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  11) The most basic theory of ________ is that people seek to attain pleasure and avoid pain. A) motivation B) needs C) resonance D) persuasion E) deliberation 12) Which of the following are the two elements that a speaker much consider when performing audience analysis in preparation for persuasive speaking? A) identify the target audience and assess.
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  6) What selective influence processes do listeners use to resist persuasion? 7) What are the four strategies a speaker can use to promote the purpose of conversion? 8) What three general means of persuasion were defined by the earliest theorists in classical times? 9) What are the two most common organizational patterns for.
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  1) The term persuasion is sometimes misunderstood as referring only to situations in which the speaker ________ an audience's beliefs or behavior. 2) When you ask listeners to make a particular choice, you must be sensitive to your ________ responsibility not to manipulate them. 3) When addressing an audience that already agrees.
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  21) A graph used to show proportions or percentages of a whole is called a A) bar graph. B) line graph. C) pie graph. D) holograph. E) polygraph. 22) A simplified drawing or sketch that resembles a more complex object is known as a A) textual graphic. B) diagram. C) flowchart. D) model. E) map. 23) Visual aids which provide "visual portrayals.
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  11) The speaker should appeal to multiple needs because audiences are generally made up of people with different needs. 13) A listener's elaboration likelihood is determined before the speech; the speaker cannot really affect an audience member's level of elaboration. 14) Even though the requirements for informing and persuading are similar, the.
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  1) Match the informative strategy with the relevant example. 1) defining A) Speaker discusses the advantages and disadvantages of buying a house versus building a house. 2) describing  B) Speaker shows how to fill out the new tax return forms.  3) comparing  C) Speaker tells, through vivid details, about a visit to the.
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  11) Wilson wanted to illustrate for his high school listeners the set of interrelated questions that one should consider when selecting a college major.  What type of visual aid would serve him best? A) a flowchart B) a columnar chart C) a bar graph D) a consequential chart E) an object 12) Hobart wants to list.
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  1) Effective visual aids make the speech more interesting, improve comprehension and retention, and enhance the speaker's ________. 2) Words by their nature are abstract, but visual aids are ________; they make it easy to see what you are talking about. 3) One major drawback of visual aids is that they.
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  31) Jeremy knew that his listeners had heard several messages warning them against getting into the stock market at this time. However, he wanted to weaken their commitment by arguing that this is just the time to buy stocks for long-term investments. Jeremy's persuasive strategy was A) assimilation. B) elaboration. C) conversion. D) refutation. E).
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  11) Dr. Chadi spoke to a group of seniors about the many alternative treatments available for the most common medical complaints among those over the age of 55. Her speech served what purpose? A) providing new information B) agenda setting C) creating a positive feeling D) creative a negative feeling E) entertaining 12) When you aim.
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  21) Rhythm in a speech helps audience members understand the speech because it improves their ability to anticipate what is coming next. 22) Purposeful ambiguity helps to improve the clarity of a speech. 23) Irony and ambiguity, strategically used, help to create clarity in a speech. 24) Inverted word order and antithesis are.
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  11) Most student classroom speeches should employ the ________ style. A) memorized B) conversational C) performative D) impromptu E) novice 12) The conversational oral style is generally more appropriate for A) protest speeches. B) formal sermons. C) polished lectures. D) testimony at formal hearings. E) presentations to small audiences. 13) In his speech on the West Nile Virus, Derrick informed the.
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1) When asked to deliver a speech for which you are allowed to decide the purpose, you should assess how the A) audience and occasion create opportunities or constraints. B) specific purpose creates opportunities or constraints. C) topic creates opportunities or constraints. D) thesis and main ideas create opportunities or constraints. E) speaker and speech.
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1) Visual aids should be selected by carefully considering the A) audience and the purpose of the speech. B) speaker and the message. C) thesis of the speech and the size of the room. D) supporting material, the reasoning, and the claim. E) culture and demographics of the audience. 2) Spoken words alone are abstract and.
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  1) Informing, persuading, and entertaining are three distinctly different kinds of speeches. 2) When your goal is to present an informative speech, you should avoid saying anything persuasive or entertaining. 3) Informative strategies rely on the metaphor of the speaker as leader and the audience as followers. 4) Informative speaking can create positive.
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  1) What is the difference between informative goals and persuasive goals? 2) What are the common purposes achieved through persuasive strategies? 3) Which persuasive goal do speakers pursue when they know that the audience already agrees with them? 4) Strategic planning for persuasive speeches requires what two audience analysis activities? 5) What does the.
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  11) The effective speaker using the describing strategy gives ________ about a person, place, or event. 12) Speeches about processes that use the informative strategy of ________ proceed by breaking down complex operations into a simple sequence of steps. 13) When explaining a difficult concept, it is important to distinguish its.
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  9) What are two strategies for referring to hypothetical people? 10) Which level of language style is preferred in mainstream American culture today? 11) What are the three keys to proper pace and proportion in language style? 12) Identify and explain the five distinctions between oral style and written style.     .
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  21) Demonstrating goes beyond painting mental pictures and allows listeners to literally see the processes you are discussing. 22) A speaker describing the relative merits of several search engines, providing the listeners with the basis for making their own choices is using the informative strategy of comparing. 23) A topic such as,.
