   23)Media news coverage shapes what we think about, but high-principled journalism should never try to tell us how we should think about it.   24)Agenda-setting suggests that the press determines exactly what.
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1) Who produced the famous radio drama War of the Worlds? A)Orson Welles B)Paul Lazarsfeld C)David Sarnoff D)William Paley   2) The effects of the War of the Worlds broadcast were particularly amazing considering  A) how well educated the U.S. population was in 1938. B)that H.G. Wells’ story was in most French literature anthologies. C)scientific knowledge and understanding.
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  Match each concept on the left with the best explanation from the right column. 1)AuthoritarianismA) U.S.-government broadcast service for trans-border propaganda 2)LibertarianismB) U.S. guarantee of freedom of speech and press 3)Marketplace of ideas C) Dictatorship or monarchy with tight media controls 4)Self-righting processD) Government review and limitation of media content 5)First AmendmentE) Global Arab news.
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    11) The fairness doctrine was abandoned because   A) it was found to be unconstitutional. B)it was giving communists a chance to infiltrate U.S. broadcasting. C)the public could find lots of diversity in the growing number of stations. D)authoritarian views had become more widely accepted.   12) Radio station owner Don Burden lost his license because.
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  1)When the votes were all counted, Linda McMahon, queen  of World Wrestling’s Smackdown, had __________ her $50 million campaign for the U.S. Senate.   2)Edmund Burke referred to the press as the __________ Estate.   3)The __________ to the U.S. Constitution says the government shouldn’t place restrictions on the press.   4)The requirement that stations offer.
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    31) Al-Jazeera was modeled after A) the BBC. B)CNN. C)the Associated Press. D)Fox News.   32) What kind of content does Qatar-based Al- Jazeera emphasize? A)U.S. B)British C)Hispanic D)Arab   33) What quasi-government agency is creating a Mideast entertainment production center?   A) Dubai Media Incorporated B)Arab News One C)Al-Jazeera D)BBC   34) Islamic radicals, including Al-Qaeda, have adapted this media technology to meet their needs and.
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    21)People who are exposed to high volumes of mass messages about politics can become so overwhelmed they become passive about elections and public issues.   22)Early theories about the effects of mass media generally said the effects are more or less instantaneous.   23)According to the cumulative effects theory, the effects of mass media.
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    21)Entrepreneurs in China moved faster than the government did and established more than 140,000 Internet cafes before the government had developed ways to censor Internet traffic.   22)Low-cost digital media have accelerated economic development in many countries where the governments have been forward-thinking enough to make them available to their citizens.   23)The Internet.
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    31) Because sound bites have shortened over the years, political candidates have learned how to   A) offer catchy, clever comments. B)expand on their issues. C)talk at a rapid pace. D)avoid the news media.   32) Presidential candidates have learned to bypass the news media with less filtered exposure to voters through events such as   A).
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    11) When a copyright holder grants rights to another party to use the holder’s intellectual property, it’s legally considered to be  A) a transfer of rights. B)permission. C)first-use rights. D)a consensual grant..   12) A person can transfer ownership interests in intellectual property rights, which is called  A) permission. B)an infringement waiver. C)an assignment. D)a consensual agreement.   13) What.
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  21)Jon Favreau’s job as a __________ involves listening while the President speaks and making notes, reshaping those notes into a draft, having the President rewrite the draft, then reshaping and rewriting what the President has done, and finally both of them add the finishing touches.   22)The key to good Presidential __________.
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    61)PACs which originated as a legal way to get around restrictions on individual political campaign contributions can directly funnel money into a candidate’s political campaign.   62)The term “PAC” originally stood for People Against Corruption, which now seems ironic in light of the ways they’re being used.   63)A PAC that has obtained “527.
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    11) Libertarians believe that people sometimes err in sorting out alternatives, but those flawed ideas can be replaced with better ones, which is known as   A) democratic reason. B)value driven thinking. C)the self-righting process. D)indigenous values   12) The free expression section of the U.S. Constitution is called   A) the Fifth Amendment.   B) the First.
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  11)The _________ theory suggests that media do not have powerful immediate effects, but rather produce profound effects over time.   12)In the spiral of __________, those with minority views are intimidated into not speaking up so that their opposing viewpoints fall into obscurity.   13)The __________ function of the media helps people fit in.
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    61)China’s Emergency Response Law was created to provide more news coverage to consumers.    62)A firewall allows users to access Internet content in an easier, faster manner.   63)China’s Golden Shield controls cellular telephone calls.   64)Pre-publication censorship is a government’s review of content before dissemination.   65)Chinese broadcasters are NOT allowed to use the words.