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  11) What are the steps in Monroe's motivated sequence? 12) What are the purposes most closely related to persuasive strategies and why are they best suited for persuasive speeches? 13) Explain the six generally available strategic resources for persuasive speakers.  What are they and how do they promote persuasive purposes?     .
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  9) When should a speaker use the strategy of demonstrating? 10) What are three strategies for reinforcing the audience? 11) What three purposes are most closely associated with informative strategies?  Why are these purposes more suitable for informing than persuading? 12) Identify and define the six informative strategies discussed in Chapter13.     .
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  11) Describing is an informative strategy aimed at clarifying a term or concept that is vague or troublesome. 12) Speeches which rely on a reporting strategy usually use a topical pattern of organization. 13) The strategy of reporting answers the question, "What happened?" 14) Describing is an informative strategy that requires the.
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  1) Informative strategies presume that the principal goal of the speech is to ________ with the audience. 2) A speech is designed to achieve a purpose, and ________ is the process of deciding how your speech can best do that. 3) Informative strategies don't ask listeners to believe or do anything.
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  21) Compartmentalization is a A) persuasive technique in which the speaker connects his or her arguments in a mental box. B) persuasive technique where the speaker separates his or her arguments into separate categories. C) resistance technique where the listener separates the speaker from his or her argument. D) reasoning fallacy involving an inability.
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  21) Speeches relying on the strategy of reporting almost always use which organizational pattern? A) topical B) chronological C) spatial D) cause-effect E) problem-solution 22) Magda attended a two-day celebration of campus diversity and decided to tell her class what happened in her informative speech.  Which informative strategy is she most likely to use? A) defining B).
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  21) In his discussion of gun control, Evan warned his listeners that we could not adopt the approach used in England because comparing British laws with United States laws was like, "comparing apples and oranges."  Evan was using a language device for improving clarity known as A) a malapropism. B) a maxim. C) jargon. D).
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  13) Explain how definitions can be persuasive. 14) Why are clarity, rhythm, and vividness important in a speech? 15) What approach should speakers take to the question of how clear they should be?  What strategies are available to the speaker to achieve appropriate levels of clarity? 16) Explain the three principles that govern.
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  11) Graphs are visual aids showing how variables are related to each other. 12) A line graph is most effective in comparing and contrasting statistics. 13) Line graphs can effectively show both simple relationships and complex relationships among variables. 14) The simplest type of graph is a textual graph, which lists information. 15) When.
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  1) In some circumstances (e.g., sales presentations) a speaker without visual aids risks losing positive ethos because listeners may perceive him or her as unprepared. 2) Visual aids increase audience interest by adding variety to a message. 3) Sometimes the message and structure of a speech are so simple that visual aids.
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  11) When listeners selectively perceive a message by ________, they deny that the message applies to them personally, as in the case of teens that have unprotected sex, thinking that pregnancy won't happen to them. 12) Exposing listeners’ inconsistencies is a good way to combat the resistance strategy of ________. 13).
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  1) Persuasive strategies seek a change in the listeners, informative strategies seek no change. 2) Informing and persuading are distinctly separate goals and activities. 3) The term persuasion refers only to situation in which a speaker reverses an audience's beliefs. 4) Speeches aimed at persuading listeners to change their minds or.
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  41) One of the most important stylistic resources is ________, the process by which you establish the meaning of a new word for your audience. 42) ________ definitions clarify terms with no goal other than to be precise. 43) The dimension of meaning that evokes emotions in the audience is the ________.
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  31) To best illustrate basic makeup application techniques for work and for evening, the speaker should use a(n) A) chart. B) object. C) film. D) person. E) diagram. 32) The most effective way to display a posterboard is to A) place it on an easel with a cover and uncover it when you plan to discuss it. B).
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  1) Match the stylistic devices with the examples. 1) alliteration A) There are those who say that we are rushing this issue of civil rights; I say, we are 172 years late. 2) antithesis  B) A storm of controversy surrounded the senator following allegations of illegal fundraising. 3) maxim  C) Unfortunately, on most issues,.
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  21) When using people as visual aids, speakers should remember that volunteers from the audience are much more reliable than confederates. 22) Experts agree that handouts should not be used as visual aids in a speech. 23) Transparencies are suitable for all kinds of visual materials including photographs and complex graphs. 24) Several.
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  31) When it is not enough to define or explain, and you need for the audience to see the process for themselves, you should use the strategy of A) explaining. B) describing. C) demonstrating. D) comparing. E) complaining. 32) Which of the following is NOT a question you need to consider when preparing a demonstration? A) Can.
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  11) A well-written essay generally makes a good manuscript for a speech. 12) Informality in language style is more appropriate for speakers than writers. 13) It is more important for a speaker to make his or her organizational structure explicit than it is for a writer to do so. 14) Two basic requirements.
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  21) Refutation aims to prevent listeners from being persuaded by others. 22) Testimony against the speaker's interest is less persuasive than testimony consistent with the speaker's interest. 23) Biased evidence is generally more persuasive than reluctant testimony. 24) Logos is persuasion based on evidence, reasoning, and organization. 25) Your ethos can be improved simply.
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