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    51)A pseudo-event is an event staged to look like a social event.   52)A photo-op, short for photo opportunity, is a staged event that offers good visuals for photos to attract media attention.   53)Instant feedback in the form of e-mails from viewers on a specific subject offer dubious results.   54)An attack ad differs from.
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    21) About how many reporters were mortally wounded in the Iraq War? A)less than 25 B)about 50 C)roughly 75 D)more than 100   22) WikiLeaks.org has been presented as an illustration of the Internet’s potential “to force humans into new governance structures” because it has done all of the following EXCEPT A)being a thorn in the side of.
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    51)U.S. broadcasts into Cuba from Television Marti have been declared illegal by the International Telecommunications Union, an arm of the United Nations. 52)Media systems in Islamic regions fit a single mold.   53)Hammad bin Khalifa founded Al-Jazeera, a Qatar-based satellite news channel for Arab audiences.   54)Al-Jazeera was modeled after ABC.   55)Since its beginning, Al-Jazeera has.
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    Match each concept on the left with its description/characteristic on the right. 1)Probability sampling A) Respondents self select 2)ArbitronB) Focuses on lifestyle breakdowns 3)Quota samplingC) Each person has an equal chance of being chosen for a survey 4)Straw pollsD) Prototype  research 5)Black weeksE) Measures audience on a wide range of video platforms 6)Engagement ratingsF) Measures radio.
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    11)An authoritarian believes that truth is a monopoly of the regime.   12)Libertarianism emphasizes the individual’s ability to reason his or her way to right decisions.   13)Libertarian forms of government have been the most common throughout history.   14)Libertarianism places confidence in political and theocratic leadership for governance. 15)The marketplace of ideas was an authoritarian concept.   16)John.
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    41) A President needs speech-writers like Jon Favreau for all of the following reasons EXCEPT A)crafting messages the President is comfortable delivering and which resonate with audiences. B)even an effective speech-writing President doesn’t have time to write dozens of speeches a week. C)to develop quality messages that don’t rely on trickery with words.
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  1)Innocently and apparently without intending to do so, Orson Welles created a national panic with his dramatic re-creation of the novel War of the Worlds on radio.   2)The War of the Worlds caused about 35 million people to brace for the worst, suspending disbelief to think that aliens were attacking earth.   3)Researchers.
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    41)The communication of cultural values to later generations is called historical transmission.   42)Newspaper reports and other media activities during the American Revolution demonstrated how contemporary transmissions result in the diffusion of innovations.   43)Cultural imperialism refers to the phenomenon that an individual’s values can spread quickly through his culture via the Internet.   44)Herbert.
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    51)Subception is receiving subconscious messages that can trigger some behavior.   52)The theory that people learn behavior by seeing it in real life, and in depictions of real life, is called behavioral learning.   53)Seymour Feshbach conducted studies that support the cathartic effect theory that says people release their violent inclinations through seeing them.
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  11)Journalists like conflict in part because it always involves __________ which is the essence of news.   12)Media stories about the Watergate cover-up, Monica Lewinski, Hilary Clinton’s investments,  Jack Abramoff’s wheeling-dealing, John Edwards’ infidelity, and other political __________  are still outnumbered by stories about political and public policy, but not by as.
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    1)__________, a fictitious radio drama by the Mercury Theater of the Air, created widespread panic when it was first broadcast in the United States in 1938.   2)There is no reason to believe that __________ who produced War of the Worlds was trying to do anything other than produce a high-quality entertainment.
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1) The teen-aged hacker who broke Hollywood’s anti-copying protection on commercial DVDs and allowed worldwide ripping and file-sharing of movies was A) Jon Huntsman of Utah. B)Jon Lech Johansen of Norway. C)Ingemar Johansson of Sweden. D)Lech Walesa of Poland.   2) Worldwide protesters supporting the hacker who was put on trial for breaking Hollywood’s anti- copying.
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    31)The CIA’s Open Source Center scans Facebook, Twitter, traditional news outlets, and other online sources to assess grassroots world opinion on a daily basis.   32)The CIA set up its Open Source Center to track worldwide postings on social media and other Internet sites in response to a recommendation from the 9/11.
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  41) Sound bites in political coverage are getting longer.   42)In the 20 years between 1968 and 1988, the average length of a sound bite shrank to just 10 seconds.   43)One way political candidates attempt to get their views to the public without having them condensed and packaged by journalists is to appear.
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    11)If it has offered a political candidate airtime, a broadcaster must offer the candidate’s opponent equal time under similar circumstances.    12)The fairness doctrine refers to a former government rule that said that whenever the media covered an issue with two sides, the station was required to air all sides of.
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  21)The communication of cultural values to different cultures is called __________ transmission.   22)The process through which news, ideas, and information are spread is called the __________ of innovations.   23)One culture’s dominance over another is called __________.   24)__________ is the Austrian psychiatrist who theorized that the human mind is unconsciously susceptible to suggestion and.
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  1)By spending $50 million of her own money on her unsuccessful election campaign,  Linda McMahon set a record for the most expensive campaign for the U.S. Senate in history.   2)One lesson of Linda McMahon’s unsuccessful run for the Senate is that a willingness to spend massive amounts of money ($50 million).
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    41) A positive effect of media violence, as evidenced by reaction to The Burning Bed, is that it  A) frightens people into violent acts. B)encourages people in risky situations. C)prompts people to socially positive action. D)reduces violence in schools.   42) The theory that people are inspired to violence by media depictions is called A) aggressive.
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1) Tense relations between the Afgahan government and the Tolo TV network in Afghanistan included all of the following EXCEPT A)Afghan President Hamid Karzi told the network CEO, “You better fix up your TV station.”. B)fifty police officers raided the network, took three staff members away, and beat others . C)Taliban purists forced.
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  Match each concept on the left with its best explanation or example from the right column. 1)Narcotizing dysfunction ) Rethinking and de-villainizing cultural imperialism 2)Powerful effectsB) Watching violence reduces violent behavior 3)Opinion leadersC) Media content is so overwhelming it triggers passivity 4)Agenda-settingD) Tolerance of real-life violence grows from media violence 5)Transcultural enrichmentE) Friends, spouses, clergy.
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  11)The government of __________ appears to have taken the lead in linking its remote villages to the rest of the world using digital, wireless technology.   12)Edwin Stanton was the Secretary of  War who organized censorship of sensitive military news during the ___________.   13)The uncensored field reporting during the Vietnam War was known.
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    31) What is it called when mass media communicate cultural values to different cultures? A)contemporary transmission B)historical transmission C)role modeling D)cultural Imperialism   32) The process through which news, ideas, and information are spread is called A) historic transmission. B)intercultural communication. C)diffusion of innovations. D)transmittal transformation.   33) What is the term for the dominance of one culture over another? A)cultural imperialism B)revisionism C)exocentrism D)diffusion of.
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  Match each media expert on the left with the appropriate finding or descriptor from the right column. 1)Orson WellesA) Worries about the spiral of silence’s impact 2)Ernest DichterB) Found little media effect on election outcomes 3) Albert Bandura C) Demonstrated radio’s power to scare listeners 4)Maxwell McCombs and Don ShawD) Early proponent of cathartic.
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    11)Researcher Paul Lazarsfeld found people were more influenced by other people than by mass media.   12)The minimalist effects theory says that media effects are mostly indirect.   13)In the two-step flow model, opinion leaders are always in positions of authority.   14)Opinion leaders are important to the two-step flow model of media effects.   15)The multistep flow.
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  1)Both the news and entertainment offered by Afghanistan’s Tolo TV network reflect the press freedom guaranteed by the country’s new constitution which was written in 2003.   2)When religious purists associated with the Taliban ran Afghanistan, radio was allowed to broadcast nothing by calls to prayer and unending religious chants.   3)In establishing his.
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    31)WikiLeaks.org may be able to use the Internet to force humans to adopt new governance structures by encouraging people who are aware of government wrong-doing to post documentary evidence proving it on their site. 32)WikiLeaks claims that those who provide classified or other secret information for its site are engaged in .
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  21)__________ restricts Internet content with a very effective firewall it calls Golden Shield. 22)U.S. broadcasts into Cuba on Television __________ have been declared illegal by the International Telecommunications Union, an arm of the United Nations. 23)Hammad bin Khalifa founded __________, the global Arab news network based in Qatar.   24)__________ Media Incorporated offers television.
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31)Despite intense, thoughtful, and scholarly attempts to study and assess the political leanings and possible bias of news media, there is still no consensus or satisfactory way to do it.   32)A confounding factor in studying bias in the news is that good reporters try to balance their stories with multiple perspectives,.
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    41)U.S. involvement in Afghanistan’s mass media after its government was overthrown in 2001 and began rebuilding is characterized as “soft diplomacy” to get messages favorable to the U.S. directly to the people. 42)U.S. funding of Afghan mass media and soft diplomacy through the media is just part of our overall efforts.
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